Laws Seamanship Book Pdf


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CHAPMAN Piloting, Seamanship and Small Boat Handling. Early Editions ruLe books say that synthetic fiber line is immune to damage from oil, gasoline. BR 67(1) Admiralty Manual of Seamanship ()(Volume 1). BR 67 (2) available in reference books is reference for right-handed people). A pure classics published in and a treasure for the collectors of the old marine books. The book was written by the prominent marine navigator of the past.

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Folks,. Text-Book of Seamanship, , is an updated age of sail textbook at the beginning of the true transition of warships from sail to steam power. BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR Will you be free tomorrow evening? /wil iú: bí: The boy´s got a book BASIC SPANISH: A GRAMMAR AND. Seamanship Techniques Volume III, 'The Command Companion' , Butterworth/ A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Text-Book of Seamanship , , is an updated age of sail textbook at the beginning of the true transition of warships from sail to steam power. In this online version of the manual we have attempted to keep the flavor of the original layout while taking advantage of the Web's universal accessibility. Different browsers and fonts will cause the text to move, but the text will remain roughly where it is in the original manual. We have not attempted to correct any errors found in the original document. However, this text was captured by optical character recognition and then encoded for the Web which has added new errors we wish to correct. Please report any typos, or particularly annoying layout issues with the Mail Feedback Form for correction. LUCE, U.

The left side of a ship looking forward, as distinguished from starboard. The part of the bilge upon which the suction of the pump acts directly. Usually that part of the spar-deck which extends from the stern to the main-mast. Projections from the quarters of a vessel. The inclination of a mast, etc.

The bitts around which the ship's cables are taken. Eye-bolts having a ring through the eye of the bolt. The instrument by which a ship is steered. The narrowing of the after part of the ship. Storage-room for spare sails, hammocks, and sail-maker's stores. In modern ships usually opens into the after-passage; some vessels have forward sail-rooms in fore-passage.

A heavy timber forward of the riding-bitts which serves to strengthen the latter. Storage-room for explosive projectiles; when but one on board, is usually under the orlop near the after-hatch. A post or timber used as a temporary support.

The hospital of the ship, usually situated forward on the berth-deck. Holes cut through the waterways and side to allow water to run off the decks. A small circular aperture in a deck not intended for the passage of persons, through which powder, etc.

Usually understood to mean a covering of copper, felt, etc. Copper sheathing covers the immersed part of a ship to protect it from marine growth.

The upper deck of a ship-of-war. The inside planking of a ship extending from the lower edges of the gun-ports to the waterways. A name formerly given to the paymaster's store-room in the after-part of the after-hold, reserved for stowage of spirits.

The name applies at present to the paymaster's store-room for dry provisions. Uprights placed under deck-beams to support them in the centre. The right side of a ship looking forward, as distinguished from port. The quarters of junior officers and clerks, situated outside the wardroom on either side of the deck, the space between the two steerage-rooms being known as the steerage-country.

The forward boundary of a ship, the continuation of the keel to the height of the deck. Steps of Mast. Places into which the lower ends or heels of lower masts are secured or stepped. The fore and main masts are stepped at present in iron steps fitted over the main-keelson, with flanges to the sister-keelsons.

The mizzen-mast step is a piece of timber secured to the orlop or berth deck beams. The after-part of the ship. The after-boundary of the ship, a continuation of the keel, tenoned into the latter and secured to it in addition by composition plates. Ledges of wood hinged to the inner edges of gun-ports to give additional facility in training the guns. The rail around a ship's stern. The end of one piece of wood diminished and cut with shoulders to fit in a hole of another piece, called a mortise.

Pins fitted in the gunwale of a boat, to be used with a rope ring or grommet as a rowlock. A cross-piece in a boat, used as a seat by the oarsmen.


A bar of wood or iron which fits into the rudder-head and by which the steering is effected. See Helm.

A platform at the eyes of the lower rigging, supported by the trestle-trees and cross-trees; the top-mast rigging sets up at each side of the top. Top-gallant Forecastle. A deck raised over the forward end of the spar-deck extending from the bows nearly or quite to the fore-mast.

