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Browse NEET Free Study Material Sub-topics NEET was previously called AIPMT. Alkaloids and Uses (Download PDF) · Biogeochemical Cycles Youtube Lecture Handouts (Download PDF) · Biology Assertion Reason. BIOLOGY NOTES FOR PMT / AIPMT / AIIMS NOTES HINDI MEDIUM .. BEd exam syllabus this course there is an Entrance exam organizes in every state. Download Free AIPMT BIOLOGY study material - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. APEX INSTITUTE has been .

We have seen students struggling with vast syllabus, not knowing where to focus on. What makes handwritten notes so valuable is the fact that: The flow of the notes matches the way a topic is taught in the class by an expert teacher. Most important concepts highlighted which helps you determine what to focus on during first read. Key takeaways for each chapter marked making it easier to revise later. Contains solved problems on most important and most asked concepts.

Related Articles. Physics Brain Map: Kishore 4 weeks ago. Very helpful for poor students…. Sachita 3 months ago. Please someone suggest me how should I prepare for biology. My biology is very weak.

Unknown 5 months ago. Please upload the leftover notes of biology ….. Rohan 5 months ago. Unknown 6 months ago. Debjit 6 months ago. Unknown 7 months ago. Sir could u plzz upload notes of biotech both the chs asap….. Rahul sonarthi ratlam 7 months ago. Satish Kumar singh 7 months ago. Vivek Kumar 8 months ago. Shri Shantanu Dutta 8 months ago. Admin 8 months ago. Check Bookmark inside pdf file…the same contains mole concept also. Qamar 8 months ago.

Sir , please provide the notes of all chapters of biology. Please sir! Akshay 9 months ago. Dungu 10 months ago. Pls publish those left over notes also.. Study of fishes D. Ichthyology S. Study of fungi T. Study of nuclcytology is: Chemotherapeutic value of penicillin was given by 1 A. The correct match is: Andreas Vesalius P. Micrographia B. Leeuwenhoek Q. De Humani Corporis Fabrica C. Harvey R. Species plantarum D. Linnaeus S. Philosophic Zoologique E.

Robert Hooke T. Anatomical Exercise on the motion of the F. Scientist associated with Indian Palaeobotany is: Maheswari 2 Birbal Sahni 3 M. Iyengar 4 Swaminathan Circulation of blood was discovered by: Rearing of bees is: Branch of science connected with diagnosis, prevention and cure of mental disorders is: Mexican dwart varieties of wheat were developed by: Genetic engineering is connected with: Utilisation of living organisms for human welfare is: Metamorphosis is studied under: Study of human population growth comes under [Kerla] 1 Anthropology 2 Sociology 3 Demography 4 Geography Scientific enquiry about life in outer space is: In , a scientist discovered the first effective antibiotic.

Scientist and antibiotics are: Choose the correct pair: Prevention of deterioration of human race through reducing birth rate among defective individuals is [TNPCEE] 1 Positive euthenics 2 Negative euthenics 3 Negative euthenics 4 Positive euthenics Which one of the following sequence is correct: Match the columns and pick up the correct combination: Study of ants in: Branch of botany connected with food, fibre and wood yielding plants is: Acarology is study of: For solving a scientific problem which is not correct 1 Suaruta 2 Charaka 3 Dhanvantari 4 Atreya Science of engineering and technology which is applied to life sciences is: Match the column I and II and choose the correct answer: All living beings show: Bending of a shoot towards light is: Physical basis of life is: Fuelgen test is specific for: Which type of organisation is found in only living beings: Organisation formed by individuals of a species is: Number of chemicals found in living cell is: Which one is a micromolecule: Salt concentration of blood is: Glucose concentration of blood for normal body function is: Energy currency of a cell is: This is due to: During nerve conduction, electric energy is produced.

What is the source of this energy: What type of energy is needed to make up the loss of energy in a living system: Use of tail as fifth limb by Kangaroo is an example of- 1 Short term adaptation 2 Homeostasis 3 Long term adaptation 4 Energy transformation Long term adaptation is: Which organ remains functional for a few hours even after clinical death: Sweating is meant for: Ultimate source of energy is: Pox virus contains.

