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UNDERSTANDING ARCHITECTURE THROUGH DRAWING PDF

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UNDERSTANDING ARCHITECTURE THROUGH DRAWING BRIAN EDWARDS Taylor & Francis, Abingdon, Oxon, England and New York, NY, USA, Read Online Understanding Architecture Through Drawing pdf The guide Understanding Architecture Through Drawing is not only giving you far more. UNDERSTANDING ARCHITECTURE THROUGH DRAWING BY BRIAN EDWARDS. ROSALIND ORMISTON. Independent art historian.


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The 15 Invaluable Laws Of Growth by John Maxwell Instructor Notes average person? We are a product Thinking For A Chang. By combining design theory with practical lessons in drawing, Understanding Architecture Through. Drawing encourages the use of the sketchbook as a creative. Understanding Architecture Through Drawing by Brian Edwards is an introduction to design and graphic techniques that will help the designer increase his or.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Rosalind Ormiston. Brian Edwards is an architect, teacher and writer, a town planner and author of over sixteen publications. The original publication, and the second edition, is primarily aimed at the architectural student. It is written to encourage improvement in drawing skills, and to explore design and graphic techniques.

Details if other: Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. This second edition is fully revised and updated and includes new chapters on sustainability, history and archaeology, designing through drawing and drawing in architectural practice. The book introduces design and graphic techniques aimed to help designers increase their understanding of buildings and places through drawing.

For many, the camera has replaced the sketchboo This second edition is fully revised and updated and includes new chapters on sustainability, history and archaeology, designing through drawing and drawing in architectural practice. For many, the camera has replaced the sketchbook, but here the author argues that freehand drawing as a means of analyzing and understanding buildings develops visual sensitivity and awareness of design. By combining design theory with practical lessons in drawing, Understanding Architecture Through Drawing encourages the use of the sketchbook as a creative and critical tool.

The book is highly illustrated and is an essential manual on freehand drawing techniques for students of architecture, landscape architecture, town and country planning and urban design. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. More Details Original Title. Other Editions Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Understanding Architecture Through Drawing , please sign up.

Be the first to ask a question about Understanding Architecture Through Drawing. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. Sort order. Jul 29, irfan rated it liked it. An interesting look at how architecture and drawing are interetwined. Related Information. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password?

Old Password. New Password. Your password has been changed. Returning user. Request Username Can't sign in? In this way the designer may 'persuade' a planning committee or amenity society to accept the proposals. Designers have long realised that they can enhance the appearance of their proposals by using shadows based upon an abstract and decidedly flexible view of reality.

In many ways the artist drawing a street scene or building can adopt this device and in the process make a dull northern scene look quite lively.

Even if the sun is not shining, the assumption is that it can enhance a subject and make its visual qualities more accessible to you as artist, and to those who look at your sketch. Choosing the position to draw from is also largely an aesthetic matter.

The relationship between the parts of a sketch is important and you should seek to achieve a measure of harmony or balance in the drawing. The elements to consider are those features in shadow and those picked out by the sun, those that can be rendered in line as against tone, and the parts in elevation as against perspective. All these factors dictate where you choose to sit, what time of day you select to draw, and what materials you employ. Taking time to consider these elements saves you from frustrations later when the drawing does not work out in spite of all your efforts.

The sketch is really a piece of design, and hence a great deal of thought and planning is required. It is unusual to find that you can race into a drawing and be pleased with the results, or feel you have learnt from the experience.

Sketching should be both enjoyable and educational; and both may be helped by a little contemplative peace. As such you are likely to be happier in a quiet leafy courtyard than a busy high street, and in the side chapel of a cathedral as against the nave.

Search out quiet corners and try to have a wall behind you if strangers looking over your shoulder make you feel uneasy. One other tip about selecting your spot for sketching: Both Figures 3. Choosing the subject 35 Chapter 4 Perspective An understanding of perspective is essential in order to gain a full appreciation of the aesthetic quality of towns, and is necessary in order to be able to draw them well. Many cities, especially those based upon classical principles of town planning, exploit perspective in their arrangement of streets and squares, and if you do not understand the principles of perspective you can hardly be expected to draw them adequately.