The forward edge of a top, rounded to prevent chafe.

A beam extending across the after-part of the ship. Pin of hard wood used as a fastening in the place of a metallic bolt.

Fore and aft pieces on each side of a mast resting on the hounds to support the rigging, cross-trees, etc. A small wooden cap on a flag-staff or mast-head with holes or sheaves for halliards. A mast-head truck is also fitted to receive the spindle of the lightning-rod. The quarters of the commissioned officers of a ship, usually occupying the after-part of the berth-deck.

The rooms on the starboard side occupied by the line officers, those on the port side by the staff officers-the intervening space is styled the ward-room country. A block of wood, or metal casting, scored to receive a towline. Bridle-ports are fitted with such chocks, which can be removed when not in use. Warrant-Officers' Rooms.

Usually on the berth-deck, two on each side, forward of the steerage. The boatswain and gunner occupy the starboard, the carpenter and sail-maker the port rooms. Pieces of timber placed over the tops of the beams and secured to the beams and ship's side, filling the angle between the beams and the inside of the frame-timbers.

A wheel to the axle of which are connected the tiller- or wheel -ropes by which the rudder is moved in steering. To weigh anything is to raise it-to weigh anchor. Small spars projecting on either side of the bowsprit from the bees, extending the jib and flying-jib guys. Wings of the Hold. That part of the hold or orlop which is nearest to the side.

An iron fixture on the end of a mast or boom, bearing a ring through which another mast or boom is rigged out. Pronounced with. A cross-piece of timber or metal fitted on the rudder-head when a tiller cannot be used. The names of the spars and rigging of the ship are given in the references to Plate 2. The names of the sails and certain running rigging of a ship are given in the following references to Plate 3. Flying jib. Fore topmast staysail. Fore course or foresail.

Main course or mainsail. Fore topsail. Main topsail. Mizzen topsail. Fore topgallant sail. Main topgallant sail. Mizzen topgallant sail. Fore royal. Main royal. Mizzen royal. Fore trysail. Main trysail. Lower studdingsail. Fore topmast studdingsail. Fore topgallant studdingsail. Main topgallant studdingsail. Clew Garnets. Inner leechline. Outer leechline. Bowline bridles. Bowline and bridles. Topgallant clewline.

Royal clewline. Fore trysail vangs. Peak span. Main trysail vangs. Spanker vangs. Throat brail. Middle brail. Foot brail. Lower studdingsail outhaul Lower studdingsail sheet.

Lower studdingsail clew-line. Outer halliards. Topmast studdingsail tack. Topmast studdingsail downhaul. T'gllt stuns'l tack. Quarter boat. Waist boat. Rig of Vessels compare Plate 4. Vessels are divided according to their rig into numerous classes, of which the following may be mentioned as the principal types usually met with at sea: Three masted, square rigged on all three masts. The Barque or Bark 2. Three masted, square rigged fore and main, fore and aft rig on mizzen. The Barkentine 3.

Three masted, square rigged fore, fore and aft rig main and mizzen. The Brig 5. Two masted, square rigged. The Brigantine. Same as brig but without a square mainsail.

The Hermaphrodite Brig 6. Two masted, square rigged fore, fore and aft rig main. The Topsail Schooner 7. Two masted, square rigged forward, but with a fore and aft foresail. The Schooner. Two masted 8 , three masted 4 , or four masted fore and aft rig. The Sloop 9. One masted, fore and aft rig. A vessel is said to be square rigged on a certain mast, when the sails set on that mast are bent to yards, and fore and aft rigged when the sails are bent to gaffs.

The topsail yards of merchantmen are almost invariably double, the topsail being in two parts, the lower part bent to the lower topsail yard and not hoisted, the upper portion bent to the upper yard and hoisted, as in the case of a single topsail. The clews, or lower corners, of the upper topsail are shackled to the yard arms of the lower topsail yard. The Compass - A piece of steel which has been touched by a magnet, if free to move on a pivot, will point in a definite direction.