If feedback inhibition a metabolic pathway gets Switched off by: ACTH consists.. Hemocyanin of snail consists of.. An example of short term adaptation is a Accumulation of melanin in the skin b The use of stored fat in animals undergoing hibernation.

The species which grow on exposed rocks is: The largest macromolecule is: Who pointed out that Life results due to a relationship of molecules and is not the property of any one molecule: Pauling 4 None of these What is the energy required in calories for formation of energy rich bond between phosphorous and ADP molecule in DNA: Homeostasis refers to: Dodo flightless bird recently got extinct from: The simplest amino acid is: Steroid is: Water protects organisms from thermal shock due to its high: Homeostasis is: Cholesterol is: Maintenance of internal favourable conditions despite changes in external environment is: Total heat content of a system is: A person exposed to cold environment does not show: Which is correct about energy changes in living cells [A.

Animals not possessing a fixed temperature are called: Which one is incorrect: The study of the energy transfer and relationships between all living organisms is known as: On which day we celebrate malarial day?

Philosophic zoologique was written by: The book Micrographia was written by: Hooker 5. Which of the following is connecting link between reptiles and birds? Which organism was used by Beadle and Tatum to proposed one gene-one enzyme hypothesis? Pangenesis hypothesis was proposed by: World AIDs day is organised every year on: This word was produced by A. Candolle in his book Theories elementaire de la botanique Theory of elementary botany Taxonomy includes study of following 4 points 1 Identification - Identification of living organisms 2 Nomenclature - Nomenclature of living organism 3 Classification - Classifications of living organisms in groups 4 Affinities - Study of inter relationship between living organisms Systematics: Branch related with taxonomy 1 The term Systematics was proposed by Linnaeus 2 In includes description of external morphological characters of plants or living organisms.

Morphological characters of Root, Ste, Leaves, Flowers 3 This description is used to know inter relationship among plants or living organisms. New systematics or Neo systematics or Biosystematics: Anatomical characters Cytological characters 3 It is used to know the inter relationship among living organism.

New systematics is mainly based on evolutionary as well as genetic relationship experimental taxonomy as compared to morphological characters.

Some Informations: Maximum diversity found in tropical rain forests. Second maximum diversity found in coral reefs Practical significance of taxonomy is Identification of unknown organism. Polynomial system: According to this system name of any plant consists of many words. For eg. Caryophyllum-Caryophyllum sexatilis folis gramineus unbellatis corymbis Binomial system: Linnaeus used this nomenclature system for the first time on large scale and proposed scientific name of all the plants and animals.

Linnaeus proposed scientific name of plants in his book Species plantarum. It was published on 1 May So this was the initiation of binomial system for plants. So any name proposed for plants before this date is not accepted today.

Linnaeus proposed scientific name of animals in his boo Systema naturae 10th edition. This 10th edition of Systema naturae was published on 1 August So initiation of binomial system for animals is believed to be started on 1 Aug Principle of Priority: The nomenclature is done by principle of priority. If two names re proposed for any plant after the , the valid name is the earlier name proposed just after 1 May, After revision it was republished in Naja naja Indian cobra , Rattus rattus Rat 3 Length of generic name or specific name should not be less than 3 letters and not more than 12 letters.

Mangifera indica Exception - Riccia pathankotensis- More than 12 letters. According to ICBN this name is not valid but his name was proposed before , so it is valid. ICBN 4 First letter of generic name should be in capital letter and first letter of specific name should be in small letter.

Mangifera indica But if specific name is based on the name of some person, its first letter should be in capital letter. Isoetes Pntti 5 When written with free hand or typed, then generic name sand specific name should be separately underlined. But during name shold be italized. Mangifera indica Lin. Tsuga candensis Lin.

Salisbury Note: Linnaeus names this plane as Pinus Canadensis 9 Scientific names should be derived from Latin or Greek languages because they are dead languages. Type specimen Herbarium sheet are of different type Holotype - Herbarium sheet on which the first description of plant is based.

Lectotype - In case of holotype is lost, second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is called lectotype.

Neotype - In case of holotype and original plant is lost, then herbarium sheet prepared from some other plant o same species is called neotype. Syntype - In case of holotype and original plant is lost then many herbarium sheet prepared from many plant of same species is called syntype.