Likewise, many building interiors are so arranged that a grasp of perspective is essential not only if you are going to attempt to sketch them, but in order to understand their spatial qualities. Designers are able to visualise the volumetric arrangement of their buildings simply by conceiving them in terms of true perspective.

Sir Christopher Wren was one of the first architects to admit that an understanding of perspective was vital for the design of a building. Perspective allows the architect or designer to anticipate the relationship of the parts of the design without making a model or drawing a line.

As we see towns in terms of the routes and streets we take, and buildings in terms of room and corridors, a grasp of linear perspective is a fundamental starting point for spatial comprehension. The discovery of true perspective was one of the high points of Renaissance art.

A handful of artists working in Florence in the fifteenth century stumbled upon the rules of perspective, and quickly exploited it in their paintings. Soon afterwards it was adopted by architects, who arranged their buildings and squares with mathematical precision.

The resulting environment seems almost to have the expression of perspective as the central point of the design. Proportional harmony and repeating bay sizes lent themselves to presentation through perspective either in the form of paintings or architectural sketches. Later, in the Baroque period, town planning exploited perspective by creating long vistas of streets or tree-lined avenues ending almost at infinity or terminating with a public building.

Without the discovery of geometrically correct perspective, grand designs such as Versailles or the Nash terraces in London would have been unthinkable. To draw such towns one must understand per- spective, but sketching in the street does not require the production of drawing-board perspectives based upon rotating picture planes and mathematical precision.

In fact, these elaborate perspective drawings can become so complicated that they discourage you from drawing on location at all. It is a case of the science of perspective becoming an obstacle to learning the simple principles of perspective. The garden walk is terminated at one end by a gateway and at the other by a formal flowerbed.

Notice how windows in the distance are rendered as mere vertical lines, and the use of hatching focuses the eye on the critical parts of the design. Perspective 39 4. Notice how unnecessary detail has been left out to allow the observer to focus upon the buildings. Indeed, for most subjects it is only necessary to understand the basic rules of perspective - that parallel lines focus upon vanishing points, which are spaced along your eye level.

This simple principle applies irrespective of the angles of the object in plan or changes in the level of the ground.

Of course, if there are slopes or ramps to draw, these are not level and hence have their own vanishing point above or below those for horizontal lines, depending upon whether the slope or ramp is angled up or down. Single-point perspective is the easiest to employ in the field and the most useful for townscape and landscape drawing. It focuses attention upon the space rather than the object, and for this reason is a great aid when drawing squares, streets and interiors.

The buildings or walls at right angles to the observer are simply elevations drawn without angle to left or right. Single-point perspective suits the sketching of towns laid out on axial planning principles, or interiors with parallel corridors and plenty of right-angled spaces.

Hence it is very useful for drawing classical compositions, whether in terms of buildings or whole towns. Since the streets are normally straight and often have terminating features at the vanishing point, perspective allows the artist to quickly construct the parameters of the drawing.

Two-point perspective tends to concentrate the eye upon objects rather than on the space between them. Both vanishing points must be on the eye level and are usually so widely spaced that they are off the sheet they are drawn on. There are no parallel horizontal lines with 40 Understanding architecture through drawing 4.

Here in Blythswood Sguare in central Glasgow the composition retains its original arrangement. The left- and right- hand vanishing points are off the page. Perspective 41 two-point perspective unlike single-point and hence the artist has to concentrate a little harder on the drawing. A drawing with a landscape layout i.

With complex towns or groups of buildings, several vanishing points have to be constructed, at least in one's mind's eye, because the differently angled buildings will all require their own vanishing point.