To this direction, as a standard, all others may be referred, and any desired course thus followed. The Mariner's Compass is based upon this principle. It consists of the needle , which is attached to the under side of a card, Fig. The North end, or pole, of the needle is fixed under the North point of the card. The needle and card are balanced on a pivot fixed vertically in the compass-box, or bowl, and the whole is protected by a glass covering. As the North mark of the compass-card always points with the needle to the North, the other marks will of course point to their respective parts of the horizon.

The variation of the compass and its local errors are not noticed here, as they may be referred to in any book on Navigation. The Lubber's Point is a vertical line drawn on the inside of the bowl of the compass to correspond with the vessel's head; the point of the card coinciding with it shows the course steered, or the direction in which the ship is heading.

To Box the Compass is to name the points in regular succession, beginning at one point and ending at the same; thus, commencing with north and going around with the sun, say: Each point is further divided into half-points and quarter-points, and the fractional points are named upon the same principle as the points themselves; thus: A quarter-point or half-point can obviously be named with reference to either one of the nearest whole points.

Thus N. The following are the usual rules for naming quarter-points: From East or West to the nearest whole point, use for quarter-points that name which ends with the word North or South.

Thus, E. From N. Thus, N. In all other cases use that name of the quarter or half-point which ends with the word East or West. It consists of a compass-card painted on a board or cut on a copper plate. Relative Bearings. A lighthouse or other object if seen bearing North would also be said to bear, from that ship: If seen bearing N.

One point on starboard bow. Bearing N. Two points on starboard bow. Three points on starboard bow. Broad off starboard bow. Three points forward of starboard beam. Bearing E. Two points forward of starboard beam. One point forward of starboard beam. Bearing East: One point abaft starboard beam. Two points abaft starboard beam.

Bearing S. Three points abaft starboard beam. Broad off starboard quarter. E, by S.: Three points on starboard quarter. Two points on starboard quarter. One point on starboard quarter. Bearing South: And similarly at N. To find the direction of the wind, when ship is close hauled.


The wind then forms with the keel an angle of six points, so that if a line at Fig. In practice the yard is braced up sharper, to make the sail stand to better advantage. When the ship is on the port tack with her head North, the points are counted on the opposite or left side, and the wind is W.

If the ship's head be put to any point of the compass, counting six points to the right or left hand, according. When the wind is E.

With the wind East in the figure, it is said to be two points free, or abeam, as shown in the remarks on relative bearings. If the wind is at S. After learning to box the compass with the sun, go around against the sun, or from North towards West, and practise with such questions as the following: Ship on the port tack, heading S.

With the wind at S. Close hauled, with the port tacks aboard, heading S. Ship heading N. Soundings , to ascertain the depth of water on entering or leaving a port, or in any case where there is supposed to be less than twenty fathoms of water, are taken by the hand lead , Fig. Hand lead lines are marked as follows: At 2 fathoms from the lead, with 2 strips of leather. At 3 fathoms from the lead, with 3 strips of leather. At 5 fathoms from the lead, with a white rag. At 7 fathoms from the lead, with a red rag.

At 10 fathoms from the lead, with leather, having a hole in it. At 13 fathoms from the lead, as at 3. At 15 fathoms from the lead, as at 5. At 17 fathoms from the lead, as at 7.

At 20 fathoms from the lead, with 2 knots. At 25 fathoms from the lead, with one knot. At 30 fathoms from the lead, with three knots. At 35 fathoms from the lead, with one knot. At 40 fathoms from the lead, with four knots. And so on. These are known as the "marks. Soundings by the hand-lead are taken while the vessel has headway on, the leadsman throwing the lead forward, and getting the depth as the vessel passes, while the line is nearly perpendicular. He communicates to the officer the soundings obtained, thus: If the depth corresponds with either of the above marks, he says, " By the mark 5 or 7.

If the mark is a little below the surface, he says, " Mark under water 5 or 7. On the hand-lead line there are nine "marks" and eleven "deeps. In steamers, this is certainly the best plan, for while the old-fashioned "song" is being drawled out, the vessel may run ashore. The Breast-band or Rope , generally the former, made of canvas, secured at both ends to the rigging, supports the body of the leadsman while heaving the hand-lead.

