RAGHUVAMSA OF KALIDASA PDF
Cantos of the Raghuvamsa are generally prescribed for the higher examina- tions of Indian of Kashmir, and Kalidasa (for, names in Sanskrit are often titles. The Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa by Klidsa, , P.S. Rege edition, in Sanskrit - 1st ed. C- ^.f^. She iifjjartmcnt cf ^mIjIIc JnstruciioiT. THE RAGHUVAMS'A OF. KALIDASA , WITH. THE COMMENTARY OF MALLINATHA. lEDlTED, WITH NOTES,. BY.
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The Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa: with the commentary (the Samjivani) of Mallinatha ; Cantos I-X ; edited with a literal English translation, copious. A Sanskrit Text of Raghuvamsa by Kalidasa. Ed. Full text of "The Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa: with the commentary (the Samjivani) of Mallinatha ; Cantos I-X ; edited with a literal English translation, copious notes .
Printed at the Education Society's Press. As neither of the two MSS' varies from the other. They are as follows: I may say. Avery cori'ectaud legible MS. Coupled with this.
A chasm opened. Then in the Poet's were his sons made known Rama. The King slew him with his own to his hand. Earth appeared in glorious form. The King was hardly restrained from a vain attempt to recover her. But a celestial chariot to warning voice told him as he started that first he must root out a grievous sin which was being committed in the land.
Then Rama returned. Death himself came with a summons from the Supreme. She bewailed the desolation of her streets and palaces. But one night. But when the King left the water. Then came the grievous heats of summer. He restored the buildings. The King with all the ladies of the palace went forth to bathe in the cool water of Sarayu. Her houses were fallen into decay. There they played. He crossed Ganges. His host was like a moving city.
So the King promised to return to her. And when he departed. When duly anointed he lavished gifts on the priests and set all his captives free. Armed with his bow the King repaired to the bank. Boldly he attacked. Riches he gathered as reserve of power and fostered his army therewith.
The bracelet was restored. Truthful and generous. Fair in form. Pious to the Gods. Carefully dividing his time. Fishermen searched the river. They monarch of a Serpent-King who dwelt told the below the water.
Him did Brahmans and ministers unite to consecrate King. Then after valiant Devanika came and after him magnanimous Ahinagas — lofty-souled.
Him the council installed. But when Dhruvasandhi died his sonSudargana was but a child. Kings bowed before him. For some few years Agnivarma endured the cares of royalty but then. But his sage ministers. When Nishadha's glorious rule was ended fiery Nala reigned. Wasting his life in ignoble pursuits. Apt was he to learn. Nishada's princess. But at determined periods — Kalpas — Brahma becomes ener- getic in the forms of the three Supreme Gods of Hindu — mythology Brahma.
In our poem Vishnu is identified. To him therefore no altars rise and no worship is paid. At the end of these world-periods. The function of Brahma. All that exists proceeds from Him. Nine times has he been incarnate in — the current World-Age a period of stupendous length. But the object of each individual soul is to free itself from the chain of births within the world-age and be Brahma. In Him exists no will nor anything that to human apprehension indicates soul. In each succeeding Age the Great Sages.
Ikshvaku being himself the son of Manu. This seventh Manu has the Sun for his father. Each of the four Ages. A Manu presides throughout the whole of a Kalpa or Great Yuga. But of what happens during these minor periods of rest we know nothing.
Until the individual soul by pious meditation and abstraction frees itself from the chain of individuality. Vishnu's first four incarnations or Descents Avatars took place in the first. The chief duty of Kings and heroes is to protect the Brahmans in the performance of their sacrifices. On the other hand. When he had a son to carry on his line. In thehuman sphere the Creator placed on earth four orders of men — Brahmans.
Gods and Kings alike tremble before his curse. The three former are bound by common rites and duties. These previous births con- stitute Fate.
Throughout the poem the extraordinary supremacy of the Brahman is insisted on. But most awful consequences awaited the. It was the duty of a boy of the three upper classes to spend the years between childhood and maturity in the study of the Vedas and other sacred lore when perfect therein: Agni is god of fire. Inferior to the three Great Gods are many less mighty.
Such is Vacishtha to the whole Sun-descended Kingly line. This is how the matter is presented to us. Indra too has been the champion of the Gods against the Demons. According to one legend Vishnu is his younger brother. In the earthly life each individual in his student-stage chooses as preceptor in Sacred Lore a Brahman.
He has a hundred eyes. It may be noticed too that the expedient of adoption is not contemplated.
