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Literary theories were developed as a means to understand the various ways Feminist Criticism: A feminist critic sees cultural and economic disabilities in a. Literary Theory and Schools of Criticism. Introduction. A very basic way of thinking about literary theory is that these ideas act as different lenses critics use to. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy .

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BACKGROUND INFO. A very basic way of thinking about literary theory is that these ideas act as different lenses critics use to write and talk about art, literature, . Literary criticism is the method used to interpret any given work of literature. The different schools of literary criticism provide us with lenses which ultimately. “Literary criticism is the study, analysis, and evaluation of imaginative literature. Everyone who If an individual offers a sound analysis based on connections.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Rafik Djezzar. Kristi Siegel. W hen theories are explained briefly , a necessary reduction in their com plexity and richness occurs. The inform ation below is m eant m erely as a guide or introduction to m odern literary theories and trends.

Deconstruction from Phenom enology to Ethics. Cam bridge, A Derrida Reader: Betw een the Blinds. The Critical Difference: Essay s in the Contem porary Rhetoric of Reading. Baltim ore. Deconstructive Criticism: An Advanced Introduction. Colum bia UP, Theory and Practice. U of Georgia P, Deconstruction in Context: Literature and Philosophy. U of Chicago P, Unty ing the Text: A Post-Structuralist Reader.

Some Assum ptions - Dr.

Mary Klages, University of Colorado at Boulder Po s tm o d e rn is m Though often used interchangeably with post-structuralism , postmodernism is a m uch broader term and encom passes theories of art, literature, culture, architecture, and so forth. In Hassan's form ulation postm odernism differs from m odernism in several ways: For J ean Baudrillard, postm odernism m arks a culture com posed "of disparate fragm entary experiences and im ages that constantly bombard the individual in m usic, video, television, advertisin g and other form s of electronic media.

The speed and ease of reproduction of these im ages m ean that they exist only as im age, devoid of depth, coherence, or originality" Childers and Hentzi Illum inations and Reflections.

Sim ulacra and Sim ulation and Cool Mem ories. Postm odernism: A Reader. The Anti-Aesthetic: The Dism em berm ent of Orpheus: Tow ard a Postm odern Literature, Paracriticism s: A Poetics of Postm odernism. After the Great Divide: Modernism , Mass Culture, Postm odernism.

Literary theory

Postm odernism , or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. The Postm odern Condition: A Report on Know ledge. Postm odern Fiction. In the earlier historical-biographical criticism , literature was seen as a m imetic reflection of the historical world in which it was produced.

Further, history was viewed as stable, linear, and recoverable--a narrative of fact. In contrast, New Historicism views history skeptically historical narrative is inherently subjective , but also m ore broadly; history includes all of the cultural, social, political, anthropological discourses at work in any given age, and these various "texts" are unranked - any text m ay yield inform ation valuable in understanding a particular m ilieu.

Ste p h e n Gre e n blatt was an early im portant figure, and Mich e l Fo u cau lt's fou-KOH intertextual m ethods focusing especially on issues such as power and knowledge proved very influential. D is co u rs e - [from Wolfreys - see General Resources below] - "defined by Michel Foucault as language practice: He also identifies epistem ic breaks, radical shifts in the varieties and deploym ents of knowledge for ideological purposes, which take place from period to period" Po w e r - [from Wolfreys - see General Resources below] - "in the work of Michel Foucault, power constitutes one of the three axes constitutive of subjectification, the other two being ethics and truth.

For Foucault, power im plies knowledge, even while knowledge is, concomitantly, constitutive of power: Power serves in m aking the world both knowable and controllable. Yet, in the nature of power, as Foucault suggests in the first volum e of his History of Sexuality , is essentially proscriptive, concerned more with im posing limits on its subjects.

Rather, the inevitability of personal bias m akes it im perative that new historicists be aware of and as forthright as possible about their own psychological and ideological positions relative to the m aterial they analyze so that their readers can have some idea of the hum an 'lens' through which they are viewing the historical issues at hand.

By focusing on these details, one can then reveal the inherent contradictory forces at work within culture. New Historicism and Cultural Materialism. Martin's P, Reynolds, eds. N ew Historical Literary Study: Essay s on Reproducing Texts, Representing History. Princeton UP, Radical Tragedy: U of Chicago, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison.