Besides the breast-band, it is a very good plan to have fitted, in connection with it, a tarpaulin apron, to cover the "leadsman" from the feet to the waist. This keeps him dry and adds much to his comfort. On going into the chains for the purpose of sounding, the leadsman should see the breast-rope properly secured; his line clear, and the end made fast.

If at night, he should take the distance from the breast-rope to the water's edge; then at each cast deduct this distance from the mark at hand and give it as the true sounding. The Coasting Lead is used in depths from 25 to fathoms, the lead weighing from 25 to 50 pounds.

The Deep-sea Lead is used in depths of over fathoms, and weighs from 80 to pounds. Both coasting and deep-sea pronounced "dipsey" leads are hollowed out at the base to receive an arming of tallow. When the lead strikes, the tallow becomes coated with sand, pebbles, shells or other substances which show the character of the bottom. This information, compared with the description of the sea bottom given on the chart, may prove of value in determining the ship's position.

Instead of being hollowed out at the bottom, the deep-sea lead may have a specimen cup, of brass, at the end, as shown in Fig. The coasting and deep-sea lines are marked alike as follows: At fathoms the line is marked with a piece of red bunting.

To Sound with the Deep-sea Lead. The men are ranged outside the vessel from the weather mizzen chains to the cathead. The line is passed forward outside and clear of everything. The lead is sent forward on deck, and the line bent to it by the captain of the forecastle. The line is then hauled forward, each man collecting a coil of several fathoms in his hand, commencing forward, until the officer thinks there is line enough out.

It is then snatched in a small snatch-block, Fig. Everything being in readiness, and the vessel's headway sufficiently deadened, the officer orders, Stand by! The captain of the forecastle heaves the lead as far forward as he can, and at the same time cries, Watch-ho! And each man, as the line runs out from his hand, holds it clear of the side, and repeats the cry, Watch-ho!

In the mean while, the line runs out until the lead touches the bottom, or until a sufficient quantity has been run out to satisfy the officer that no bottom has been found. The men then lay aft and man the line! If bottom has been found, it will instantly be known by the line bringing up suddenly in running out, or by the arming on the lead after it is hauled up; by which the nature of the bottom is known.

To get sounding by the deep-sea lead while lying to in a gale, or in any case when the vessel drifts much to leeward, it is proper to pass the line from to windward around the stern, and then forward on the lee side, and to heave the lead from to leeward, which will bring the line nearly perpendicular by the time the lead touches the bottom. In heaving the deep-sea lead, the men stationed in the chains should be cautioned not to let the line go until they feel the lead take it, for if the ship is in much shoaler water than was anticipated, it is thus detected at once.

Besides the common lead, there are a variety of "patents" for sounding; the one known as Massey's lead , being about the most successful. In this, a machine is attached to the lead, and a fan set in motion by its descent. The motion is communicated to a register wheel, and the number of fathoms corresponding to the depth of water is pointed out by an indicator.

This lead should also have a good arming of tallow to bring up specimens of the bottom. The Drift Lead.

While at single anchor, it is proper always to have a lead somewhat heavier than the hand-lead, say from fourteen to twenty pounds, over the side, and resting on the bottom, with a man to attend it. Of course, this is only necessary in a stiff breeze, or at night. But in a vessel-of-war, it should be observed as a standing rule, without regard to the weather. By this you will have instant notice if the vessel parts her cable or drags her anchor. Various methods have been proposed for measuring the rate at which a ship sails; but that most in use is by the Log and Glass.

The Log is a flat piece of thin board, of a sectoral or quandrantal form, Figs.

To this is fastened a line, about fathoms long, called the log-line , which is divided into certain spaces called knots , and is wound on a reel, Fig.

The Glass is of the same form as an Hour-Glass, Fig. Marking the Log-Line. Previous to marking a new Log-line, it is soaked in water for a few days, in order to get it in the condition it will be when in use. From fifteen to twenty fathoms is allowed for "stray-line;" and then the length of a knot determined for the second glass by the following proportion, viz.: As the number of seconds in an hour is to the number of feet in a sea mile, so is the length of the glass to the length of a knot, or,.