Isotype - Duplicate of holotype - In presence of holotype a second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is called isotype. Paratype - Additional herbarium sheet used in the first description of plant is called paratype. It is prepared from some other plant of same species having some variations. Nomenclature is invalid in absence of Herbarium sheet. Trinomial system: On the basis of dissimilarities this species is classified into sub species eg. Brassica oleracea var.

The art of identifying distinctions among organisms and placing them into groups that reflect their most significant features and relationship is called biological classification.

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The purpose of biological classification is to organize the vast number o known plants into categories that could be named, remembered and studied. According to A. Empirical Classification: Their are 26 alphabets in English - According to this classification, all plants having same initial alphabet, are placed in one group. For example: If the name of plants starts from A, then it is placed in a- group.

Similarly if it starts with B, then it is placed in B-group iv This is not a true classification. It has only one application: Listing of flora. Flora Plants growing in a particular area. Flora of Rajasthan Two books in which flora of India is written: Rational Classification: In this classification, plants are classified on the basis of their actual character or nature i.

Type of rational classification i Practical classification: In this type of classification, plants are classified on the basis of their economic importance. In this type of classification morphology of plants in not considered. In this classification any one plant can be a member of more than one group.

In this type of classification plants are classified on the basis of one or two morphological characters i. Linnaeus divided flowering plants into 23 classes starting with class monandria with a single stamen eg.

Canna and plants with twenty or more stamens attached with calyx were assigned to class Icosandia. He also included all non-flowering plants such as algae, fungi, lichens, mosses and ferns in a separate class called cryptogamia or nonandria. In this type, plants are classified on the basis of their complete morphology. In it the classification of whole plant is included stem, root, Leaves, flower etc. Maximum characters are taken as base in this classification. Importance - Natural classification is believed to be the best classification, because it represents the natural similarities and dissimilarities of plants i.

In this classification, the plants belonging to the same group shows many similarities, while is artificial classification, the plants belonging to the same group shows only, 1 or 2 similar characters. They have many dissimilarities. Natural classification is of two types a Natural formal b Natural phylogenetic a Natural formal In this classification, the phylogeny of the plant is not considered i.

In phylogentic classification, the plants are arranged on the basis of their evolution. Proposed the term Phylogeny Ernest haeckel: Gave the concept of phylogeny Charles Darwin: Phylogenetic classification also known as cladistic classification. Proposed by Sokel and Sneath. In it plants are classified on the basis of numbers of similarities and dissimilarities.

In this, importance to any one character is not given, all characters have same importance. While in natural classification floral reproductive characters have more importance than vegetative root, stem and leaves characters. Their are 7 main taxonomic categories. They are obligate categories i. There are some extra categories, like sub division, sub order, sub family tribe, sub tribe, etc. They are not regularly used. They are used only when they are needed. Classification Raddish: Adolf Mayer: First proposed the term Taxon - for animals H.

First proposed the term Taxon for plants The classification of any plant or animal is written is descending order. Hierarchy - Descending arrangement of taxonomic categories is known as hierarchy. Smallest taxonomic category It is basis unit of classification.

Proposed the term and concept of species To explain the species different concepts were proposed, which are as follows A Biological concept of species: But character is not used in taxonomy. In taxonomy, the determination of species is based on other characters.

Mainly morphological characters 5 In higher plants, the determination of species is mainly based on the morphology of flower floral morphology. Because floral reproductive characters are more conservative s compared to vegetative Root, Stem, Leaf characters i. All the humans is this world can interbreed among themselves. Therefore they belong to same taxonomic species i.

But these three can not interbreed among themselves. Therefore on the basis of interbreeding these are three biological species.

B Static concept of species: According to Linaneus species is un- changeable i. The species of present day are same as they were in past and they will remains same in future. According to this theory All the living organisms are created by God Every life is created by God and God gave the basis size and shape of all living organisms, they are still present in their actual former form.

But lamarck rejected this hypothesis. C Dynamic concept of species: Changes always occur in the characters of species from one generation to next generation.

And these changes are know as evolution. D Typological concept: Typological concept is based on single individual of species The species in which a fixed pattern of characters is present are called as monotypic species.