Alan Sheridan. The Order of Things. Practicing New Historicism. U of Chicago P, 20 0 0. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essay s. Basic Books, Ham let in Purgatory. PUP, 20 0 1. Learning to Curse: Essay s in Early Modern Culture. Renaissance Self-Fashioning: From More to Shakespeare.

The New Cultural History. Berkeley and Los Angeles: The Beauty of Inflections: Literary Investigations in Historical Method and Theory. Stephen Greenblatt and Giles Gunn. Modern Language Association, Tow ard a New Historicism. Aram , ed. The New Historicism. For Rosenblatt and Richards the idea of a "correct" reading--though difficult to attain--was always the goal of the "educated" reader arm ed, of course, with appropriate aesthetic apparatus.

For Fish, the interpretive com munity serves som ewhat to "police" readings and thus prohibit outlandish interpretations. In contrast W o lfgan g Is e r argued that the reading process is always subjective. In The Im plied Reader, Iser sees reading as a dialectical process between the reader and text.

For H an s -Ro be rt Jau s s , however Tow ard an Aesthetic of Reception, and Aesthetic Experience and Literary Herm eneutics , a reader's aesthetic experience is always bound by tim e and historical determinants. H o rizo n s o f e xp e ctatio n s - a term developed by Hans Robert J auss to explain how a reader's "expectations" or fram e of reference is based on the reader's past experience of literature and what preconceived notions about literature the reader possesses i.

J auss also contended that for a work to be considered a classic it needed to exceed a reader's horizons of expectations. Im p lie d re ad e r - a term developed by Wolfgang Iser; the im plied reader [somewhat akin to an "ideal reader"] is "a hypothetical reader of a text.

The im plied reader [according to Iser] "embodies all those predispositions necessary for a literary work to exercise its effect -- predispositions laid down, not by an em pirical outside reality, but by the text itself.

Consequently, the im plied reader as a concept has his roots firm ly planted in the structure of the text; he is a construct and in no way to be identified with any real reader" Greig E. In te rp re tive co m m u n itie s - a concept, articulated by Stanley Fish, that readers within an "interpretive com m unity" share reading strategies, values and interpretive assum ptions Barbara McManus.

Tran s actio n al an alys is - a concept developed by Louise Rosenblatt asserting that m eaning is produced in a transaction of a reader with a text. As an approach, then, the critic would consider "how the reader interprets the text as well as how the text produces a response in her" Dobie - see General Resources below.

How to Do Things w ith W ords. Readings and Feelings: An Introduction to Subjective Criticism. A Map of Misreading. An Essay on Shakespeare's Sonnets. The Pursuit of Signs: Sem iotics, Literature, Deconstruction.

The Role of the Reader. Is There a Text in this Class? The Authority of Interpretive Com m unities. Cam bridge: Harvard UP, The Act of Reading: A Theory of Aesthetic Response.

J ohn Hopkins UP, The Im plied Reader: Aesthetic Experience and Literary Herm eneutics. U of Minnesota P, Tow ard an Aesthetic of Reception. U of Minneapolis P, Interpretive Conventions: The Dy nam ics of Literary Response. Orality and Literacy.

Methuen, How to Read a Page. Practical Criticism: A Study of Literary Judgm ent. Harcourt Brace, Sem iotics of Poetry. The Reader, the Text, the Poem.

Southern Illinois UP, The Reader in the Text: Essay s on Audience and Interpretation. Reader-Response Criticism: From Form alism to Post- Structuralism.

Various Positions" - Dr. However, in term s of its theory rather than as its reality as a historical m ovem ent in effect for som e centuries fem inism m ight be categorized into three general groups: Further, women and men needed to consider what it m eant to be a wom an, to consider how m uch of what society has often deemed inherently fem ale traits, are culturally and socially constructed.

Sim one de Beauvoir's study, The Second Sex, though perhaps flawed by Beauvoir's own body politics, nevertheless served as a groundbreaking book of fem inism , that questioned the "othering" of wom en by western philosophy. Early projects in feminist theory included resurrecting wom en's literature that in m any cases had never been considered seriously or had been erased over tim e e. Since the s the writings of many wom en have been rediscovered, reconsidered, and collected in large anthologies such as The N orton Anthology of Literature by W om en.

However, m erely unearthing wom en's literature did not ensure its prom inence; in order to assess wom en's writings the number of preconceptions inherent in a literary canon dom inated by male beliefs and male writers needed to be re-evaluated.