The velocity of the ship is estimated in knots and tenths of a knot. The limit of "stray-line" is marked by a piece of red bunting about six inches long, and each length of 47 feet 4 inches after that by a piece of fish-line with one, two, three, etc. Always, before leaving port, the Navigator has the line thoroughly soaked for a few days, and then all the marks placed at their proper distances. He also compares all the sand-glasses with a watch, and if any should be incorrect, he makes them run the proper time by taking out or putting in sand, as the case requires.

During daylight, especially in very damp weather, it is preferable to use a watch to a sand-glass for noting the time. Errors of the glass due to moisture are commonly corrected by drying it at the galley.

Heaving the Log. One man holds the reel, and another the glass; an officer of the watch throws the log over the ship's stern, on the lee side, and when he observes the stray line is run off allowed to carry the log out of the eddy of the ship's wake , and the red rag is gone off, he cries, Turn ; the glass-holder answers, Turn ; and watching the glass, the moment it is run out, says, Up.

The reel being immediately stopped, the last mark run off shows the number of knots, and the distance of that mark from the rail is estimated in tenths. Then the knots and tenths together show the distance the ship has run the preceding hour, if the wind has been constant.

But if the wind has not been the same during the whole hour, or interval of time between heaving the log, or if there has been more sail set or handed, a proper allowance must be made. Sometimes, when the ship is before the wind, and a great sea setting after her, it will bring home the log. In such cases, it is customary to allow one mile in ten, and less in proportion if the sea be not so great. Allowance ought also to be made, if there be a head sea.

This practice of measuring a ship's rate of sailing, is founded upon the following principle, that the length of each knot is the same part of a. In heaving the log, you must be careful to veer out the line as fast as the chip will take it; for if it be left to turn the reel itself, it will come home and deceive you in your reckoning.

You must also be careful to measure the log-line pretty often, lest it stretch and deceive you in the distance. Like regard must be had that the glass be just 28 seconds; otherwise no accurate account of the ship's way can be kept.

The glass is much influenced by the weather, running slower in damp weather than in dry. The glass may be examined by a watch, as above stated, or by the following method: If the vessel's speed is greater than four knots the fourteen-second glass is used instead of the twenty-eight second, and the number of knots run out is doubled to ascertain the actual rate of sailing, as the line is graduated for the twenty-eight second glass. The twenty-eight and fourteen second glasses are called respectively the long and short glasses.

To convert sea miles into statute miles, multiply the former by 1. To convert statute miles into sea miles, multiply by the decimal. It should be rigged out by a spar, so as to clear the wake, and care taken to haul it in whenever the ship is stopped. Massey's Patent Log is composed of a brass wedge-shaped box, having within three cogged wheels, acting on each other in such proportion that a total revolution of one completes a division of the next or one-twentieth , a revolution of the next, one-eighth, registering thus from one hundred and sixty miles to tenths, and decimal parts; the action is by the rotation of a spindle with four spirally-fixed wings termed the rotation, or fly , which turns an endless screw in the box, acting directly on the decimal wheel.

When great accuracy is required it is well to use two logs, putting one overboard as the other is hauled up, as when the course is changed, etc. The Taffrail Log , Fig. This is a mechanical log of the same character as Massey's, but it has the advantage of towing only the fly, the registering apparatus being at the inboard end of the trailing line so that it can be easily read without hauling in the line.

In one patent of this kind there is placed between the register and fly a conical hollow metal piece upon which the vibrations due to pitching are taken. Registering logs are frequently made to strike a bell at every mile or five miles of the run. Among the various speed indicators which, like the common log, are useful in showing changes of speed, the instrument invented by Ensign Hogg, U.

Navy, has given very satisfactory results, and may be described as follows: The tube is supported in the water at low speeds by the buoy in Fig.

The mercurial gauge, Fig. The action of the speed indicator is as follows: The water rushing through the instrument at A, Fig. This vacuum communicates by means of the gum-tube with the vacuum-gauge on deck, and the greater the vacuum, the greater the speed.