Bacteria, BGA 3 In many species more than one type or pattern of characters are present. These are called Polytypic species or Macrospecies eg. Brassica aleracea Cauliflower, Cabbage, Knol-Khol Polytypic Species are of three types Biotype - Member o same species inhabiting similar environment and having some genetic variations are known as biotypes. Variations found in these members are permanent.

These members can not interbreed among them selves. Cauliflower, Cabbage, Knol-Khol are three biotypes of one species.

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Ecotypes -Members of same species inhabiting different environment and having some genetic variations are known as ecotypes. Variations are permanent. These members can interbreed among them selves but due to geographical barrier they can not interbreed. Crow Corvus splendense found in different regions are ecotypes of one species Corvus splendense splendense - Indian crow Corvus splendense insolense - Mynamer crow Corvus splendense protegatus - Srilankan crow Ecads or Ecophense - members of same species having some non genetic variations due to environment These variations re temporary.

Every living being Note: Those taxonomic species whose determination is bases on morphology. They are called as linneon species. They are also called morpho-species or taxonomic species. Most of species in taxonomy are linneon species 2 Microspecies or Joardans species: Those species in which variations are very less.

They reproduce asexually so they have very less variations. Members of species which are morphologically similar but reproductively isolated are known as sibling species i. Sibling species is one taxonomic species because these members have similar morpholoty but they are different biological species.

Brassica oleracea 4 Allopatric species: Those species that are found in different geographical regions and have geographical barriors between them are known as allopratic species.

Geographical barriors like hills, oceans, Himalayan mountains 5 Sympatric species: The species found in similar geographical regions. The species found in different time periods. Man and Dinosaurs 7 Synchronic species: Those species hat are found in same era eg. Dinosaurs and Archaeopteryx 8 Palaeo species: Those species that are extinct now and are found in the form of fossils.

Dinosaurs 9 Neontological species: Those species which are living presently. It is based on external morphology, origin and evolution of plants. B Beta taxonomy or Explorative taxonomy: Besides external morphology, it also includes internal characters like embryological, cytological, anatomical characters etc.

C Omega taxonomy or Encyclopaedic taxonomy: Omega taxonomy has widest scope. It is based on all the informations or data available about plants.

D Cytotaxonomy: The use of cytological characters of plants in classification or in solving taxonomic problems is called ctotaxonomy. Cytological characters constitute an important aid to plant taxonomy, especially in determining affinities at the generic and infrageneric levels.

E Chemotaxonomy: The uses of chemical characters of plants in classification or in solving taxonomic problems is called chemotaxonomy or chemical taxonomy. It is based on the chemical constitution of plants.

The fragrance and taste vary from species to species. The basis chemical compounds used in chemotaxonomy are alkaloids, carotenoids, tannis, polysaccharide, nucleic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, aromatic compounds etc. F Karyotaxonomy: Based on characters of nucleus and chromosomes. Pattern of chromosomal bands dark bands and light bands is most specific characters.

A Time - - B. B He is known as father of ancient plant taxonomy and father of botany. D Theopharastus wrote many books on plants. Few of them are as follows a Historia plantarum B Causes of plants C Enquiry into plants E Theophratus gave names and descriptions of plants in his book Historia plntarum.

F Theophrastus proposes the first classification of plant kingdom. He classified plant kingdom in to four groups on the basis of growth habit - a Trees b Shrubs c Under shrubs d Herbs G It is artificial classification. H He proposed the term Annual, Biennial and Perennials. He was the Swedish scientist C He is known as father of taxonomy, father of plant taxonomy and father of animal taxonomy.

D Linnaeus gave the two kingdom system classification. E Linnaeus wrote many books. Some important books are: G In Systema naturae Linnaeus gave the scientific names of animals.

In this book he gives the detailed description of animals kingdom. H In Genera plantarum Linnaeus gave the detailed description of plant kingdom.

He classified the plant kingdom into 24 classes on the basis of stamens and style. This was an artificial classification. The main basis of Linnaeus classification was the Sex organs.

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Therefore this classification is also known as Sexual classification. I In Species plantarum he gave the scientific names of plants. De Candolle: A He wrote the book Theories Elementaire de la botanique B He was the first to propose the significance of vascular tissue in taxonomy. On this basis of vascular tissue the classified plants into two groups a Cellular plants Non vascular plants - this group includes Thallophyta and Bryophyta b Vascular plants - This group includes Pteridophyta, Gymnosperm and Angiosperms.

