NEW PRODUCT MANAGEMENT CRAWFORD PDF
CRAWFORD, C. ANTHONY DI BENEDETTO PDF. Downloading the book New Products Management By C. Merle Crawford, C. Anthony Di Benedetto in this. Sun, 28 Oct GMT new products management crawford 11th pdf - DOWNLOAD NEW. PRODUCTS. MANAGEMENT. CRAWFORD. 11TH. Find all the study resources for New Products Management by Charles Merle Crawford; C. New Products Management 11th edition by Crawford 原版PDF.
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New Products Management This page intentionally left blank New Products Management Eleventh Edition Merle Crawford University of Michigan—Emeritus . Book is out-dated and very simplified. While this book is good if you have no experience with New Product Introductions, it's advertized techniques are. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education, pages, , English, Book; Illustrated, New products management / Merle Crawford, Anthony Di Benedetto.
Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? Written with a managerial focus, New Products Management 11e by Crawford and Di Benedetto is useful to the practicing new products manager. Along with the management approach, the perspective of marketing is presented throughout which enables the text to have a balanced view. Read more Read less. Frequently bought together. Total price:
FALSE A better way to cope when facing a high-turbulence environment is to keep product development as flexible as possible.
New Products Management 11th Edition Crawford Solutions Manual
The key lies in not freezing the product concept until the last possible moment, but allowing later phases in the new products process to run concurrently with concept development.
This is the principle of postponement. Speeding the Product to Market 9. FALSE Using cash-to-cash metric, a firm will measure not just how quickly the product is launched, but also how long it takes to break even.
Using metrics such as this help a firm manage the whole launch phase, not just the moment of launch. FALSE Whereas goods are mass-produced, services are provided through interaction between service provider and customer, and the most successful service providers are those that can deliver a "customized" experience.
Analytic What about New Services? Firms that launch new-to-the-world products into the market incur a significantly lower long- term survival rate than those that enter the market later. TRUE Research confirms that firms that launch new-to-the-world products incur a significantly lower long-term survival rate than those that enter the market later.
But the lower survival rate for a new-to-the-world product is offset by higher profits, since the market for such a product is often larger and can offer bigger profit margins. New-to-the World Products TRUE Radical innovation requires a planning approach that acknowledges the unknowns and uncertainties involved.
This approach, called discovery-driven planning, requires that managers make assumptions about the future in order to build their forecasts and targets, recognizing that these assumptions may be quite wrong. FALSE Discovery-driven planning is different from the approach more typically seen in less-uncertain markets, where past results can be used to build predictable forecasts of the future. A guiding principle in discovery-driven planning is the reverse income statement.
The transition team receives appropriate funding as well as support and oversight from senior management. TRUE The problem many firms have with radical innovation is that technology-driven innovation may be very exciting from a technical viewpoint, but doesn't really solve a customer problem, and therefore there is no application that can be brought to market.
Concept generation Refer to figure 2. In this phase, one can also collect available new product concepts that fit the opportunity and generate new ones as well. The technical tasks in the development phase of the new products process involve specifying the full development process and its deliverables, designing prototypes, testing and validating prototypes against protocol, designing and validating the production process for the best prototype, and scaling up production as necessary for product and market testing.
Depending on an idea, end-user screening or technical screening is conducted. Some of the proposed new products may have originated among technical people; this would have to be followed by a concept test to see what potential consumers thought about it. Ultimately, these views all come together in what is often called the full screen. Distribution channel planning The stream of activity that feeds strategic planning for new products in this scenario is ongoing marketing planning.
There are at least three main streams of activity that feed strategic planning for new products. Reflective Thinking Blooms: Apply Difficulty: The concept or project evaluation phase Refer to figure 2. The new products team will enter the concept or project evaluation phase next.
The concept or project evaluation phase of the new products process involves evaluating new products concepts on technical, marketing, and financial criteria. An internal mandate DuPont's discovery of Surlyn, a material with hundreds of potential uses, is an example of a new resource.
