THE LEXICAL APPROACH PDF
PDF | On Jan 1, , John P. Racine and others published Lexical Method. Within a lexical approach, language is considered to. comprise. BiBlid () p. Recibido: 02/08/ · Aceptado: 26/09/ The lexical approach: collocability, fluency and implications for teaching. The theory of lexical chunks is popular for college English teachers to adopt in their classes. Based on theories of lexical chunks and lexical approach, this paper.
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The Lexical Approach - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free. By Michael Lewis. His main current interests lie in the areas of grammar, vocabulary and the development of a lexical approach and appropriate teacher-friendly classroom. The lexical approach to second language teaching has re- ceived interest in recent years as an alternative to grammar- based approaches. The lexical approach.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The lexical approach: Revista de len BiBlid p. From a psycholinguistic point of view, the lexical approach consists of the capacity of understanding and producing lexical phrases as non-analysed entities chunks.
As an illustration, there is a classification of noun compounds according to their length and complexity to follow: Film optical sensing device: Very complex: The last example is composed of eleven elements and we suggest that this is the longest of which we are aware.
But, it should be taken into account that when decomposing or translating them those that are very complex do not permit a lineal translation, that is, in the same order as they appear in English. To put it differently, all words have their own collocational field. The most common types are: He proved that words only had compatibility to a certain tolerance. But for l2 learners this can be quite complex. An example might be in classifying a term such as applications software into an extension of the range computer hardware.
Collocations must be acquired both through direct study and large amounts of quality input. Students usually have difficulties with lexical and grammatical relationships and, undoubtedly, the most common problems they face when trying to study collocations are in the areas of recognition, understanding and production, particularly in the cases of those complex and very complex units.
Conscious processing is vital in the language learning process.
Thus, noticing is a necessary condition for storage and as Schmidt , p. For lewis , noticing collocations is a necessary but not sufficient condition for input to become intake. This is also reaffirmed by Thornbury when adds that there is no acquisition without noticing. The most useful role of the teacher in consciousness raising is to encourage noticing by providing students with strategies to use outside the classroom and familiarity with as much appropriate, quality language as possible.
Some advanced students often lack motivation due to the fact that they feel they know English grammar. They usually possess a good command of active vocabulary and do not see the necessity for acquiring more new items. According to lewis most students will in fact remain stuck on the intermediate plateau and tend to continue producing both spoken and written language containing unnatural- sounding elements. As formulaic language units can themselves be stored as automatised units in memory, learning these new items involves storing them first in our short-term memory prior to transferring to long-term memory.
Although this is not consciously controlled some important points must be taken into account. First, unlike long-term memory that can hold any amount of information, in short-term memory the retention process may not be effective if the number of constituents exceeds seven. Another point that affects storage is word frequency as the easiest items to notice and retrieve are those more frequently used.
This information facilitates the acquisition process by grouping items of vocabulary in semantic fields. Wray is in favour of the automatic repetition of these units for their acquisition and argues that the storage of these sequences is produced holistically, as if they were single units.
This process facilitates acquisition because, as was detailed above, learners do not need to analyse morphologically or syntactically such units for comprehension.
We agree with Cortina on her recommendation of three graded steps in the process of acquiring formulaic sequences: The first is related to guided activities, while the second and third are related to semi-guided and free production activities. This pedagogical approach allows learners to work independently during the first two steps, whilst the teacher can indulge the practice of oral skills.
Among consciousness raising activities, meaningful tasks, such as dictogloss, seem to be the best option for lexis acquisition. We recommend dictogloss of texts containing collocations, as it is the bridge to afford automatisation. These tasks encourage students to analyse and process language more deeply, which facilitates both the learning and retention of information in long-term memory. We suggest that there is also an inherent creative and motivational element involved. The tasks should be selected to allow the input to become intake and thus, to produce automatic retrieval.
Some recommendations to develop collocations in the classroom are given below: Handling with general and specific dictionaries and other reference tools.
Making vocabulary learning enjoyable and stimulating. Guessing the meaning of lexical items from context. Using real situations in simulations. Working in groups: Practising rhetorical functions. Noticing collocations and language patterns.
Recycling and repetition of tasks. Working with language corpuses. A variety of word association games and exercises using the diverse techniques of cloze procedure. Further hints through underlining. We have found it appropriate to maintain their original headings: Matching and definition a. Define a number of noun compounds according to the examples provided: Study these examples: Now, try to define each of these terms in the same way: Choose the correct definition for the multi-word noun compound: Optical character recognition input a.
The Lexical Approach
Basic telecommunication access method a. Cathode ray tube display unit a. Building compounds Preparation: A page or two is not enough for this exercise. Pick out noun-noun combinations where at least one item is new to you, or else their juxtaposition is.
Find six such combinations and be prepared to teach their meanings to the rest of the class. This may well mean bringing in the context in which you found them.
