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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Kitab kuning: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde , no: C, van den Berg's pioneering study of the Javanese and Madu- rese pesantren curriculum Van den Berg compiled a list of the major textbooks studied in the pesantren of his day on the basis of inter- views with kyai. He mentioned fifty titles and gave some general infor- mation on each, providing short summaries of the more important ones.

The differences be- tween the Sundanese and Javanese parts of Java are, because of fuller data, brought out more clearly. I have lumped together texts matari and untitled commentaries on such texts; only commentaries that are generally known by a different title have been listed separately. Even so, the total number of texts mentioned is well over ; the tables below list only those that occur most frequently, grouped according to subject. Within each table, genealogically related works i.

The latter is roughly indicated by the notes in the final column on the educational level at which the books are usually studied. The word khawass 'the special ones' denotes a more advanced level. The tables give the titles of the kitab in their commonly used short form, transliterated in the Indonesian style. In the text the full names are given, in a transliteration more closely approximating English usage. The instrumental sciences see Table I The instrumental sciences, ilmu alat, are in the first place the various branches of traditional Arabic grammar: There is a bewildering array of different texts on these subjects.

In this case, our entire collection and the list of most popular titles can be compared not only with Van den Berg's list, but also with a list of the manuscripts of such grammatical texts in the Leiden and Jakarta libraries compiled by Drewes Although Drewes gives more titles 31 The Riau and Palembang data are derived from interviews with various local ulama, those on Pariaman from interviews and observation in loco, all in the context of the said research project.

These are a recent development, following the East Javanese example. The level of teaching here is still relatively low. Before these pesantren came into being, people used to study privately with a teacher, using mainly Malay kitab especially M.

Books in Arabic Script used in the Pesantren Milieu than Van den Berg, the latter's list corresponds in fact more closely with ours. In the traditional system, the student usually began with the basics of sarf, which meant that he had to commit the first tables of verbal and nominal inflection to memory.

The simplest work of this category is the Bina Al-bina' wa 'l-asas, by a certain Mulla ad-Danqari. Having reached this stage, the student would turn to the first works on nahw before going on to more difficult sarf works if he ever got so far.

One of the simplest, and most widely popular works on nahw was the Awamil Al-Cawamil al-mi'a, by cAbd al-Qahir b. This introductory curriculum was Standard in regions that were wide apart. The same texts were studied, in this order, in traditional madrasa in Kurdistan except for the last-named work, which is not known there , in 19th-century Javanese pesantren, and in West Sumatran surau?

A The same works are still in use, but a certain shift has occurred. The Bina and the Izzi are most certainly under-reported in the curriculum lists, in favour of more advanced works, but they seem to have retained their place better in West Java and Sumatra than in Java proper. A recent but also tra- ditional introductory work that is quite popular in Javanese pesantren is 33 Almost all the works mentioned by Van den Berg are still in use and, what is more, among the more popular.

Drewes, on the other hand, lists many titles that are not used at present, while the presently popular texts do not stand out in his list. In library collections, relatively rare items generally tend to be over-, and the more c o m m o n ones under-represented the rare, after all, seems to be much more worth collecting.

Neither mentions the Kailani and the Maqshud with their commentaries, the Amtsilah, the Bina, or the Asymawi; Drewes mentions Dahlan's work as a commentary on the Jurumiyah rather than the Alfiyah. Neither mentions any work on balagha; it is unclear whether there are no manuscript works on the subject in'the libraries, or whether Drewes does not consider this as part of grammar. Bozarslan a n d M. Snouck Hurgronje describes a West Sumatran manuscript textbook containing, in that order, a list of grammatical expressions, inflection tables, an untitled text which seems to be part of the Izzi, the Awamil and a commentary on the Jurumiyah by Shaykh Khalid b.

Other introductory texts are also widely available. This is commonly followed by an extensive commentary on the Izzi, the Kailani named after its author, cAlI b. Not mentioned by them, but frequently encountered, is the Asymawi, a com- mentary on the Jurumiyah by a certain cAbdallah b. Zaynl Dahlan, commonly called Dahlan Alfiyah. Qatr an-nadd' [wa ballas-sadd'], by Ibn Hisham36 d.

To some extent, these classical works are giving way to more modern teaching materials. In , the Dutch consul in Jeddah, E. In the s, these bookswere in use in the more modern madrasah of Sumatera Thawalib in West Sumatra, along with other contemporary Egyptian textbooks and books 35 In several editions, the Bina and Izzi are printed in combination with other introductory works on sarf, viz. All these texts are quite short: Yusuf b. These textbooks are now widely used in madrasah and state schools for teachers of religion PGA ; growing numbers of pesantren are folio wing suit, as is reflected by Table I.