At least three main streams of activity feed strategic planning for new products. From these strategic activities, opportunities are identified and sorted into four categories. The identification of a new resource is one such category. An internal mandate In this scenario, an external mandate is identified by George given that the market for the bicycle is becoming increasingly stagnant, and the competition from Kinetixyles seems threatening.
Identifying that customer needs maybe evolving also necessitates the development of a new product with substantial innovation.
Concept Ideation Rule CIR Once an opportunity is approved, managers turn to various techniques to guide new product people in exploiting it. This is called the product innovation charter PIC. The opportunities are carefully and thoroughly described, then analyzed to confirm that a sales potential does, indeed, exist. Concept generation phase At the concept or project evaluation phase of the new products process, new products concepts are evaluated on technical, marketing, and financial criteria.
They are ranked and it is here that requests for project proposals are made. In the new products process, after evaluating an idea, various views on the idea are combined together in what is often called the full screen. Project evaluation involves preparing a statement of what is wanted from the new product.
This is known as the product protocol. Protocol here means a kind of agreement, and it is important that there be agreement between the various groups before extensive technical work gets under way. The protocol should, to the extent possible, be benefits the new item is to yield, not the features the new item is to have.
The development phase Prototypes are typically created in the development phase. The development phase is characterized by a product steam that involves industrial design and bench work goods or systems design services , prototypes, product specifications, and so on. It culminates in a product that the developers hope is finished: The concept or project evaluation phase The development phase is the phase during which an item acquires finite form—a tangible good or a specific sequence of resources and activities that will perform an intangible service.
During the development phase of the new products process, an item acquires finite form—a tangible good or a specific sequence of resources and activities that will perform an intangible service.
It is also the phase during which the marketing plan is sketched and gradually fleshed out. Business practice varies immensely, but we often find the following components. If not, the opening has to be delayed. The concept or project evaluation phase A critical step during the launch phase of the new products process is the market test, a dress rehearsal for the launch, and managers hope any problems discovered are fixable between dress rehearsal and opening night.
Given the time pressures involved, managers have come up with many new ways to do reliable market tests quickly, to complement the familiar test market, which can be inordinately time-consuming and costly. Refer to figure 2. The concept or project evaluation phase of the new products process involves evaluating new products concepts as they begin to come in on technical, marketing, and financial criteria.
Conducting an initial review Refer to figure 2. Certain evaluation tasks are encountered in the new products process. Different kinds of questions need to be asked after different phases. For example, once concepts are generated, each is subject to an initial review: Is it any good, and is it worth refining?
Stated concept In the concept generation phase of the new products process, a stated concept refers to a form or a technology, plus a clear statement of benefit.
With regard to the concept or project evaluation phase of the new product process, a prototype concept is best described as a tentative physical product or system procedure, including features and benefits. With regard to the evolution from concept to new product, the market value and clarity are the lowest for an opportunity concept. The development phase During the development phase of the new products process, the first full test-of-fit with manufacturing can be made.
This is known as the batch concept. Specifications are written stating exactly what the product is to be, including features, characteristics, and standards. During the development phase of the new products process, the first full test-of-fit with manufacturing can be made. The digital cameras manufactured by Digicon are seen as the standard for competitors to match.
A firm with mindshare in a given product category is the one that the target market associates with the product category and that is seen as the standard for competitors to match such as Intel microprocessors or Hewlett-Packard laser printers.
Pure good Services and goods are often arrayed on a scale of 1 pure service, 2 primarily service and partly a good, 3 primarily a good and partly service, and 4 pure good. Examples, in order, are counseling, insurance policy, automobile, and candy bar. This might be a new cell phone made of wood or foam, or perhaps it is a plastic non-functioning prototype that looks real but lacks wires.
Spiral Development and the Role of Prototypes Identify the new products process where, through interaction with customers, designers are inspired to probe, experiment, and improvise, and as a result, may come up with a successful new-to-the-world product. Concept redefining The probe-and-learn process involves interaction with customers such that designers are inspired to probe, experiment, and improvise, and as a result, may come up with a successful new-to-the-world product.