Since constructing the vanishing points is time consuming, it is better to visualise where they are and check the angles in the field by using your pen or pencil as a guide. By holding the pen at the angle of the wall or roof and bringing it down to the paper via an arc rotated about your elbow, you should be able to check the logic of lines in perspective against how they appear in reality. Although perspective deals primarily in angled lines, it is useful to remember that the weight of line, darkness of shadow and strength of colour also convey the appearance of distance.

As a rule, objects in the fore- ground should have the thickest lines, the darkest shadow and the brightest colour, while those in the distance should have the reverse - that is, faint lines, soft shadows and subdued colour.

Attention to such detail not 4. The telegraph lines also help with handling the sense of distance and chang of direction at the top of the steps. The drawing is of Andraixt in Majorca.

Perspective 43 4. Notice how shade provides an essential three-dimensionality. The subject is central Birmingham as drawn by Francis Tibbalds.

Francis Tibbalds only gives the townscape sketch a certain subtlety, but helps reinforce the sense of perspective established by the angled lines. There are some further useful tips to add to the lessons of perspective drawing.

One concerns windows: Likewise, if the detail of, say, paving is shown in the foreground, it is quite unnecessary to attempt to show it in the background, and a mere hint will be enough in the middle ground. If you are going to depart from full scientific per- spective drawing with its complicated rotating picture planes not only cumbersome to put into practice, but unrealistic in the field , then you will have to use your eye to fix the depth of elements within the picture.

The well-trained eye will in time prove as reliable as is necessary but you can assist it by using a pencil to establish the angle or proportion of height to width in perspective.

By holding the pencil and using the thumb as a sliding measure you should achieve accuracy to within 10 per cent, which is good enough for location sketching. However, once you have est- ablished the bay width or the depth of the building and are happy with it visually your measurements should always be checked against how it looks , then you will discover that the angle of the diagonal will remain constant.

This will allow you to tackle complex subjects such as street arcades or the column spacings in the aisle of a church.

By striking both diagonals lightly in pencil or just fixing them in one's mind , the centre is quickly obtained and hence other information such as the spacing of windows or location of a door can be added, knowing that the basic layout is correct. The choice of eye level is important in perspective drawing. If you are interested, say, in the skyline of a tall building, then it pays to take as low an eye level as possible and render the silhouette of the top dark against a light sky.

This is how the perspective artists of the s presented their brash new skyscraper designs. Alternatively, if you wish to look 'into' the subject, try to use a high eye level so that you can delve down into the streets and spaces and show how they relate to each other from this angle.

When portraying a very tall building or lofty interior from a viewpoint where you are gazing upwards, remember that there is a vertical vanishing point pulling the lines together high over your head. An understanding of perspective is a great aid to those intent upon drawing architecture and towns.

However, try not to allow the rules to dictate your every move, for spontaneity and flair can be driven away by too slavishly following the academic conventions of perspective. Some recent graphic artists such as Paul Hogarth have deliberately broken such rules in order to arrest the eye and encourage it to dwell upon the subject longer. They have developed a system of superimposing objects in space, which accords, to some extent, with Oriental concepts of perspective. However, be aware that if you break the rules of perspective a naivety creeps in that may undermine the overall appearance of the finished sketch, no matter how finely the details are rendered.

Perspective 45 Chapter 5 Line and shade Sketching the outline of objects can lead to rather featureless and abstract drawing. Although one may recognise the shape of a house, its value to us as an object is determined by issues of form, texture and arrangement.

These qualities are best represented not by line alone, but through line and shade. Shade gives a sense of three-dimensional reality to two-dimensional shapes. The convention is simple: Your simple outline will then become alive with form, structure and surface richness. The more the building or object is modelled in plan or section, the greater will be the complexity of shade and shadows.

This convention becomes a reality when you draw on sunny days mornings or afternoons are the best times to take advantage of angled light , but you can invent a source of strong light if it is not present. This will make the dullest power station or comprehensive school suddenly dance off the page. Here a sketch plan is used to supplement the drawn view of Aylsham Church in Norfolk. In each case the formal composition is enhanced by shading.