Lebanese and Egyptian editions. This, too, was used in West Sumatra already in the s, along with Al-balaghat al- wadih, by the same authors.

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This brings us to the final major branch of Arabic grammar: Two classical kitab dominate this section of the curriculum, viz.: The Jawhar was translated into Javanese by K. Bisri Mustofa of Rembang. The total number of texts in our collection, of course, exceeds by far that of the texts mentioned here. It should perhaps be noted that three of the texts listed by Van den Berg were not to be found in print.

It is among the very first subjects studied as the titles of the texts listed, meaning 'Gift for children' and 'Guidance for little boys', emphasize.

They are both found in several collections of short texts, usually together. The third auxiliary science is mantiq, Aristotelian logic which will prove its usefulness when the student proceeds to fiqh, jurisprudence. Two other, untitled, commentaries which are often encountered are those by Hasan Darwlsh al-Quwaysin!

Despite its title, this work is not a translation of Porphyry's Isagoge, as has often been assumed see Arminjon Jurisprudence flqh and its principles Table II Fiqh is still considered as the Islamic science par excellence.

It has the most concrete implications for everyday behaviour, for it tells us what things are forbidden and what actions recommended. Works on fiqh form the real substance of pesantren education, and this is reflected by the composition of the top list. The fiqh work mentioned by Van den Berg as the most important work of reference, the Tuhfa Ibn Hajar's Tuhfat al-muhtaj , does not occur in this list, and an Indonesian edition of this text does not even exist.

Never- theless, leading traditional ulama agree that this is the ultimate work of reference, to which they take recourse in difficult cases. Under modernist influence, fiqh works of a different genre are coming into use in pesantren as well. There are several pesantren now where Ibn Rushd's Bidayat al-mujtahid is taught besides or instead of the Shafici classics it was recently also printed in Indonesia, which indicates a grow- ing interest. The multi-volume Fiqh as-sunna by the modern Egyptian author Sayyid Sabiq is rapidly gaining wider acceptance too so far, only an Indonesian translation has been locally printed, suggesting that the work appeals primarily to a modernist audience.

These works have not yet, however, reached the list of most popular works, all of which are squarely within the ShafR tradition. Bold print indicates works of which Indonesian editions exist and have been acquired for the collection. Important fatwa are based on these works, especially on the Tuhfa. In daily practice, however, the Tuhfa is not so often consulted, and it is very hard even to find a copy of it in the shops.

Sahal Mahfudz, Abdurrahman Wahid, and other leading ulama. These preferences are not the same among all Shafici: An abridged Javanese translation must have existed in the early 19th century39, but apparently has fallen into disuse with the improved avail- ability of other texts.

There is hardly apesantren where not at least one of these texts is studied. Various other works of the same family are also widely used in Indonesia, and there are several translations. Mukhtasar many Indon. AbQ Shuja', -d.

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Keijzer in and reprinted by Roorda The Fath is a commentary on, or a reworking of, an earlier text by the same author entitled Qurrat al- c ayn; neither is directly based upon Ibn Hajar's Tuhfa. The Qurra itself never became popular in Indonesia, but in the 19th century Nawawi Banten wrote another commentary on it Nihayat az-zayri that is widely used.

Two of Nawawi's younger contemporaries in Mecca wrote extensive glosses on the Fath al-muin. It became the most frequently consulted work of ShafH fiqh already in the author's lifetime cf. Snouck Hurgronje a: Ibn Hajar's Minhaj is used all over Java; the Hawashl, long hard to find, were very recently reprinted in Surabaya.

BashTn d. Husayn b. Tahir Bacalawl, d. Besides, there are several other adaptations and commentaries by Indonesian culama. They will be dealt with in the order in which they occur on the list. Husayn al-Makkl al-Maliki, entitled Anarat ad-duja''. This text com- monly known as Syarqawi ala Tahrir , too, is widely available in Indonesia.

The Riyadlul Badiah is one of the texts that are little known elsewhere which were introduced to Indonesian Muslims by Nawawi Banten. The author is one Muhammad Hasballah, perhaps an older contemporary of Nawawi. GAL Sullam al-munajdt is another work by Nawawi Banten. It is a commen- tary on the guide for worship, Safinat as-salah, by c Abdallah b. Two Javanese translations and commentaries are in circulation, viz. By now it has gradually fallen into disuse, and many santri do not even recognize its name.