Among plants the lotus or water-lily takes chief place. Of terrible aspect. Their King was Ravana. When the heir comes to manhood. The special insignia of royalty are the umbrella and the yak-tail whisks or fans Chamari. There is frequent allusion also to the phosphores-. The Rakshasas are spirits of evil. Royal State is represented as his bride. A King is imaged as having wedded the Earth. The elephant is a favourite subject of comparison.
They have their wives and children about them. File is thought specially pure.. From his Law-book too are derived the ceremonies which consecrate the royal children.
That Code. The perfect King orders himself by Manu's precepts. The Law under which all are set is the Code of the first Manu. The dead are consumed on the pyre. This Code was revealed by Bhrigu. He came to earth to deliver from the Demon Arjuna. Rama with the Axe. The Dwarf — who saved the world from the tyranny of Bali. The Man-lion —when he tore to pieces the Demon Hiranyakagipu. King of the Haihayas. The Boar —when on his mighty tusk he raised up the solid earth above the waste of waters.
Approaching him at the end of a great sacrifice. The Fish —when he saved Manu and the seven Risbis in the great Deluge. The Tortoise —when in he allowed the that form gods to pivot on his back the Mountain Mandara. Arjuna's death was avenged by his sons on Jamadagni. The inclusion of the arch-heretic among the Avatars of Vishnu is a masterpiece of Brahmanical craft. Gautama the Buddha — though this is by no means undisputed.
In obedience to his father he had already own mother Renuka. In him the whole God is said to have come down. He was born in a humble home. Krishna — the most popular form of all Vishnu's earthly manifestations. But when his father. Krishna is the Divine Hero of the Mahabharata. Rama Chandra — the Rama of our poem.
This manifestation is said to have been made to restore religion to pristine purity. His worship is the most widespread of any in India at the present day. His daughter was Uma. From his slopes comes the sacred Ganga. The Svayamvara. The greatest of all sacrifices was that of the Horse — the — AQvamedha being the final one of a series of a hundred. For this final sacrifice it was necessary that the horse chosen as the victim should have been free to range.
King of birds. Mount Himalaya has a divine character. It points to a freedom of choice by the women of India which has now been curtailed or abolished.
For the ordinary daily sacrifice were needed — ist. When the Ganges was to descend to earth from heaven to purify from sin the ashes of the sons of Sagara. Sati in wrath leaped into the altar-fire and destroyed the ceremony.
With five heads. In one of his life-stages his wife was Sati. His two most famous achievements are: But Daksha slighted both by not inviting them to a great sacrifice he made. Hence Kama is called Ananga Bodiless. It wandered for a thousand years among his matted locks before its final descent to earth.
He wields the Trident and a mighty bow. So was the victim carried by Civa. While he was engaged in severe austerities on Mount Himalaya. The story is told. Their half-brother renewed the quest. It is an unending source of allusion and metaphor throughout Sanskrit poetry. Her pure waters washed the ashes of Sagara's sons.
The But King Sagara having by austerities gained by one wife one son. Then at last the Creator allowed the descent. For four generations did Sagara and his descendants practise severe austerities to bring the river down. Ganga was the daughter of Mount Himalaya. On earth it bears the name of Bhagirathi. Kakutstha was grandson of Ikshwaku. Vishnu's bird. When all was ready. The — — mighty river. The perfect sage must have his senses completely subdued. Hence Vindhya's inferior height.
Asceticism is in itself meritorious. The Dragon Rahu managed to steal some drops. It will be found that the strife between the gods and their enemies. But the true theory given in xiv. Vishnu himself as the Tortoise for the pivot. Dhan- vantari. Then were produced Surabhi. When Mount Vindhya aspired to eclipse Himalaya in height. Vishnu's precious jewel. The churning was done with Mount Mandara for the churning-stick.
The Churning of Ocean was undertaken by the gods by Vishnu's command. Nymphs of exquisite loveliness. In connection with the supreme power and authority of the Brahmans. Professor Macdonnell. Dowson's Dictionary of Hindu Mythology is also very useful. Great Ascetic. The great source. Williams's Indian Wisdom. For a handy and accurate account of the mythology. So the great Gods are described as engaging in and one of Vishnu's titles is the it.
Scholars are. The following table will sufficiently explain any peculi- arities: Dots below consonants are significant to the scholar.. Y is always a consonant. Ch is pronounced as in choose. I seek a poet's fame. A dwarf who stretches tiny arms to grasp lo Fruit hung well-nigh beyond a giant's reach.
Who till they won success worked on. The parents of all worlds. The Lord Supreme and Parvati I praise. A thread may go. So Raghu's line I sing. The altar-fire they tended. How else could I. Yet Bards of old have entered. May wise men hear for in their judgment Hes!