Teach your collocations clearly and briefly. In the next class: Then the group is asked to produce other nouns that combine well with the first noun. The result may be: Qualifying Head Head Head Head Head Head Head noun noun noun noun noun noun noun noun System chart communi- design analysis failure generation control cation language Address bus Format mapping calculation modifica- range control sorting tion register field 2.
Decoding compounds: The aim of this activity is to decompose noun compounds or to construct them from a decomposed text, understanding the relationships between their elements. The following are examples: Conclusion This paper has offered a general insight into the methodological foundations of the lexical Approach and its implications in formal teaching situations.
As recent l2 research indicates, learning collocations, apart from increasing the mental lexicon, leads to an increase in written and spoken fluency. Thus, an understanding of collocation is essential for all learners, especially for those on upper-intermediate and advanced level courses for the active improvement of oral output within and outside classroom practice. For that purpose, we have made some recommendations for classroom practice, as well as illustrations of tasks oriented to one of the most important lexical problems in EST discourse: References Aitchison, J.
Words in the mind- an introduction to the mental lexicon. Oxford an New York: Blackswell Publishers ltd. Chambers, F. System, 25 4 , Cortina, B.
Deignan, A. Centre for English Studies. Uni- versity of Birmingham. Ellis, N. Vocabulary acquisition, word structure, collocation, word-class, and mean- ing. Cambridge University Press. Firth, J. Jakobson, R. Lewis, M. Hove, England: McIntosh, A. Patterns and ranges. Language Harper and Row, New York. Miller, J. Weinert Spontaneous spoken language: Oxford Clarendom Press. Moon, R. Vocabulary connections: Teaching vocabulary to advanced students: July, Moudraia, O.
Lexical phrases and language teaching. Oxford University Press. Newmark, P. A text book of translation. Prentice Hall international. Skip to main content.
Log In Sign Up. Yin Xiaoxi. The theory of lexical chunks is popular for college English teachers to adopt in their classes. Index Terms—lexical chunks, lexical approach, college English classes I. As for the teaching approach, many have been developed, such as multiple intelligences teaching approach, comprehensive teaching approach, tentative approach, discipline-based English teaching approach, genre-based teaching approach, lexical approach, among which the lexical approach has aroused much attention to improve language learning.
Teachers in China have become more aware of lexical chunks in their English teaching for the past decades. Thus, researches on ready-made chunks of language start to prevail, which consider the chunks as important as productive rules. This study tries to explore the appropriate lexical approach applied in college English classroom to see if it is influential to improve the English learning ability of students. Besides, students are expected to raise consciousness of lexical chunks and master some learning strategies.
The notion of lexis can be traced back to Lyons who mentions unanalyzed whole acquisition and usage applied in special situations. Bolinger names them as memorized chunks, stereotypes, pre-assembled chunks, prefabricated chunks and so one, while Becker regards it as a particular multi-word phenomenon.
It can be inferred that lexis has received its recognition and became increasingly crucial in language acquisition. On the other hand, varieties of terms are used to describe the concept based on various aspects.
To further identify lexical chunks, researchers have made a variety of classifications. I would like to adopt the division from Lewis since I recognize the division fits the characteristics mentioned above. Lewis lists the following taxonomy of lexical chunks: Words and polywords: Collocate ones, or word partnerships refer to pairs or groups of words co-occur with very high frequency.
Institutionalized utterances are those chunks used as wholes with progmatic function e.
Sentence frames and heads are seen mostly in written context to show its formality and complex. It can generate specific language in semantics, pragmatics, language cognition and discourse structure, etc. These studies mainly include summarizing the general theory of lexical chunks, exploring the relationship between lexical chunks and English spoken, written, or reading proficiency, discussing the correlation between lexical chunks and grammar.
However, there are few specific clarifications of the teaching chunks and the acquisition of types of lexical chunks applied in college English classroom taking advantage of topics from the units of New Horizon College English textbook.
Lexical Approach In order to cultivate L2 learners to become more fluent and communicative in applying foreign language, language teaching approaches have been developed further to reach the teaching target Nattinger and DeCarrico support the progression of language acquisition from routine to pattern to creative use. Strong and convincing cases are given in the book of the Lexical Approach in by Michael Lewis, covering the primacy of meaning in language teaching.
The approach has aroused attention and welcomed by teachers who applaud lexico-semantic knowledge and apply lexical teaching strategies over grammatical drilling at class. It differentiates from traditional vocabulary teaching, that is, vocabulary is taught as individual words resulting in a gap between words and fixed meanings. Therefore, Lewis claims that his lexical is not simply a substitute teaching for the previous one, as language consists not of traditional grammar and vocabulary, but often of multi-word prefabricated chunks Lewis, Lewis thinks the perception of language is holistic and organic not atomistic.
Many studies are carried out in order to put the theory into practice. Some of them aim to investigate the lexical idea of learners in English learning in China so as to find accessible methods to improve English teaching.
Meanwhile, corpuses are built to help the lexical study. Pu Jianzhong makes a distinction on words usage between Chinese learners and native speakers.