Muhadzab Al-muhadhdhab is a work of Shaffi fiqh by Ibrahlm b. The following two are recent texts in simple Arabic, especially written for madrasah: Al-mabadi 'l-fiqhiyya cala madhhab al-imam ash-Shafil 4 tiny volumes was written by c Umar cAbd al-Jabbar; Al-fiqh al-wadih by the well-known Minangkabau scholar Mahmud Yunus. To the above titles I would add one important Malay text, in spite of its low rating in the present list, with its heavy Javanese bias.

It was written, so the author says, because the earlier Malay fiqh handbook, Sirat al-mustaqlm by ar-Raniri printed in the margin , contained too many regionalisms and was therefore difficult to understand.

Al-BanjarI's work is rarely found in Java, but is still quite popular in the Malay-speaking area, and several recent editions of it including an Egyptian one are available. This may be due to an oversight, for Van Ronkel's catalogue of the Jakarta library mentions several copies of commentaries on the Waraqat and the Janf al-jawamic see below , which suggests that these works must have been relatively well-known, at least around the turn of the century.

They were probably, however, not part of the ordinary pesantren curriculum. Mahfudz of Termas d. The range of works used is not very wide, however. Our collection includes fourteen different titles, many of which are related to one another as commentaries or glosses. Only eight of these are sufficiently popular to warrant inclusion in the list. Various commentaries on this work are generally available in Indonesia our collection contains five different ones, one of them by the Minangkabau reformist Ahmad Khatlb, entitled An-nafahatcala sharh al-waraqat.

Ibn Rushd's Bidayat al-mujtahid, which compares the rulings of the four 'orthodox' and various other madhhab, was again used first by the Minang- kabau kaum muda.

It is actually taught in very few pesantren, but many of the more learned kyai use it as a work of reference.

Doctrine tawhfd, aqfda, usul ad-din Compared with the number and the sophistication of fiqh works studied in pesantren, doctrine occupies a much less prominent place in the curricu- lum.

Could this perhaps be because of the old adage that too great an interest in matters of doctrine can only lead to unbelief? All these texts are commonly known by the names of their authors. In fact, Nasaft's cAqa'id was among the first works to be translated into Malay.

A sixteenth-century manuscript with an interlinear Malay translation is still extant Al-Attas Our collection alsocontains a version of this work with an interlinear Madurese translation by H. Santri commit the entire text itself to memory, and study various commentaries on it. An anonymous Malay scholar and two Java- nese ulama, Saleh Darat of Semarang and Ahmad Subki Masyhadi of Pekalongan, wrote extensive commentaries in their regional languages, which are commonly known by the same title oiJauharatut Tauhid.

Saleh Darat's Javanese commentary, especially, is interesting in that it reflects contemporary Javanese views and concerns. The remaining three titles are modern works, which were first adopted by Egyptian-influenced madrasah and from there are gradually penetra- ting the entire pesantren world.

The author was renowned as editor of a journal in which he attempted to reconcile Islam with modern science and philosophy GAL S This book was first used in Indonesia, in Sumatera Thawalib madrasah, in the s Yunus There is yet another, quite popular, category of books that should be mentioned here, although these are rarely part of the official pesantren curriculum.

These are the works on traditional and often quite fantastic cosmology and eschatology. Indonesian authors have contributed a number of simpler texts similarly designed to inspire a wholesome fear of the here- after in the reader. These works are not used as textbooks, but constitute popular reading in the santri environment.

A few minor additions may be made to this. Van den Berg's impression is probably generally correct: The last tafslr on the list is a volume work in Indonesian, prepared under the auspices of the Ministry of Religious Affairs by a committee of Indonesian scholars. The latter, too, is more of a translation than an exegesis proper. The most recent is an Indonesian commentary in six volumes, Adz Dzikraa: The interest in tafslr is increasing markedly.

Imports nevertheless keep increasing; in several toko kitab in Surabaya and Bandung I found no fewer than twenty different tafslr imported from Egypt and Lebanon in stock. Of the works on the principles of tafslr, only two classics are listed. The collection includes various simple introductions to this subject.

Hadith Even more than tafslr, hadith constitute a relatively new subject 'm pesan- tren. Van den Berg does not even mention hadith. Various Indonesian ulama have, from the 19th century on, compiled or translated such collections of forty, and Djohan Effendi has shown how the contents of these collections changed accord- ing to the needs of the times. The curricu- lum often includes selections from these works, usually with a commen- tary.

