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Award-winning journalist and Middle East correspondant Robert Fisk. Long time Middle East correspondent Robert Fisk knows the difference between real terror and rhetoric. Made in America: Media Coverage of the Iraq War. Media Coverage of the War in Afghanistan. Robert Fisk in the UK Independent.

It is not surprising, then, that there would be insurrections. Second Clause: Even before the Jubilee Singers began touring in , George Wfhite had a clash of wills with one of his students? Georgia Gordon, experienced who had been a member of the original troupe. Wfhen Gordon decided to withdraw from the Jubilees a few months before they were to begin touring, White made sure she was prevented from returning to Fisk, that she had broken a contract and had treated him and claiming legal the trustees of Fisk with contempt.

Cravath on Gordon's behalf: Did you ever hear about Mr. Wfhites trouble with [Miss? Wfhites will and wishes. He was very much displeased and told her that she should not return into school again so we have lost her. I have never felt satisfied about it. She was She may have been wrong, probably was but seems tome itwas not a school affair.

White, I think, has very exaggerated notions of the influence her readmittance in school would have Georgia would have rejoined the class Iwent to see the mother and tried to get her to consent, but she thought Georgia had done nothing wrong, and said that she never wished to go on the trip at all, and that she never wanted to have her go, and that she should not consent to have her join the class again. You will see Mr.

Wfhite at this Council. Iwish you would talk to him about this matter. It may seem a small to trouble you with. But I have spent much thing hard work on Georgia and the class is small and I don't feel that we can afford to lose her.

I have no feeling toward Mr Wfhite on the subject, but I know he is sure that he is right on his course. But I think it is often hard for all of us or any of us to be strictly just in cases where our own personal dignity [illegible] feelings have been set at naught.

Ihard feel that we can afford to lose Georgia. I know it is your policy to leave local matters to local workers but this seems to me an case.

Robert Fisk: The Terror of Power and the Power of Terror

Still, this incident illustrates White's uncompromising sense of justice a trait that would eventu ally cause his exit from the troupe and contribute to its demise. Wfhite considered himself a father figure to his students? WTien the group began touring in , White was thirty-three; Ella Sheppard was twenty; and the youngest singer, Minnie T? At first, when the students had noth ing but the clothes on their backs, his strict paternalist stance was usu ally adequate in maintaining discipline.

Three years later, however, the students had sung for Queen Victoria, they were accustomed to ecstatic praise from audiences and the press, they had acquired personal bank accounts? Some of them began to resist White's efforts to control them, so that subtle even tugs of war, and outright battles, began to characterize their rela tionships.

One incident that foreshadowed the deteriorating relations with man agement was the decision of six singers to remain in England after the second campaign ended inMarch , in order to give "benefit con certs"?

White forbade the plan. He had already reluctantly allowed individual benefits in April, before he had returned toAmerica. The regular engagement of the Jubilee Singers ended on the 31st of March. The month of April was given for each one to have a special benefit. A letter received from them recently says that the benefits were complete failures because the managers or agents exerted very little effort after the Jubilee Hall fund was raised.

As some of the singers will return home almost penniless, more than one-half of them have concluded to remain in Europe by request, and give concerts in towns where they were invited, so as to realize some thing for themselves.

A letter from one of the Jubilee Singers, dated a colored man Kingston-on-Hull, England, April 19, to responsible of this place, says: Wfhite says we have no right to do so, and will be do ing wrong, and he is using his influence against our enterprise, and has threatened to bring suits against us ifwe use the name of 'Jubilee Singers.

But in spite of all this, we have concluded to remain, and hope to do well. Wfhite says that we are for all that he has done for us, but I tell you, ungrateful sir, that what has been done was done by us, and he cannot take it all to himself. Holmes, Isaac Dickinson [i.

White has telegraphed to this city to some of the offi cials at Fisk University to influence the parents of those who intend to remain, to return with those who were to sail on the 6th. Every impediment has been put in the way of the newly organized class [i.

After two years' traveling it seems that they disagree, and will break up in a quarrel. The colored people here are friends of the singers, and dislike the action taken by the managers, and speak of it as they predicted itwould end, badly for the singers. Maggie Porter obeyed a summons home from her mother, and Jennie Jackson followed, leaving the men without women's voices. Dickerson withdrew from the troupe at this time in order to study at the University of Edinburgh.

Porter and Jackson were strong-willed and independent, and their con stant companionship concerned White: They seem I do not like their spirits or actions. Spence, and others to tea one afternoon in October in order to have a reunion with those who were in White reported that although singers Nashville, they had a was an to pleasant time, "there evidently object be gained by them but just what I could not make out.

A few days will probably give me light on some points. The report in the New York Times reflects a public struggle over ownership of the Jubilee Singers' a use the identity.