Pu demands that teachers should apply lexical approach in English classroom. They point out that Chinese learners used fewer types of chunks and overused three-word chunks. The chunks used by Chinese learners can be classified into 10 categories. Chinese learners differ in the use of passive and active sentence builders from the native speakers. The above studies, either abroad or at home, introduce the basic knowledge of lexical chunks and lexical approach or practice them in sentential or textual level, which have made achievements on Chinese language learners.
However, the classroom performance of lexical approach is paid little attention. The present study hopes to practice lexical approach in College English class with the selection of units from textbook in order to help students transform the unfittable concept of College English learning and improve their English skills. At the beginning of one unit, teachers would like to present a list of new words followed by analysis and illustration so as to make students familiar with the new words and further make a good use of them.
The next step for the class is to explain the long or sophisticated sentences in texts in order to make students understand the main idea from writers. In fact, out of class students can be found anytime and anywhere taking a vocabulary booklet with them, especially in face of the coming of all sorts of tests.
It is a good phenomenon for both teachers and students to be conscious of the crucial role of vocabulary since words can be named as the foundation of a language, but problems still exist for the improper way of vocabulary acquisition.
Some of them are aware of the existence of chunks but lacking in appropriate learning strategies.
Students are eager to enlarge their vocabulary but neglect the comprehensive mastery of it Wei, So there is an urgent demand to practice chunk theories into college English classroom. Lexical Teaching Practice in College English Classes According to the theory of lexical approach, I have made corresponding teaching design in order to help students identify, organize and use lexical chunks appropriately and accurately. It is crucial to instruct clearly in front of the students the definitions, characteristics and learning strategies of lexical chunks mentioned above before the application of lexical approach in English classes.
The specific teaching steps are still developed based on the textbook of New Horizon College English. The teaching of lexical chunks lasts for fourteen weeks nearly one semester. Eight units are covered during this semester and one unit cost two weeks to instruct.
Lexical approach is implemented through the whole unit and activities are developed to raise the consciousness of students and make them more familiar with those chunks. One unit here is designed as an example. There are three stages, that is, lead-in stage, text-analysis stage and conclusion stage to present the teaching details of lexical approach.
Lead-in stage This stage can be considered as the first or introductory part of a new unit learning. In this stage, activities like video play, pictures appreciation, warm-up questions can be adopted to motivate students to give their speech practice as many as possible.
Under the help of multimedia techniques, students can quickly enter the context with visual and audio background. Attention can be aroused for students to think and memorize what they receive from video. For example, when coming to unit two, teachers first shows students a famous speech given by Al Gore, former president of the USA, who depicts the problem of environment and the solution. After the video play, students are asked to recall what words or phrases they has attained from it and teachers guides them to use lexical chunks to talk about the topic and give their own ideas afterward.
Meanwhile, the key words in the form of lexical chunks are listed on blackboard by teachers to emphasize.
The Lexical Approach
Pictures like cartoons, photos can be displayed in front of students to encourage them to express as much as possible. After the discussion, the teacher makes a conclusion during which lexical chunks are stressed again and previous mistakes are corrected. Finally, the teacher gives a conclusion to arrange the mentioned chunks into a summary and meanwhile required students to repeat. Questions relevant to the topic are first given and students are asked to think for a while with good arrangements of words and phrases to present their ideas.
Free discussions are encouraged so students could have a sense of what lexical chunks are needed.
As for some questions with difficulty, cues could be given in form of lexical chunks to students for highlighting. Text-analysis Stage Reading materials in the text book bring good opportunities for students to get knowledge of and then take advantage of those lexical chunks. When coming to the first time text reading, students first are taught to identify lexical chunks.
Polywords and collocations should be trained to identify. These are helpful marks for better comprehension. A great number of lexical chunks have one thing in common, that is, they show the regular co-occurrence of words in a specific form and order, so much so that the presence of one sets up an expectancy of the other Chitra Fernando, In addition, sentence frames help to make a distinction of writing style.
After students become aware of such lexical chunks, they are required to make good use of them. Several strategies can be applied during text-analysis. Paraphrasing is an effective method to encourage students to interpret sentences by other patterns with the same meaning so that they can reorganize sentences structure with the lexical chunks and recall other chunks they have learnt to make a substitution.
Translation job is also frequently used in text-analysis, which asks students to divide sentences into several patterns, find the corresponding Chinese patterns and reorganize them to Chinese expressions. Conclusion Stage After analyzing text in detail, the last stage is to make an end of one unit including activities such as summary, review, writing, exercises finishing. Previously students are taught to meet new lexical chunks and how to deal with them, while during this stage students are supposed to grasp how to make use of them in accuracy and fluency.
Students could be put into several teams to make a discussion if the text-retelling was beyond one student. Students could take a note as well to help them remind those chunks. The writer in the beginning pointes out problems on environment and then introduced the specific problems taken place in countries around the world. When student ends up his speech, teacher could proceed relevant questions for further discussion or students are encouraged to make a dialogue as a role-play.
What other environmental problems have you heard?
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