Ke y Te rm s this list is w oefully inadequate; suggestions for additional term s w ould be appreciated: An d ro gyn y - taken from Wom en Studies page of Drew University - "' Used m ore frequently in the 's, this term was used to describe a blurring, or com bination of gender roles so that neither m asculinity or fem ininity is dom inant.

Es s e n tialis m - taken from Wom en Studies page of Drew University - "The belief in a uniquely fem inine essence, existing above and beyond cultural conditioning Gyn o ce n trics - "a term coined by the fem inist scholar-critic Elaine Showalter to define the process of constructing "a fem ale fram ework for analysis of wom en's literature [in order] to develop new m odels [of interpretation] based on the study of fem ale experience, rather than to adapt to m ale m odels and theories'" Bressler , see General Resources below.

Jo u is s an ce - a term m ost com m only associated with Helene Cixous seek-sou , whose use of the word m ay have derived from J acques Lacan - "Cixous follows Lacan's psychoanalytic paradigm, which argues that a child must separate from its m other's body the Real in order to enter into the Symbolic. Because of this, Cixous says, the fem ale body in general becom es unrepresentable in language; it's what can't be spoken or written in the phallogocentric Sym bolic order.

Cixous here m akes a leap from the m aternal body to the fem ale body in general; she also leaps from that fem ale body to fem ale sexuality, saying that fem ale sexuality, fem ale sexual pleasure, fem inine jouissance, is unrepresentable within the phallogocentric Sym bolic order" Dr.

Mary Klages, "Postructuralist Fem inist Theory" Patriarch y - "Sexism is perpetuated by system s of patriarchy where m ale-dom inated structures and social arrangements elaborate the oppression of wom en. Patriarchy alm ost by definition also exhibits androcentrism , meaning m ale centered. Se co n d - an d Th ird -W ave fe m in is m - "Se co n d -w ave fe m in is m refers to a period of fem inist thought that originated around the s and was m ainly concerned with independence and greater political action to im prove wom en's rights" Wikipedia.

Unlike second-wave fem inism , which largely focused on the inclusion of wom en in traditionally m ale-dom inated areas, third- wave fem inism seeks to challenge and expand com mon definitions of gender and sexuality" Wikipedia. Se m io tic - "[J ulia] Kristeva kris-TAYV-veh m akes a distinction between the sem iotic and sym bolic m odes of com munication: Thinking Fragm ents: Psy choanaly sis, Fem inism and Postm odernism in the Contem porary W est, The Daughter's Seduction: Fem inism and Psy choanaly sis, Elizabeth A.

Sexual Subversions: Three French Fem inists. Speculum of the Other W om an. Ithaca, N. Cornell University Press, The Kristeva Reader. Toril Moi, New French Fem inism.

(PDF) literary criticism and theory | Sathish Kumar -

Harvester, Fem inist Literary Theory. London ; New York: French Fem inism Reader. Nancy K. Miller, The Radical Future of Liberal Fem inism , New Haven, CT: A Literature of Their Ow n: A Vindication of the Rights of W om en. Postfem inism s: Fem inism , Cultural Theory , and Cultural Form s, Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Lim its of "Sex.

Radical Fem inism: An Historical Reader, Realizing the Archaic Future: A Radical Elem ental Fem inist Manifesto, Outlaw Culture: Resisting Representations, Representations of Black Fem inist Politics, Speaking of Gender, Gender Studies: N ew Directions in Fem inist Criticism , Lesbian Subjects: A Fem inist Studies Reader, J oan Korenman -Univ.

Genre studies often focus on the characteristics, structures, and conventions attributed to different form s of literature, e. More recent inquiry in genre criticism centers on the bias often inherent in genre criticism such as its latent or overt racism and sexism. The Rhetoric and Ideology of Genre: Strategies for Stability and Change. Ham pton Press, 20 0 2. Transparent Minds: N arrative Modes for Presenting Consciousness in Fiction.

Acts of Literature. New York and London: Routledge, , - Modern Genre Theory. Pearson Education Lim ited, 20 0 0. The Conditioned Im agination from Shakespeare to Conrad. Language and Literary Structure: CUP, 20 0 2. Kinds of Literature: An Introduction to the Theory of Genres and Modes. Harvard UP, - on the nature of literary genres and how they are form ed PN Social Form alism: Stanford UP, Narcissistic Narrative: The Metafictional Paradox. The Novel Before the Novel: U of Chicago P, traces beginnings of prose fiction to about the fourth century, A.