His vigorous mind Matched with his beauty. In that unspotted line Dilipa purer sprang. Not gain. As in the Milky Ocean Soma rose. First King was Manu. Their children studied. He held the path That Manu traced. And both alternate mildly ruled the Worlds. By sense unshackled. And for protection looked his folk to him Their parents gave life only. He drew from Earth her wealth for Sacrifice. Save to guard the realm. Kept righteous ways. By duty curbed he pleasure.
Opposed virtues seemed in him twin-born. His armed host Was escort only for the King. For nurture. No tax was taken: As Indra doth for corn. Mankind Knew his deep purpose when it came to fruit. Not sooner: So here we reap the fruit of former lives! Fearless himself he guarded. So the King Repressed the sinful. Mighty yet patient. He reigned o'er Earth. For theft. A worthy foe he honoured. The Kingdom's weight now casting off.
As Daksha pure. Yet the noble pair Were still unblessed with offspring. Sudakshina his Queen. Him the Creator formed of choicest seed. As in the rains one cloud Airavata And lightning mount. That shook the forest, bearing fragrant dust Of flowers, followed: Amazed the deer looked up, and left the path As on the chariot rolled ; their love-filled eyes. Were on them bent, — that pair so like themselves. Anon they watched the cranes, that overhead Flew tuneful, arching o'er the gate df Heav'n, Unpillar'd, while the favouring breeze foretold.
Success, and kept unsoiled both robes and hair. Priests, from wayside villages. Butter of kine received they, herdsmen grey With kindly greeting questioned, asking them The names of shady trees that lined the roads. Untold their glory, pure their hearts and robes. As through the sky speed Chitra and the Moon They sped delighted, while the smiling King This pointed out and that, — nor knew the way Was ending, ere they reached the Sage's grove. He checked the horses, handed forth his Queen, And nobly courteous led her to their Host.
Met by the Sacred Fire, unseen ; the deer Thronged round the huts, and ate the allotted rice. Unfearing drank ; then couched the timid roes Where rice was heaped at eve, and chewed the cud. Wind-shaken now the rising altar-smoke. With butter fed, made pure the attentive guests Around the Hermitage.
That noble pair,.
Alighting meekly, sought the Ascetic's home. Then hailed the Saintly tribe their pious Lord With worthy honour, grave in self-control. Arundhati was seated: The Royal pair saluting clasped their feet, And lovingly with blessings were received.
Then, after rest and food, the glorious Saint Asked of the Ascetic King how fared his realm,. Whom thou protectest neither Gods nor men Can harm: Deep-rooted, flawless, is my prosp'rous state, For thou art ever watching, Brahma's child! My Queen, thy daughter, bowed with sorrow, long, And vainly long, for offspring ; and the Earth, Sea-girdled, rich in gems, delights me not.
The Fathers of my race, whom funeral cakes Delight, foresee a failing of the rite. And mourn my fate, the while with tears they foul Drink-offerings poured by me, their sonless son. Thus pure by sacrifice, my eyes are dim For longing, childless, — as the mountain-peak May Heav'n be won, but sons of noble line Are blessings here and yonder, O my Guide Does not my childless state distress thy heart.
Three debts men owe: Torments me, as a shackle binds and pains The lordly elephant: Oh, help me then, Father, Protector, Stay of Manu's line! And teach me how at length to pay this debt! Like lake that slumbers, having heard the King. To pious thought the hindrance stood revealed, And thus the mighty Saint made grave reply:. By Parijata passing, where the Cow Surabhi rested in the grateful shade, To her by thee due reverence was not paid.
As fearing to neglect thy loving Queen. Then was the curse of childlessness pronounced. Till by submission thou shouldst purge thy sin!
But Ganga roared, where heavenly monsters plunged. And so her curse was all unheard by thee. Scorn of the worthy works the scorner woe. Now in Patala, where the gates are barred By mighty snakes, she helps a royal rite For bless'd Prachetas. Therefore, O my King, With due observance tend her holy Calf, Pure-living, with thy Queen, that so, well-pleased, " She may bestow the priceless boon ye seek! Even as he spake, came Nandini, the Cow- That gave the oblation, faultless, from the wood, In tender, tawny lustre, like a leaf All fresh, with arching eyebrow of white hair.
Like crescent on night's brows: Then said the Saint, who knew Fate's course, and knew The King should prosper: Attend her ever as she roams the woods, As Study follows Knowledge: She drinking, drink: So shall her grace. By constancy be won, and thou shalt stand, Then the grateful King Bowed docile, with his Queen, and both retired. And true, dismissed to sleep the pious King, For whom success was dawning ; well he could. Bestow the boon, but knew that grace divine Is hard to win, nor won save after toil.