Hajar al-cAsqalanI d. Subul as-salam, by Muhammad b. Nawawi's Arbaln are used in many pesantren for the less advanced santri, and are also popular as non-curricular religious literature, in the original Arabic as well as in Indonesian translation. A rather well-known commentary is Al-majalis as-saniyya, by Ahmad b. The Ushfuriyah named after its author, Muhammad b. The two titles occurring in our list with a few derivatives of the first one are, in fact, the only ones to be found in toko kitab.

The name Baiquniyah, as usual, refers both to an original work matan , an untitled short versified text by Taha b. Morality and mysticism The borderline between the subjects of akhlaq morality and tasawwuf mysticism as taught in pesantren is extremely fuzzy.

The same work may be studied under the heading tasawwuf in one pesantren, and under that of akhlaq in another. As the titles in Table VI show, the works on mysticism studied in pesantren all belong to the orthodox school that also stresses these attitudes. This may at first sight seem astonishing, given the strong mystical strain in traditional Indonesian Islam, and the penchant for metaphysical speculation especially among Javanese. On the other hand, it was not only speculative cosmogonic and mystical theories that appealed to earlier generations of Indonesian ulama, but also rules of proper conduct and hierarchy.

These rather difficult Arabic works are at most read by a small elite, but the case is different with some Malay works, such as M. These Malay works are read in West Java as well as in the outer islands. In contradiction with common assumptions about the religious attitudes of Javanese and non- Javanese Indonesians, it is the Javanese pesantren that is the locus of orthodoxy, while other, speculative mystical doctrines still persist in the outer regions.

The collection contains almost a hundred different titles on akhlaq and tasawwuf, but the basic texts that are widely used are relatively few. They are the following. For many kyai, this work is one of the very pillars of pesantren education.

At a recent discussion of kitab organized by the NU, one of the participants suggested that this is the sort of book that should really be banned because of the passive and uncritical attitudes it inculcates.

The reactions to this suggestion give one reason to believe that this work will long remain part of the curriculum.

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It is also available with a Javanese and with a Madurese translation. Wasayd [aUaba' li 'l-ibna'], by the Egyptian author Muhammad Shakir shaykh culamd al-Iskandariyya, according to the title page , with a Ja- vanese translation by Bisri Mustofa, is a short text explaining how nice boys should wash themselves well, take care of sick relatives, repair their own bicycle tyres, etc. Some of Yusuf s works are summar- ized in Tudjimah et al. Ahmad Barja. There are various printed editions of the Arabic text in existence, and there is a recent Javanese translation by Misbah b.

Zayn al-Mustafa. Nasa'ih al-cibad is yet another work by Nawawi Banten. It focuses on the rules for personal conduct, and is often used as an introductory work, for the younger santri, on akhlaq.

A Javanese and recently also an Indonesian translation are available. The section on tasaw. There are various pesantren that specialize in the teaching of the Ihya; all three works mentioned have been translated, at least in part, into several Indonesian languages.

These works remain popular especially in Sumatra and West Java. Muhammad Dafilan of Jampes, Kediri d.

This work has a high reputation in East Java, despite its low score on our list. Numerous translations and commentaries exist in Indonesia. Muhibbuddin Waly, deserve mention. Many commentaries on it are in use in Indonesia. The final two works are both by the pious Hadrami author and mystic c Abdallah b. He wrote around ten books, mostly on Sufi piety, several of which have come to enjoy popularity in the Archipelago. Tahir al- Haddad, under the title As-silat al-islamiyya.

There is a marked revival of interest in cAbdallah al-Haddad, both in Egypt and, more recently, in Indonesia. In Indonesia, al-Haddad and his works are actively propagated by his fellow-Hadrami sayyid, notably the learned Muhammad al-Baqir, who translated several of his works into Indonesian.

These books sold surpri- singly well, and saw several reprints within the first years of their appear- ance. A biographical notice on al-Haddad, by his editor Hasanayn M. A few minor texts by al- Haddad were brought out in Indonesian translation by other publishers. Quietist, orthodox Sufism apparently has a wide appeal beyond the pesantren milieu as well - which seems to be a response to the political decline of Indonesian Islam over the past decades.

Most santri derive their knowledge about and awareness of the history of Islam largely from devotional works on the Prophet and saints. These books at first were typical madrasah literature, but now are also studied in quite a few pesantren.

The other two texts listed are well-known devotional works having the Prophet's birth and ascension to heaven as their topics. Besides their ritual uses see the next section , these texts also serve as teaching materials in a number of pesantren.

The range of de- votional texts on the Prophet found in the bookshops is much wider than the two listed here: There are other kitab, too, that serve such non-educational purposes. To conclude our survey, a fewwords need to be said about the various types of such extra- curricular kitab and their uses. Devotion, ritual, magie Not all kitab in the collection form part of the official pesantren curriculum. For they contain collections of prayers and other pious formulas wird, pi.