The Self-Begetting N ovel. Colum bia UP, - a study of the narrative m ethod in specific texts PN 3. Theory of the N ovel: A Historical Approach.

J ohn Hopkins Press, 20 0 0. Narrative Fiction: Contem porary Poetics. London and New York: Methuen, - excellent brief book providing overview on narratology PN Dislocating the End: Clim ax, Closure, and the Invention of Genre.

Peter Lang, 20 0 1. On the Margins of Discourse: The Relation of Literature to Language. U of Chicago P, - argues that novels are usually im itations of nonfictive writing acts, such as the production of histories or biographies PN Tow ards a Poetics of Fiction: Essay s from Novel: A Forum on Fiction.

Indiana UP, - collection of essays on various m odern views and approaches to fictional critical theory PN Authoritarian Fictions: The Ideological N ovel as a Literary Genre. Colum bia UP, - constructs a viable model of the rom an a these as a genre PQ Closure in the Novel.

Princeton UP, — categorizes endings or closure in novels into three types: The Story of the Novel. Macm illan, — discusses the elements that m ake a novel m em orable; treats three types of English novels: Balzac, Jam es, and the Realistic N ovel.

The Echoing Green: Rom anticism , Modernism and the Phenom enon of Transference in Poetry. Pathw ay s for the Poet: Poetry Form s Explained and Illustrated. Mott Media, - dictionary of poetic form s PM 10 Poetic Edifice: A Theory of 20 th Century Poetry. Poetic Meter and Poetic Form. Random House, this is the revised edition--a description, history and review of theory on poetic m eter and form PH 5. Constituent and Pattern in Poetry. University of Texas P.

The Stanza. Free Verse: An Essay on Prosody. Princeton UP, — essay on the prosody of free verse PH F73 H37 - surveys critical positions and em phasizes re-definitions of the term PN Serious Poetry: Form and Authority from Yeats to Hill.

Clarendon P, 20 0 2. Figures of Thought: Speculations on the Meaning of poetry and other Essay s. David R. Godine, - lively collection of essays. PN 10 History of Modern Poetry: Harvard UP, - discussion of poetic traditions from to PR The Uses of Poetry.

Cam bridge UP, - aim s at describing part played by poetry from the earliest times to present day PN Roots of Ly ric: Prim itive Poetry and Modern Poetics. Princeton UP, - traces m odern lyrical poetry back to its origins in prim itive and folk rhythm ical patterns PN The Theatre: Holt, Rinhart, and Winston, - useful reference work PN 1.

The Genius of Vulgar Com edy. On Dram a: Boundaries of Genre, Borders of Self. U of Michigan P, 20 0 0. Com ic Dram a: The European Heritage. Methuen, — series of papers that trace the development of com ic dram a from its beginnings in ancient Greece to the 20 th Century PN Dram atic Difference: U of Delaware P, 20 0 1. English Dram a: A Critical Introduction. Edward Arnold, - an account of dram a in England from its m edieval beginnings to the early s; excellent PR Metafictional Characters in Modern Dram a.

Hom er to Beckett: The European Epic and Dram atic Tradition. Dram atic Monologue. Methuen, Fu rth e r Re fe re n ce s - Sh o rt Sto ry: The Short Story in English. Oxford UP. Short Story Theories. Historical Fiction Annotated Bibliography" - Dr.

Chronotopes as Mem ory Schem ata" by Dr. Bart Kuenen Au to bio grap h ical Th e o ry As the critical attention to biography waned in the mid-twentieth century, interest in autobiography increased. Autobiography paired well with theories such as structuralism and poststructuralism because autobiography was fertile ground for considering the divide between fact and fiction, challenging the possibility of presenting a life objectively, and exam ining how the shaping force of language prohibited any sim ple attempts at truth and reference.

Classical autobiographies focused on public figures, were, largely, written by m en, and works theorizing autobiography prim arily treated m en's life writing. Until the m id s, little work was done on theorizing wom en's autobiographies.