He gave him but a rustic hut, and there The Queen reposed, where fragrant grass was spread, — As pious Learning follows Holy Texts. That royal Herdsman sent his guards away. Then turned they to the forest. When she stood. Nor checked her wayward steps. And cheerful. Next the gracious Queen With wreaths and perfumes honoured Nandini.
With freshest grass He fed his charge. He sat by patient when she drank. Oceans four Her udders: The careful Monarch bade his spouse return. When morning broke. On rustling reeds. Yama's peer. Had cleansed both Earth and Sky: Who strode along unguarded.
Unhelped by outward show. The woodland maze Soon as he entered forest-fires were quenched. The wild beasts fled. Lord of the herd. The Forest-gods He heard. His hair in woodland wreath Was bound. Climbing vines. More rich bloomed fruit and flower. Unfearing watched the deer that Archer mild. Whose face revealed a tender heart. Nigh fainting from the heat. At eventide They took the homeward path: Nandini Like twilight glowed.
Majestic paced the Cow. All open-eyed as thirsting. Whose udders swept the ground. The noble King. Thus the Cow He followed. So thrice seven days went by.
Who thought. King and Queen Set lamps and flowers about her. King and Queen were glad. By righteous souls revered. While Nandini was sleeping. Once pleased. Till with the dawn she rose. While mused the King on Gauri's Father's might. Thereafter one fair day the Cow. At once. A lion sprang and roughly seized the Cow.
He seemed a statue. And thought. Thus stayed from action. Like snake subdued by spells and drugs. The astounded King. Aroused him. But lo! In human voice. To strike unable though the foe was nigh. To him the attainment of two out of the three objects art.
It was also here that Buddhism first took its origin. An onomatopoeia. The etymology given by the later grammarians. Magadha was once the seat of several most celebrated dynasties of ancient Indian Kings. Brahmadeva is worshipped by those that are desirous of progeny. T ' that and that. Hhis thing and that thing.
A Tatpurusha compound. The real origin seems. The word would thus mean. This being his meaning. Cf HTtf. Canto I.. But were it not for this technical necessity of grammar for thus dissolving the com- pound.
Raghuvamsa Of Kalidasa
Even our commentator sees the desirability of talcing the compound to be a BahuvHhi one. Whatever might he the original meaning of the word. The loss of its etymology has made it one of several mystical exclama- tions connected with the Brahmanical sacrifices.
Observe the appropriateness of the simile. The more frequent signification of the root met with in classical Sanskrit.
The word lit. I am both shining and dark. In the present instance. The kings of the solar race are celebrated for their having repeatedly gone to the assistance of Indra. On this sacrifice see Asvalayana Siitra. In most cases RftcT refers to the closing or concealing of such things as the mouth of a pit or of a hole.
The length of time required for a Sattra varies be- tween one year and a thousand years. Canto II. If a Smriti has a precept which finds no authority in the Veda. Referring to the doctrine that the Smritis contain such injunctions only as the. Literally the phrase means. S'rutis originally laid down. We shall meet with many more instances of this kind of simile further on. On the two words. It is not very easy to see what th-e appropriateness of the simile is here.
The reader will easily mark a play on the word q'q":. Notwithstanding the proverbial appropriateness of our poet's similes. CANtO On the simile sec note on ii. Canto IT. As at present understood.
All that the poet meant seems to have been. I think. Petersburg Diet. This explanation is. Whatever may have been the original. Therefore in the present case too '3T3JfT[: The poet appears to liken the severe splendour of the king to the brightness of the day.
ST See note on i. It would appear to be used merely for the sake of metre. Referring to the common belief that it is by virtue of the incantations and the using of the root of certain plants. The epithet means simply 'a friend of the good. The secret. It is not certain whether this Nikumbha is the son of Kumbhakarna or one of the class of celestial beings to which Kumbhodara himself belongs.
Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa 1886
It is quite a fact. The enemy of the Gods nf or the eclipse of the moon also gets his meal-after-fast at long intervals. Some commentators take the first pada to be a question. It does not. The poet's language would have been more apparent..
The proper part of b'iva is only the last of the three here mentioned. A very un- usual. This attribute is here given to S'iva in imitation of the usual way in which a worshipper praises his own particular deity. Because there was no equal of Dilipa. The meaning is that when the lion opened his mouth to smile.
The explanation of our commen- tator. Vallabha's reading is? It is. See the Commentary. But as what the poet wishes to say refers chiefly to the wrath JT'jO of the king's preceptor. Canto II.. We may dissolve the compound thus: See note on IL This way of replacing condensed epithets hy means of paraphrastic circumlocutions is but too common in the Kavyas and other elabo- rate writings in Sanskrit.