Notice how the columns impose an enormous scale on the space, and how cafes enliven the perimeter of the town square. Here a distinction is made graphically between object buildings and the background architecture of the city. Many eighteenth- or nineteenth-century buildings employ cornices, string courses and window margins in order to create panels of walls and frames to highlight key architectural elements.

The presence of these features can be emphasised in the sketch by exaggerating the play of light and shade on the fagade.

Similarly, modern buildings with their exposed structure and service runs also benefit from the use of this graphic technique. When drawing urban space or landscape design, shade and shadows create a necessary sense of substance to things such as dwarf walls, hedges, trees and sculpture. By placing elements in front of each other, shadows can be cast from one object on to another.

The layering of objects in the picture not only enlivens the composition, but adds spatial complexity to the subject.

Elements placed in front of a building such as lamp-posts, telephone boxes or trees give a sense of depth to the sketch and allow shadows to pass along the horizontal surfaces and up the vertical ones. By such means the distances in plan between object and observer can be expressed and exploited graphically. The function of shadows is, therefore, to make you aware of the depth within the view: The rendition of shadows follows similar conventions to those of perspective.

As a rule, darker shade and stronger shadows should be in the foreground of the sketch, becoming progressively lighter as they move into the distance. This has the effect of reinforcing the illusion of perspective. Line and shade 49 Chapter 6 Composition 6.

This fine drawing dated by Francis Tibbalds has layers of interest which help inform the subject. Francis Tibbalds An appreciation of composition is particularly important when drawing buildings and cities. The abstract nature of architecture means that sketches have to be well composed, otherwise the finished drawing may lack appeal, or fail to communicate the qualities that attracted you to the subject in the first place.

Generally speaking, the subject of the drawing should occupy the middle third of the sheet, not centrally placed, but perhaps positioned on the basis of the golden section. The proportional harmony of the golden section can enhance the drawing and give the subject a feeling of repose on the sheet.

The subject can, of course, be in the foreground, middle ground or distance. It often helps, however, if the main object of the sketch is in the middle ground with foreground detail such as paving and background silhouette used to establish layers in the drawing.

Edwards Brian. Understanding Architecture Through Drawing

Since buildings are made of materials of known size bricks, blocks of stone, curtain walling, etc. By considering the position of elements in the drawing it is often possible to create interesting arrangements that take advantage of the relative scale of the different building materials. Moreover, as we are all familiar with the dimensions of a standard brick, the use of patterns of brick courses quickly establishes a sense of scale within the sketch. Often it is possible to fill an area of the drawing with brickwork or tiling, and this can provide a texture to set against more detailed line work of, say, a Georgian window or doorcase.

The justaposition of line, shadow and texture can make an attractive drawing, and it is worth taking time before starting the sketch to find a good combination of these elements. A little licence may also be permitted in rearranging the parts or extending or exaggerating the area of brickwork in order to produce a more satisfactory final drawing.

Remember that good composition may also have been the architect's or town planner's objective, and that your sketch is simply bringing out elements of the town scene that already exist, though perhaps looking slightly different in reality. A good sketch should have layers of information and meaning. By setting elements into the foreground, especially those that give local character, you can convey the atmosphere of a street or urban area.

Such details as post boxes, seats or advertising signs can be placed in the foreground, and this not only improves the composition of the sketch but can also give it extra complexity and richness. Remember, too, that knowing what to leave out is also important.

Unlike the literal documentation of the 50 Understanding architecture through drawing Composition 51 6. The use of shade and shadow helps enhance the appearance of three dimensions, thereby better expressing the main architectural components.