The singers felt they had right to name; WTiite believed that they could operate only as agents of the AMA. White and the other AMA managers had carefully laid the groundwork for fundraising. Every concert featured an address that explained the mission of the AMA and the plans to use concert proceeds to build a dormitory at Fisk, to be called Jubilee Hall.

White did not want this mission jeopardized by the public's of individual greed on the part of the singers. Nor could he perception afford the perception that he and the AMA were exploiting the singers, treating them and paying them so little that were returning poorly they home "penniless.

Replacing one singer was hard enough; replacing half the membership would have been impossible. Maggie Porter continued to be a thorn inWhite's side. Often dubbed the troupe's prima donna, she was an immensely gifted singer and invalu able to the Jubilees, and she knew it.

There was a limit to the behavior that Wfhite and the rest of the Jubilees were willing to endure, however, as this letter by America Robinson to her fianc? Iwill now tell you something which Imust ask strict secrecy con cerning. You are the only person to whom I tell it. That is the full particulars. Maggie Porter is going home. Mr Wfhite has settled with her to day and I believe that she leaves soon. Why itwas necessary to decide Iwill tell you. When we were in London last, Jennie and had a real one night.

We had come home from the Maggie fight concert and had all gone to bed when we were aroused? Pres went down with a crash then we heard fierce and ently something] angry voices.

We were frightened being so suddenly awakened. Oh you do not know how we felt when we knew that it was two of our own number engaged so disgracefully. Mrs White long in quelling the disturbance. Jennie room all night. Itwas oc slept in the drawing casioned by Jennie's refusing ventillation while Maggie stood out for it. Mr Cravath had them up and the[y] swore they would never room together another year. Maggie sent in her resignation and behaved in a most haughty and insolent manner.

All the Singers were most indignant over her behaviour and lack of repentance? Ever since then she has grown more and more insolent. She has treated Mr White like a heathen.

Indeed Mr White says that if a white person had used the same to him he language would have slapped his or her [illegible]. He says that the commonest person would not use such language to him as she did. They say in the class that she has every year grown worse and worse till now she has come to think her self the ruling power of the class.

Itmatters not where we are James, she says the most cutting and uncalled for things. She has called the managers liars and fools in public. And now we all feel as ifwe can no longer put up with it. I, of course, have not been in class as long as others still I have tasted the venom of her anger.

Maggie sings well? Iwill not attempt to give you any idea of how Maggie acts itwould be impos sible utterly! I hope we will not repent the step we have taken. It is as she does. She has such really too bad to see any one act an excellent voice and the of this has made her quite knowledge vain. I think she will be a public singer. She said some time since that she intended to study in London for a public singer. Of course I know not what her plans are. I think that she was not at all prepared for this.

Itwas quite sudden I am sure. Although she sent in her resignation she several times since has said she meant to stay with the Singers till the work was done. She had no thought she [would] ever be sent home. She thought her self of so much consequence she evidently felt her importance more than others. Since writing Maggie Porter has left us, as I told you she would do. She left Tuesday morning at six o'clock.

Itwas real sad to see her go notwithstanding all things. No one was up to tell her good bye save Mr and Mrs Loudin. Mr Loudin went to the Station with her.

She is now in London Mr Loudin says she did not cry when she left although she felt most miserable. It was a great trial to her to leave the class I know. I did feel so bad for her, poor girl. Stone had at one time offered to help Porter gain an education. After Porter painted a pathetic as a Jubilee Singer, Stone wrote picture of the treatment she had suffered an angry letter to Wfhite. At Stone's request, Wfhite put Porter's readmis sion to a vote, and the Jubilees voted to keep her out, although this time the vote was not unanimous.

Hodder and Stone visited White and the to as recounts in a singers resolve matters, Ella Sheppard diary entry of September 29, Glasgow: Early this morning all the class were called together tomeet Messrs. We remained together till past 4 p. The whole matter was brought up. Each singer expressed their dislike of M. We regretted our decision but itwas too late. Upon Porter's return, all the female singers refused to same was decided I should thus Sheppard's lament in that diary entry: Lord I am I feel as help me!

I do so fear for my future living with M. In private, however, these contractual ideals were at times unattainable. Despite the strife, the Jubilee Singers did enjoy periods of conviviality and cheerfully performed their duties both on and off the stage. One night the females an opera among themselves, up in staged dressing costumes, singing solos, acting, dancing, and doing "every thing funny we could think of.

They were mischievous and en joyed kidding each other and pulling pranks. One night, wrote America Robinson, Maggie Carnes and Iwent to all the boys rooms while they were down stairs counting their money and fixed their beds as if some one had come in and gone to bed.