B Scientists working in botanical garden are known as curapor. C The wrote the book Genera plantarum In this boom Bentham and Hooker gave the biggest and natural classification of spermatophyta i. In it, basically the description of plant with seeds is present. Merits of Bentham and Hooker classification.

The classification of Bentham and Hooker was natural formal The classification of Behtham and Hooker was mainly based on the floral characters. This was very appreciable because floral characters are more stable than vegetative root, stem, leaves characters.

It is the simples classification. Therefore the arrangement of all plants in the botanical gardens and herbarium of the world is based on it Although it is not the best classification but yet the arrangement of plants in botanical gardens and herbarius is based on it, because it is the simpler one. The main reason for its simplicity is that this classification is based on actual observation.

Demerits of Bentham and Hooker: In this classification the phylogeny of plants is not considered, because in it, gymnosperms are placed in between dicots and monocots.

The sequence of evolution is as follows: Syllabus de vorlesungen uber phanerogamen kunde - Book written by Eichler. In this book, Eichler gave the first phylogenetic classification of plant kingdom. The classification of Eichler is very little phylogenetic. Sub-kingdom Cryptogamia Phanerogamia Plant without flower Plant with flower life stru. This classification was more phylogenetic as compared to Eichlers classification Plant Kingdom on the basis of embryo Sub-kindom Thallophyta Embryophyta embryo absent embryo present Type of fertilization Division Zoodiogama Siphonogama Fertilization By - Zoodiogamy Fertilization by - Siphonogamy i.

Male gametes reach the female Two groups are include in this division gametes through pollen tube. A Proposed the biggest phylogenetic classification of plant kingdom. B This classification is the complete classification of plant kingdom.

C This is the most acceptable classification for books and study. Tipoo does not use the word pteridophyta 9 Karl Menz: A he show the importance of secrelogy in taxonomy. B Similarities and dissimilarities in stru.

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Living organisms which are phylogenetically close relatives have more similarities in their proteins. Organisms which are distantly related have different proteins.

Phylogenetic relationship of plants and animals can be established by animal serum. Serology indicates that chimpanzee is closest relative of man. A Haeckel gave the three kingdom Protista, Planae, Animalia system of classification.

B Haeckel established the kingdom Protista. C The term Protista was given by C. D Haeckel grouped those living organisms in Protista which did not have tissues. He gave the Four kingdom system of classification. All the prokaryote are grouped in Monera ii Protista or prototista: Copleland grouped those eukaryotes in protista, which are visually different that normal plants and animals.

Brown algaem Red algae, Fungi Protozoa iii Plantae or metaphyta: Remaining all eukaryotic plants are grouped. Remaining all eukaryotic animals re grouped. Whittaker A He gave the Five kingdom system of classification. B This classification was believed to be modern The five kingdom classification of Whittaker was based on 3 main characters a Complexity of cell: Cell is prokaryote or Eukaryote, on this basis, kingdom Monera is formed.

And all the proykaryotes are grouped in to it. Organism in unicellular or multicellular, on this basis kingdom Protista was formed and all the unicellular eukaryotes are grouped into it. Organism in autotrophic or heterotrophic, on this basis kingdom Myctota.

Planatae and Animalaia was formed. Except fungi heterotrophic all the plants are autotrophs. Therefore fungi is separated from plants and placed in kingdom mycota. And remaining all the autotrophic plants are placed in kingdom - Plantae. Since all the animals are heterotrophs, therefore they are placed in fifth kingdom i. True fungi 4. Carl Woese suggested separate kingdom for Archaebacteria. Van Neil: Divided the living organisms into prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Main characteristic of prokaryotes: Cell wall of prokaryotes is made up of peptidoglycan or murein which is a type of mucopeptide. Solve all questions of Exercises, it Fully Solved Chapterwise questions from It will help me a lot to do better. Sir this sample papers were very helpful for me. Thanks you sir, so much. Sir your papers are very good…. Thanku very much for helping my type of student who does not joined any coc classes for test nd mock test also..

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