Concept improvisation Through interaction with customers, designers are inspired to probe, experiment, and improvise, and as a result, may come up with a successful new-to-the-world product. Another term sometimes used to describe this iterative process is lickety-stick where the developing team develops prototypes from dozens of different new product ideas "lickety" , eventually settling on a prototype that customers like "stick".
Before development work can begin on new ideas, they need to be evaluated, screened, and sorted out. Depending on the idea, this may be end-user screening or technical screening, or both. The work may be extensive and difficult, or it may take no more than a few telephone calls. End-user concept tests are performed and need of the concept is confirmed.
A fully screened concept is generated during this phase, a concept which passes the test of fit with the company's situation. A product definition that includes the intended market user, the problem perceived, the benefits plus any mandatory features is also generated during this phase, and it is known as protocol concept. The five methods to accelerating time to market as identified by new products consultant Robert Cooper are: There are plenty of advantages to speeding to market, not the least of which is that the product that is launched early is on the market for a longer period of time before becoming obsolete.
A launch delay of, say, six months means six months less to earn profits and may give a competitor a chance to be first to market and establish a positive reputation. Nevertheless, there are lots of costs involved in speed, costs that are not evident and which can sometimes be disastrous. A firm facing increased competitive intensity, rapid technological change, and fast-changing market demographics may be tempted to concentrate on only easy, incremental product projects, or to cut critical steps in the new products process in order to get cycle time down.
Cutting corners in technical product development may result in quality sacrifices, resulting in annoyed customers and distributors. By rushing the early steps, the firm may decide late in the process that the product quality is inadequate, which delays the launch, further infuriates dealers, and encourages customers to drift to the competition.
Another related concern is that accelerating time to market might result in bringing the product out too soon, while it still has bugs. Part of the reason for the high rate of failure for new-to-the-world products is that they are difficult to manage.
Almost by definition, new-to-the-world products, like the first cell phone or the first personal computers, require discontinuities sometimes several of them in order to succeed.
Consider the introduction of the personal computer. Contributing to its rapid adoption were discontinuities in technology computer companies, including some new startups, had to design essentially a totally new computer , in the market individual homeowners and small businesses now were buying computers, and not just big firms , organizational personal computers were sold in electronics shops and department stores, not through a professional sales force , and social millions of people realized how much they needed a computer.
To do incubation correctly, failure must be tolerated, but at the same time learning from the failure so that a firm continues to move toward a successful launch.
Business development is often done over a one- to two-year time horizon and may be completely done by marketing or management personnel. Due to its focus on business model development for a radical innovation in an uncertain environment , the time horizon for incubation can be three to five years, and typically technical development, as well as customer and market interaction, is involved.
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Great book! So explain it in detail, and try using the Tastykakes case to help. The Tastykakes case tells the story of the entire development of a new snack product, from start to launch, that was designed to capitalize on the low-carb food fad in full swing during If the student understands the overall process, the whole course makes a lot more sense.
Chapter 3 contains the second and third strategic elements of new product development; the Product Innovation Charter PIC and the product portfolio. Students find this perhaps the toughest part of the course. There is a natural instinct to resist being bound by tight strategy, so the advancement of new products strategy has been slow.
Many managers hate it, because it is fully intended to give focus and restrict freedoms. Yet top managements know there must be strategy--very few firms give free rein to their new products staff, and then only in think-tank situations which are not thriving, incidentally.
Unless the student buys the idea of focus, the whole of Chapter 3 gets lost. The same goes for managers, in continuing education seminars. Again, a very high level strategic discussion, but one which is really essential to understanding the strategic role of new products within a company.
We urge you to build the discussion around the PIC and around specific company situations.
New products management 11th edition crawford test bank
The text contains many, any of which can be discussed. If you don't like the PIC format used in Chapter 3, develop your own.
We have expanded the discussion of portfolio models to bring in the newest research on this topic, and have added the Lego case to Chapter 2, which serves as an example of the importance of a coherent innovation strategy at the highest levels within the organization.