Unnecessary detail has been left out. Building designers play with various ingredients to produce a satisfactory piece of architecture. They have proportion, colour, outline, texture, harmony, shadow and framing at their disposal. Likewise, artists should seek out these qualities within the object or subject they are tackling, and exploit them in the drawing. After all, there is no better way of getting to know a subject than drawing it, and no better way of remembering what it is really like beneath the surface appearance.

Some modern buildings are highly abstract in appearance and often rather minimal in detail. These buildings derive from the legacy of the International Style, which began in the s and put machine production and functional logic before craftmanship or individual human needs.

Such buildings require a different approach to being rendered through architectural drawing than do more traditional townscapes. Here you will find a ruler useful and perhaps a circle template, and the use of dark shade and dramatic highlighting may also be helpful.

Similarly, small areas of bright colour may enliven the drawing, and give a dull building a focus of interest. Whatever drawing technique is employed, it is important to think hard about composition before starting to draw, and to try to enter into the spirit of the period of the subject before putting pencil to paper.

An abstract modernist building may well suit a cool, almost cerebral, style of drawing. On the other hand, a Brutalist building of 52 Understanding architecture through drawing 6.

Maria della Pace in Rome leaves much detail out in order to express the framing of the doorway and the clash between curved and straight lines.

Composition 53 6. Placing the bollard in the foreground adds to the layers of interest, which reinforce the nautical theme of the sketch. Architecture of whatever period has always attracted the artist, and modern buildings are no exception. It is useful to try to relate the compositional arrange- ment of the sketch to the theme of the subject. Should you be drawing a city church faced by a square, then both church and square should feature in the sketch since both are probably there in support of each other.

In Europe most cathedrals and many town churches are fronted at their west end by a square, and it would be foolish to draw the church without at least hinting at the presence of the square.

Consequently, your composition should provide space for both, perhaps with church and square linked by single-point perspective. As the square will probably be paved over and perhaps edged with clipped hedges or statues, the artist has elements around which to build up an attractive and well- constructed picture.

The relative positioning of the different elements, the weight of line and tonal value of each, are all important considerations and should be planned in advance of starting to draw.

There is nothing worse than spending a great deal of time carefully drawing an ornate Baroque church to find that you have not captured the spirit of the place through not considering the composition of the picture with due care.

Understanding Architecture Through Drawing

Remember that a degree of abstraction or restraint is important - you cannot draw 54 Understanding architecture through drawing 6. Here railings and a fire hydrant add foreground interest and give the sketch a complexity which a study of building fagades alone would lack.

The nature of American urban design was the starting point forthis descriptive drawing. Composition 55 6. This should prevent you from over-working the subject and ending up producing what amounts to a second-rate photograph.

Since the most prominent features of a building are those that form a frame doors, windows, trusses, gateways , you should incorporate these into your picture. As we move through a building, we have an impression of prospects opening out of bigger rooms viewed through narrow spaces.

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The transition between rooms is often marked by a doorway that is deliberately framed. Since we experience architecture by passing through these framing elements, they are very much part of the scene and therefore cannot be ignored. Indeed, successful sketches frequently tantalise the observer with a glimpse of a distant, and sometimes mysterious, world through such 'frames' - the view through the solid gateway of a medieval town being a good example.

As with all great buildings or fine cities and landscapes, there needs to be an element of complexity and richness in the freehand drawing. Such complexity can be set against the plainness of unadorned surfaces to heighten the drama of the sketch.

Alternatively, any repeated surface decoration can establish a rhythm or beat as in music. Searching out such compositions can result in well-informed drawing that not only sustains our attention but also teaches us something about the nature of the place. As mentioned already, the positioning on the page of the main subject of the sketch is important.

A sketch can 56 Understanding architecture through drawing Settee HiW- tjfow! Notice how the section to the right provides a perfect balance to the fagade study on the left.

Nick Hirst Composition 57 be either landscape horizontal or portrait vertical in layout, depending upon whether a panorama or, for instance, a street scene is preferred. Panoramas of cities can be dull affairs - just a collection of roofs and towers - though vertical elements such as columnar cypress trees, factory chimneys or masts can be used to offset the stretching horizontality of the subject.