But when things of actual existence and of established whiteness like milk. That renown or good fame should be conceived to be as white.. Thus the whole derivation may be put in the following pscudo-logi-. Now according to a very common principle that has had such a prominent influen.
But Dinakara explains the epithet thus: This word is frequently found in the Rigvedn. See also Wilson's Vishnu Purana. Now because Soma.. Canto IL notes. Fire is said to be latent in the S-'amt. See Wilson's Vishnu Purana. Canto III. Kalidasa in several places refers to the earthly fragrance issuing up from a dry ground on the first shower after the end of the hot season.
The modern Sarsuti or Caggar near Tanas- sar. Uttarakos'ala or North Kos'ala was the name of the country now forming the northern part of Oude. The Sarasvati which loses itself in the Sandy Desert is sup- posed by the poets to flow under the surface of the earth and join ultimately the ocean. These being signs that are exhibit- ed only when a benefactor of the world is born.
It is quite possible that this should arise from a later generation misunderstand- ing the language of their ancestors. So also.
The seven planets x H. This means that she had grown so cleHcate that her hands felt as too fatiguing an exertion even their joining together to bid salutation to the king. T means inone's p'-esence. Ho sliall then wash clean the bit of gold and putting it on the right ear of t!
Putting again the i iece of gold on the left ear of the baby he shall. The following is an abridgment of it. He then shall perform a s'raddha to the nine ancestors.
Then having sipped water.
He shall then mix a little honey and clarified butter together. Canto -III. The moment the birth of a son is announced the father shall see his face. And having returned to the sacrifice. On the custom of liberating prisoners when a son and heir to the throne is born. The commentator's etymology. Poets are no better etymologists in India than they were at Rome. Then with cold-water. See Narayana Bhatta's Frayoga Ratna. He shall then lightly touch with the span of his right hand both the shoulders of the baby at the same moment..
From STHT. See below vi.
The poet seems to have had in his mind the growth of a bamboo. Canto lil. Act 1. STTFT c and means originally ' a companion at home. See com- nientary.
See below iii. Indra is always represented as being very jealous of the success of any mortal in the acquisition of religious merit.. The twenty. So the youpg prince. Canto III.. Subjective Genitive. See below note on vi. As is very common with grammarians of all countries to father the orphans of a forgotten and lost word or root upon a living one of a similar import.
Indra's nick-name? The poet includes Indra among the upholders of the Vedic rites in conformity with the dogma that the Vedas are eternal and consequently older than Indra. Dinakara also adds: See the above note. He is frequently identified with Vishnu himself.
A golden arrow shot at an enemy by an angry foe is a strange idea. Kuraara iii. Dinakara fg: Canto IH.
Kapila was a famous Rishi of ancient times. For the story of Kapila stealing the horse and burning the sons of Sagara. See also the Commentary. He is the sage to whom the Sunkhya system of Philosophy is attributed. This word appears to be used in the present passage in the sense of ' gods ' generally.
See Wilson's V. The Siddhas are properly certain beings. Indra is so often praised by the poets of the hymns of the Rigveda. See above. Vallabha has the follow- ing: He suddenly disappeared and became as hidden from the mor- tal sight. This passage illus- trates how. One of our MS3. The poet does not mean that there was anything in the appearance of Raghu. Canto IV.
The Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa ( edition) | Open Library
Dinakara adds: The whole myth is given by SAyanacharya in his Commentary on Rigveda. Vallabha observes. Agastya is a celebrated Vedic Rishi. The star Canopus being afterwards identified with Agastya.
As part of the semen fell into a pitcher. The time of the rising of the Canopus falls between the latter half of S'ravana and the first half of Bhadrapada. Agastya was produced in it at once. The Utkalas were the people of Orissa. They are described as having sprung from Kalinga. The country of the Suhmas would seem to correspond to the modern Tiperah and Aracau. The Kalingas were a people of the Coromandel coast.
It is conjectured that it maybe identical with the Snvarnarekha. See Ramayana i. Yallablia explains g: One at Columbia Univ. Later, Digital Library of India has uploaded the tiff files of this work and it is available with their Bangalore server.
Another work of surfaced recently. This is the poetic work of P. De Lacy Johnston, M. The Story of Raghu's Line by Kalidasa; Published by Adine House, London, ; whereever possible the foots from this poem are posted after verses in this work. This book too is out of print and we are hanging around a much dilapitated copy of it. And though the way of Joglekar's translation, words used etc.
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