Such books are extremely popular, and are sold in larger numbers than most others. The Barzanji and other similar texts are also read in certain life cycle rituals, in fulfilment of vows, or to ward off danger. This is not to say that these texts are not used as pious reading, too; but even when read privately, the emphasis is often upon the merit accumulated or the spiritual and material benefits to be gained by this private act rather than on the informational content of the texts.

For these purposes, a full understanding of the texts is of course not essential; they are usually recited only in Arabic. Javanese, Malay and Sundanese translations of manaqib of cAbd al-Qadir were in use at least from the 19th century on Drewes and Poerbatjaraka , together with similar Malay texts on the Prophet e.

Hikayat nur Muhammad, Nabi bercukur, Nabi wafai and on such saints as [M. These are all still available, and in addition there are many new translations of and commen- taries on the better known Mawlid and Manaqib by Indonesian ulama. Drewes and Poerbatjaraka is still the most important study o n c A b d al-Qadir's manaqib.

For a list of 20th-century commentaries on and translations of the Barzanji and of a manaqib by the s a m e author not all represented in the collection , see van Bruinessen The number of dukun seems to have grown, and so has that of kyai and others practising Islarriic variants of magical healing and supernatural assistance.

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Whereas one part of the Muslim community strongly opposes such 'superstitions', for many others, perhaps the majority, the mystical-magical dimension remains an integral part of the Islamic heritage. Santri commonly draw a strict distinction between tibb 'medicine' and hikma 'occult sciences' , although to most modernists both are magie and unacceptable.

Hikma contains explicitly pre-Islamic elements, such as the use of magical squares wafaq , whereas the amulets of tibb only employ Qur'anic texts. And even hikma is not so far removed from the orthodox mainstream as modernists would have it: These and similar works available in local editions are widely used in Javanese pesantren, although they do not form part of the formal curriculum and will rarely be taught by the kyai himself.

They occupy a central place in peer learning, however. Older santri often experiment together with the various magical techniques set out in these books. Popular booklets based on these works of hikma, called mujarrabat 'traditional wisdom', lit. They contain prayers, magical formulas and symbols for a long and heterogeneous series of situations in connection with health, love, career, protection from evil spirits, and traffic accidents.

There are related popular works listing the specifie beneficial effects of reciting certain Qur'anic verses and prayers. There is no clear line dividing mujarrabat booklets from primbon, collections of 'useful information', which may comprise the same sort of magical formulas, besides lists of auspicious days and hours, rules of fhumb for divination using dreams, the day on which a woman's period begins, etc , lists of supererogatory prayers, etc.

Books of these types, catering for a simple and uneducated public, are printed in enormous numbers. Some are now in Romanized Indonesian, but the majority are in Malay, Javanese or Sun- danese in Arabic characters and seem to aim, therefore, at the periphery of the pesantren world - the people who have some knowledge of the Arabic script. These simple texts may be of greater influence in shaping popular religious attitudes than the more serious works studied in the pesantren.

Qur'anic exegesis Region: Siradjuddin, , Ulama Syafi'idan kitab-kitabnya dariabadkeabad, Jakarta: Pustaka Tarbiyah. Mu'assasa Makka li't-tabifa wa'l-iclam. Abdullah, Hawash [H. Shaghir], , Perkembangan ilmu tasawuf dan tokoh- tokohnya di Nusantara, Surabaya: Al Ikhlas.

Abdullah, H. Abdullah, Taufik, , Schools and politics: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project. Amidjaja, Rosad, et al.

Felix Alcan. Husain b. Menara Kudus, 2 vols. A 16th century translation of the cAqa'id of al-Nasafi, Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya. Croom Helm. Berg, L. Bruinessen, Martin van, , 'Bukankah orang Kurdi yang mengislamkan Indonesia? Calverley, Edwin E. The MacDonald presen- tation volume, pp. Sarana Utama. Danuwijoto, H. Saleh Darat Semarang: Departemen Agama, , Buku-2 yang dipergunakan dipondok pesantren, Jakarta: Studi tentangpandangan hidup kyai, Jakarta: Drewes, G.

Hamidy, UU, , 'Kegiatan percetakan dan penerbitan di Riau pada abad ke 19 dan awal abad ke 20', in: Will be grateful for any help! I'll be really very grateful. Kitab ini baru diperoleh di Kampung Pulau Pisang, Kedah, pada Hidayah al-Sibyan yang telah dihasilkan oleh ulama terkenal iaitu Husein bin.

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