Likewise, street scenes may require some horizontality or shallow-angled lines to counter the tendency towards the vertical.

In both cases you should search out shapes and lines to balance the dominant 'direction' of subject or layout. To return to the subject of the town church; if you wish to draw the square in any detail then it is necessary to place the church towards the top of the sheet. This will allow you to pull the lines of the square and its paving towards you, thereby giving the impression that you are looking both 'into' the space and 'at' the church.

This type of drawing establishes a dialogue between object and space, and allows you to consider how the square is used and decorated. Often a good sketch consists of leaving large areas of the sheet relatively unrendered. A mere hint of lines is usually sufficient and the openness of approach on one part of the page can enhance the level of detail elsewhere. A common mistake is to draw to the same level of intensity right across the sheet, thereby removing the opportunity for tensional conflicts.

Since traditional architecture plays on such tensions for example, the contrast between a decorated entrance doorway and a plain area of wall and modern architecture often ignores them, a perceptive drawing should seek to exploit these differences. Try, if you can, to compose your drawing around powerful lines of force within the sketch. These may be the vertical ribs of an office block, the diagonal grid of a steel-framed bridge, or the flowing lines of forestry planting.

The structure of a drawing should consist of these dominating linear forces being mediated by secondary lines or areas of shadow. If possible, seek a balance between the primary and secondary elements, or at least soften the harsh linearity of most architectural subjects by drawing in surface pattern or texture.

The inclusion of such elements as people, cars or vegetation helps to counteract the rectangular or linear forms of buildings. The degree to which these secondary elements soften the sharp outlines of architecture depends upon the subject and the effect sought. You may wish to add complexity and contradiction to the subject, or simply accept the realities of a highly engineered environment.

The play between horizontal and vertical lines, and between hard and soft elements, can be developed into triangular groupings on the sheet. By having three points of interest the picture is more easily composed. Instead of, say, the unresolved dominance of the towering lines of a skyscraper, the drawing will have a repose, which may suit certain subjects.

Triangular framing does require rather more than a simple sketch; the artist is now moving towards a more detailed drawing, perhaps as a prelude to easel painting. As so much urban drawing deals with the fagades of buildings, the artist should try to add interest to the drawing by giving the observer a sense of looking both into the spaces of the city and at its buildings.

The effect can be achieved by pulling the lines of a street or square towards the observer, thereby creating space that is 'entered into'.

The tension that results from the city as 'elevation' and the street as 'stage' can lead to a sketch rich in ideas about the nature of urban design. The patterns in this Tuscan landscape are all man-made and could be turned to architectural effect. It is only through frequent practice and by following sound principles that the facility to draw without hesitation or uncertainty can be attained.

The fluid, confident lines of an accomplished draughtsman are achieved as the result of much practice. This book does not pretend to teach drawing, only to encourage its use as part of the design process.

Like the acquisition of all skills, training and self-discipline are as important as the possession of natural talent. Practice does not require that you spend your time entirely on location drawing. The home and the design studio or workshop provide ample opportunity to develop eye-to-hand co-ordination or to test the rules of perspective drawing.

By looking at the outline of the subject and infilling part or all of the detail - whether it be a drawing of a chair or cup and saucer - you will quickly develop the basic skills necessary for sketching in the street. The importance of spontaneous, relaxed drawing cannot be overemphasised. While you might be concentrating on organising the angled lines of a scene into a sound perspective framework, the fact that you are sketching at all is of the greatest importance.

Unlike the first notes on a piano or trumpet, the artist's scribbles are largely a private affair and should not disturb the 60 Understanding architecture through drawing household. It is remarkable how quickly most people graduate from producing primitive, inhibited sketches to lifelike representations.