The graduations on the vacuum-gauge are found by experiment. The Ground Log is the common log line with a hand-lead attached, and is used in tideways and currents, in soundings, to ascertain the vessel's speed over the ground. Doc Home Page Next Part. All Rights Reserved. Legal Notices and Privacy Policy Version 3. Folks, Text-Book of Seamanship , , is an updated age of sail textbook at the beginning of the true transition of warships from sail to steam power. Richard Pekelney Webmaster.

Screw vessels have generally two stern-posts; the after one, which carries the rudder, is called the rudder-post. These strakes extend along the bottom of the ship on either side of the.

Spars and Rigging. Fore royal stay. Flying jib stay. Fore topgallant stay. Jib stay. Fore topmast stays. Fore stays. Fore tacks. Flying martingale. Martingale stay. Jib guys. Jumper guys. Back ropes. Flying jib boom. Flying jib foot ropes. The author of the book has presented the material in a form easily understandable even to the newcomers and students. Every effort has been made to avoid complex mathematical exercises and abstractions normally having no real practical use to the navigators.

The text part of the volume is supplemented with numerous useful and informative data diagrams and graphical explanations for better understanding of the subject. Though the publication is quite compact in size, its content covers all important aspects of marine navigation. The topics addressed in the volume include the compass and dead reckoning, time and piloting, the sextant and correction of the altitude, explanation of the latitude, longitude from the stars and the Sun, position lines and other information.

The volume has already proven effective through the good feedbacks by several generations of the readers, noting that it was released more than a century ago. However, its content is still valid as it bases on the theoretical knowledge therefore retaining its value for the students.

The present publication is devoted to the celestial navigation and its use in the modern marine navigation. The content of the publication will tell readers about the concepts of celestial navigation - the author tried to convey them in clear and understandable manner. Most of the activities explained in the pages of this nice volume would only require a scientific calculator — and there will be no need for any other equipment and appliances.

The book will move readers towards better understanding of all principles of celestial navigation including different ways of plotting lines of positions, checking the sextant and many other things. According to the reviews, this is one of the best books on celestial navigation but our visitors may wish to compare it with such titles as the Celestial Navigation for Sailors , Celestial Navigation for Yachtsmen or A Short Guide to Celestial Navigation.

The main advantage that this book offers is an excellent balance between theory and practice maintained by the author. In fact the author of the book succeeded where the most of his predecessors failed - he provided clear explanations of why exactly the practical steps described in the book, work. Another piece of classics - this publication on navigation was released more than a hundred years ago.

For so many years the content of the book helped the newcomers to the world of maritime navigation to obtain necessary knowledge and it was also used by the professional navigators to refresh and maintain their knowledge at the high level. The volume starts with the basic definitions used in navigation. Then the author moves to the marine compass, correction of the ship's course and log line, explaining them in detail.

In the next chapter the construction of the traverse table is described together with its correct use supplemented with the examples for better understanding. The next three chapters cover the methods that are used to fix the position of the vessel on the nautical chart, composite and great circle sailing, and construction of figures.

This was just the introduction. The material of the volume is arranged in twenty-eight chapters plus numerous examples, nautical almanac and answers to the above mentioned examples. You will find lots of useful information still useful and practical today for provision of safe navigation of your ship — literally everything is covered. Even though there are so many good works on Navigation available today, the present publication has been serving as a textbook for several generations of mariners.

This is a true classics and the contribution of this book to the provision of safety of marine navigation is great. The volume was published one century ago but the content is still interesting to the mariners of today due to the way the information is presented. The book opens with the description of basic navigational instruments, mile and knot, and the mariner's compass together with some interesting facts on its construction and usage.

The other navigational tools such as the sextant and marine chronometer have also been explained in detail making them easily to understand even to the newcomers to the magic world of navigation. The nautical charts have been dealt with including chart and map projections, Admiralty charts and all information normally conveyed by the charts. The other sections of this publication address such important aspects as sounding machines, sounding logs, binoculars and telescope used at sea, ocean meteorology, time and position, summer lines and double altitudes, compass adjustment and so many others - the list is really impressive.

Here is one of the most popular books on celestial navigation which will be particularly appreciated by the yachtsmen.

CHESTER from Iowa
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