We fixed up the imaginary personages out of old sheepskins. The boys were awfully frightened when they went in. They immediately suspected that Maggie had a hand in it but thought Iwas not up to such tricks. When someone received a letter from home, the troupe commonly gathered to share news of loved ones and events at Fisk. However, as the singers' sense of self-worth began to clash with as the stresses of travel and ill health mounted, management's goals, and the good times were subject to increasing assault, and the effort to project a trouble-free image to the public grew ever more difficult.

Raises It is further agreed It is further agreed that the Association shall give at least three months notice if the work is not to continue through the second year. The AMA adhered strictly to its policy of salaries tiered according to length of employment, with the exception of Frederick Loudin.

Robinson, speaking both for herself and Carnes, argued that they had proved equally as indispensable to the Jubilees as Sheppard, Jackson who was incapacitated by illness at the time , Loudin, Rutling, and Porter, for in their two years of service they had performed extra work by filling in for sick singers.

Robert Fisk - Wikipedia

Robinson's letter to her fianc? I had expected to go home in July or August but not being certain I did not like to write you until I did know. Mr Cravath said when we were inHolland that all who were unwilling to stay another year would go home in July. And ifmany decided to go home, the class would be broken up and all go then.

He meditates a tour through Belgium, France, Germany and some parts of Austria for another year. Of course this would be too few to think of going on another year. They would be obliged to bring in too many new members. This would be very expensive and besides they could not produce the same harmony and affect. Mr Alexander was not sure about his remaining another year.

It is simply this. Mr Cravath was unwilling to give us new singers the same as the old and we were determined not to stay for less than they. Our salary has been inferior each year. That we have done and now that we have reached the consummate point, where, to his we would get the same amount, according principle he was unwilling to abide by it fearing the old singers would de mand more. But there is not one of the old singers who feels this way save Maggie Porter and she places more value on herself than any one does for her.

Even she is so anxiousthat Maggie [Carnes] and I should stay that I know she would her tongue on that account. She does not hold want to go home. You see ifMaggie C. There is no certainty about Jennie's being able to sing more. If I should go there would be no one left on the alto. Mabel is obliged to go home on account of her health and they would find it hard work to bring in two new and untrained contraltos.

The reason I felt that I ought to get the same salary was because I have found out that I do the same amount of work. When we were in Holland Jennie and Maggie P. We made over? The salary Mr C. Well, Saturday night Mr C. After tea they sent for Maggie and me in the Coffee Room.

He did a lot of talking showing the Christian and not the money side but was unable to convince me that Iwas wrong in the course I had taken. Maggie said nothing her self but said ditto to what I had said. Gen Fisk told Mr C. He talked very nice tome indeed. I told Mr C. He gave me no answer as to whether he wished me on my conditions until Monday as he was leaving for Brighton. He came tomy room and said good bye and was very cordial all day.

He said he was not sure the class would remain another year but if it did why he would expect me to remain. He should be able to tell in aweek or so. I fully expected to go home as I did not think he would unbend and I did not intend to. He saw Mr Alexander on Monday morning and he distinctly told him that he preferred home to another year of inferiority.

You see how it stands. None of us know what we are to do. If the class remains I remain I suppose unless Mr Cravath changes his mind. Characteristically, he began with a logical line of reasoning the other singers would want more money if he gave Robinson a raise but, failing to persuade, appealed to duty and altru ism?

Missionary Work It is further agreed that the Jubilee Singer's movement shall be con ducted as a Christian missionary enterprise, and that strict regard shall be had in all public duties and private conduct to the usefulness of the enterprise, to the American Missionary Association and Fisk as Christian Institutions, and in general to the promotion University of the interests of Christ's Kingdom. The Jubilee Singers took their work as Christian missionaries seriously.

Singers Isaac Dickerson, Thomas Rutling, and Frederick Loudin, as well as the managers, often made speeches at concerts and at missionary, revival, and Sunday School meetings. Although individually devout in all exhibited amoral rectitude that varying degrees, public they placed their religious dedication beyond question. The Sunday School work came to be especially important in England. The Jubilees were active in the temperance cause, and became initi ates of the Good Templars in Dublin on November 25,?

The Dublin lodge also the Jubilees with to wear at their meetings. One incident in particular sent shock waves through the troupe. Frederick Loudin had married in and brought his wife, Harriet, with him on the tour; she often helped with accounts or other business matters as needed. Loudin, who acted as spokesman at concerts, had quickly become a linchpin of the group.

Thus, when he began an affair with Georgia Gordon? America Robinson described the effect on the Jubilees: Mr Wfhite and Mr Seward have tried Loudin's with and at one time they thought they going Georgia had succeeded but of late they are together more than ever.