It is important that you approach drawing from both ends - from the personal, idiosyncratic angle, and from the point of view of academic skill. The latter concerns questions of perspective, composition, shade and shadow. By developing both a personal style and a good grasp of basic principles, it should be possible to produce drawings that are lively and informative. Architectural sketching benefits from both a strong individual approach to the subject and the necessary graphic techniques to relay the private vision satisfactorily.

Here a fragment of structure from the lighthouse at Dovercourt forms the basis of the sketch. May's facility for drawing was, no doubt, acquired as the result of many such sketches. The decoration is based upon the palm leaf. The importance of practice 61 7. The artist's facility is achieved as the result of practice and a critical approach. Mackintosh Collection 62 Understanding architecture through drawing 7. The importance of practice 63 Chapter 8 From sketch to plan making and documentary investigation Sketching may on occasion be supplemented by drawing quick plans or sections.

The sketch is a useful and enjoyable tool, but there are occasions when more analytical drawings are required. Although a sketch can indicate the position of a doorway relative to the rest of the fagade, it cannot show the importance of the door with regard to the plan of the building. Here you will have to resort to preparing drawings of a more technical nature. As with sketching, there are a few useful tips to bear in mind. If you are going to measure the subject, get someone else to hold the end of the tape measure, and preferably a third person to read out the dimensions.

Your task will then be that of drawing and recording the measurements. Any plan prepared in this way should have the sketch plan, section or elevation drawn at the same time as the measurements are taken, and ideally at the same scale.

Height often poses a problem, but you can triangulate the subject or alternatively use a staircase if you have access to the interior to take a vertical measure. Sometimes you can count the number of brick courses, assuming they are laid at four courses per foot. If these fail, then it is possible to take an informed guess on the basis of 9 feet 2.

The sketch plan does not have to be dimensionally accurate to contain useful information. The fact that the building is square in plan, or that a city street is the same width as the height of houses enclosing it, is more important than mere dimensions.

You may be able to pace out the dimensions of the building, on the assumption that your step is about 3 feet 0. Approximate plans are used to supplement the sketched information and to help bring some aspect of the design into clearer focus. After all, you are sketching to learn about the built environment, and learning does require a disciplined approach.

With townscape sketches, a quickly drawn plan of the figure-ground the relationship between the solids of buildings and the voids of streets and spaces helps explain the geometry or pattern evident in your view.

It may also encourage you to draw from another point in the street, thereby helping you to reach a real understanding of the often complex spatial interactions in an urban scene. Assuming you have prepared a sketch and supplemented this with a plan or section, then you may decide to take your investigation further.

The sketch shows the general arrangement but other drawings, such as the section, are required to explain how the various buildings work. The exploration of the geometry of the volumes at an urban level was the reason for the drawing.

Plan, section and elevation have all been employed to highlight the relationship between the detail and the whole. Here an area of London Docklands is shown with the lack of connections between old and new communities manifested through the drawing technique. From sketch to plan making 67 8.

Notice how the rotunda forms a public space at the entrance. Sir Nicholas Grimshaw 68 Understanding architecture through drawing 8. From sketch to plan making 69 Local libraries will probably contain documentary records about the date of the subject, or other information that can enhance your understanding of the area you have studied through the sketch. Inquiry through graphic analysis is a useful means of cultivating an appreciation of an area or subject, particularly if it then leads to a search through archival records or historic plans.

This may not suit everybody's needs, but for a school or college project the bringing together of graphic and written sources is a useful educational tool. Just as in your freehand drawing, the weight of line must be used to help explain aspects of the plan. The sketch plans are meant to communicate and thus should abide by accepted norms of technical drawing.

Hence the most important information such as the position of the walls of a house should be rendered in the thickest lines and deepest tones. If the garden fence and structural walls have the same weight of line, then their relative importance is obscured.

Likewise, the presence of mouldings on the front fagade may be important to understanding the proportional rules that the original architect employed as with a Georgian house , and this fact can be drawn to the attention of the viewer by your selection of an appropriate weight of line.

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