Literary Theory And Criticism Books

Mason, Nancy K. Autobiography and Postm odernism. Am herst: U of Massachusetts Press, Revealing Lives: Autobiography , Biography , and Gender. SUNY Press, The Private Self: Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina Press, Autobiographical Acts: The Changing Situation of a Literary Genre. J ohns Hopkins University Press, Mem ory and Life W riting. Eric Prenowitz. Altered Egos: Authority in Am erican Autobiography.

Oxford UP, The Ear of the Other: Otobiography , Transference, Translation. U of Nebraska P, Fictions in Autobiography: Studies in the Art of Self-Invention. Princeton, PUP, Mirror Talk: Genres of Crisis in Contem porary Autobiography. J am es Olney. In Olney's Autobiography see below. W riting a W om an's Life. Ballantine Books, Autobiographical Tightropes.

Twentieth-Century Literary Theory

Autobiography and the Problem of the Subject. The Tradition of W om en's Autobiography: From Antiquity to the Present. Twayne, W om en's Autobiography: Essay s in Criticism. Ency clopedia of Life W riting: Autobiographical and Biographical form s. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers.

On Autobiography. Foreword by Paul J ohn Eakin. U of Minnesota Press, Theory , Criticism , Practice. Manchester UP, Autobiographies of Wom en Writers. Getting Personal: Fem inist Occasions and Other Autobiographical Acts. The Autobiographical Subject: Gender and Ideology in Eighteenth- Century England. Essay s Theoretical and Critical. Metaphors of Self: The Meaning of Autobiography. Princeton University Press, Design and Truth in Autobiography. W om en's Autobiographies, Culture, Fem inism.

Peter Lang, , 20 0 1. A Poetics of W om en's Autobiography. Reading Autobiography: A Guide for Interpreting Life Narratives. U of Minnesota P, 20 0 1. W om en, Autobiography , Theory: U of Wisconsin Press, The Form s of Autobiography: Episodes in a History of a Literary Genre.

Is the Subject Different? Dom na Stanton and J eannine Parsier Plottel. New York Literary Forum , The Politics of Gender in W om en's Autobiography. The Value of the Individual: Self and Circum stance in Autobiography. Andrews Trave l Th e o ry Interest in travel and travel writing has em erged as the result of an intellectual clim ate that is interrogating im perialism , colonialism , postcolonialism , ethnography, diaspora, m ulticulturalism , nationalism , identity, visual culture, and m ap theory.

Trans Chris Turner. The Location of Culture. Nation and Narration. Travel, Gender, and Im perialism: Mary Kingsley and W est Africa. The Beaten Track: European Tourism , and the W ay s to Culture, 0 — Clarendon, Travel, Pleasure, and Im aginative Geography , 0 Native Tours: The Anthropology of Travel and Tourism. Waveland Press, Travel W riting and Em pire: Postcolonial Theory in Transit. Zed, Travel and Translation in the Late Tw entieth Century. Road Scholar: Coast to Coast Late in the Century.

Hyperion, Cross-Cultural Travel: Peter Lang, 20 0 3. The W eary Sons of Conrad: Peter Lang, 20 0 2. The Society of the Spectacle.

Donald Nicholson-Sm ith. Zone Books, Staging Tourism: Bodies on Display from W aikiki to Sea W orld. U of Chicago P, 20 0 1. W rites of Passage: Reading Travel W riting. Travels in Hy perreality. William Weaver. San Diego: Harcourt, British Literary Travelling Betw een the W ars. In Transit: Travel, Text, Em pire. Hom e and Harem: Nation, Gender, Em pire, and the Cultures of Travel. Duke UP, Methods for Teaching Travel Literature and W riting: Exploring the W orld and Self.

Peter Lang, 20 0 5. Tourists w ith Ty pew riters: Critical Reflections on Contem porary Travel W riting. U of Michigan P, Im agining Transit: Tem peram ental Journey s: Essay s on the Modern Literature of Travel. Athens and London: Road Fram es: The Am erican Highw ay N arrative. Lincoln and London: Penelope Voy ages: W om en and Travel in the British Literary Tradition. Theca and London: Am erican W riters and the Picturesque Tour. The Tourist: A N ew Theory of the Leisure Class.

Im perial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest. Rout ledge, Discourses of Difference: Place Matters. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, Fast Cars and Bad Girls: Nom adic Subjects and W om en's Road Stories. Peter Lang, 20 0 4. If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, Please log in. If you previously purchased this article, Log in to Readcube. Log out of Readcube.

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