He worked his meshes around her till he has her where he wishes. When just Every ever his wife comes around, you know she does not stay with us. It is pitiable to see how cold he treats her.

He gets furious he does not like to have her come. She writes and tells him she is coming and he does not even get a room for her. Every one pities her. She is a perfect lady and very intelligent. He lavishes his smiles and soft words on Georgia and cuts his wife up at every turn. If you only knew the half of it [it]would astonish you to know that such things took place among the Singers.

Some blame Mr Loudin and some Georgia and some both. I can not see how a young girl can suffer a married man to play the lover when she knows he is not free. Mr Seward can not sleep at night it troubles him so. He asked me what must he do about it. I could not tell him. But like him I think she ought to be permitted to go home inMay. There is not a person connected with the Singers that she even likes save Mr Loudin.

She does not like me I know she acts deceitful with me as with the rest. She told me she despised the others. She is no more the same girl she used to be. She ought to be with her mother. I feel sorry for her and too know that she has such amistaken idea of the right.

Fifth Clause: Differences between Singers and Management It is further agreed by both parties that in case differences arise between singers or between singers and managers which cannot be otherwise satisfactorily adjusted, that such differences may be refered by either party to the Officers of the American Missionary Association at New York for adjustment, and that their decision shall be final and binding.

The troubles that arose from Maggie Porter's behavior and from Frederick Loudin's affair with Georgia Gordon illustrate an important point: Dis putes were not always singers versus management. Indeed, both Seward and Wfhite frequently consulted the singers for advice, and showed not only affection but respect for their moral judgment and intellect. On those occasions when Wfhite or Seward had trouble settling differences with the singers, however, they appealed to Cravath for advice or help, for Cravath was ultimately responsible to the trustees of the AMA.

Cravath left his job as field secretary to become the president of Fisk University in He decided that his most important task in that capac ity was to oversee the activities of the Jubilee Singers, and he traveled with them on their third campaign in Europe.

Wfhereas White cared first and foremost about his singers? He pushed for heavier concert scheduling, even when the singers were ailing. As a result, by the singers and their directors, Wfhite and Seward, had formed a broad alliance that often opposed Cravath's decisions.

White was placed in a difficult position by Cravath? A page from Ella Sheppard's diary, Dec. January 1, , workers were still building it even as students were moving in. Wfhite became embarrassed about returning to England and asking patrons to finance a building that should have long since materi alized. He was furious with the AMA for its creative accounting, which apportioned to Jubilee Hall only a fraction of the money the troupe had raised.

Thus he was wary when the singers began their second fundrais ing project: Livingstone Missionary Hall. Although White could be dictatorial with his he was honest and direct; he to them the reasons for singers, explained his decisions. Cravath, on the other hand, relied on blunt directives; when these did not work, he attempted to gain his objective by instill ing guilt.

The students did not respond well to such tactics, feeling that there was no chance of justice. Ella Sheppard described in her diary an incident involving bass Edmund Watkins, who for some reason refused to perform in a concert at the prestigious Singakademie in Berlin: Cravath's doing nothing? The result of their bitter reproaches is to only harden or make W. I talked with W. I am sick at heart of the struggles which continually surround us.

The culmination came inApril , while the Singers were touring Germany.

Robert Fisk

Troupe relations had become so acrimonious that WTiite felt it necessary to send home Carnes, America Robinson, and Mrs. Swart, awhite woman who Maggie had been hired to assist Ella Sheppard in her duties. Cravath initially to Wfhite's solution.

Events ac agreed transpired differently, however, cording to Ella Sheppard: A [April] 23 day long to be remembered. We heard before leav ing B. They Mr C. Came later. The two young men having said noth ing would keep them another minute with the company if the plan was carried out. The burden? Mrs S. My very soul recoils from it. I cannot feel it for me to remain yet to go would right make matters worse. If I stay Imust face probably fatal results!

If I I me my go have hope of regaining strength. O, Lord show duty! I can fall mute before Thee. Cravath had capitulated to the tenors Alexander Hinton and Thomas Rutling instead of supporting the action he and White had earlier agreed upon, thereby destroying what credibility White still had with his troupe.

Wfhite's wounded pride, however, paled in comparison to the anguish that Cravath's action caused Ella Sheppard: The saddest I spoke to [April] 24 day of my life. This morning Mr C.

Told him I felt I could only carry the responsibility providing the tour was completed with present definite appointments which I understood was the plan. I had only said so much when he flew into a passion. Said he would make no such agreement. Would not beg me to stay. As hard as I've worked for seven years? Iwas compelled to stay. Os dois primeiros livros da nova srie tm como objetivo proporcionar aos alunos um aprendizado rpido e seguro da lngua inglesa de forma envolvente e prazerosa..

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