ANATOMY FLASH CARDS PDF
This article contains Gray's Anatomy for Students Flash Cards PDF for free download. Gray's Anatomy Flash Cards are a must have. Anatomy Muscles Flashcards. Pages Color Atlas of Anatomy: A Photographic Study of the Human Body What is Magoosh Vocab Flashcard eBook. Netter's Anatomy Flash Cards – Section 6 – List. 4th Edition cittadelmonte.infoe. com/course//. Section 6. Upper Limb (66 cards).
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Netters Anatomy Flash Cards, Fourth Edition - John T. cittadelmonte.info Ayko Nyush. John F. Kennedy Blvd. Ste Philadelphia, PA NETTER'S. The following are sample images from Clinical Anatomy Flash. Cards, a clinically relevant anatomy flash card set based on concepts and full color images in. Gray's Anatomy for Students Flash Cards - Third Edition [UnitedVRG].pdf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online.
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Midface fractures are classified clinically as Le Fort fractures: Lateral View 1. Parietal bone 7. Occipital bone External 2. Coronal suture occipital protuberance 3. Sphenoidal bone 8. Lambdoid suture 4. Lacrimal bone 9.
Temporal bone Squamous 5. Maxilla Frontal process; part; Zygomatic process; Alveolar process External acoustic meatus; 6. Zygomatic bone Mastoid process Comment: This lateral view shows many bones of the cranium and some of the sutures of the skull, the immovable fibrous joints between adjacent skull bones. The coronal suture lies between the frontal bone and the paired parietal bones. The lambdoid suture lies between the paired parietal bones and the occipital bone.
The pterion is the site of union of the frontal, parietal, sphenoidal, and temporal bones. A blow to the head or a skull fracture in this region is dangerous because the bone at this site is thin, and the middle meningeal artery, supplying the dural covering of the brain, lies just deep to this area. The asterion is the site of union of the temporal, parietal, and occipital bones. Skull fractures may be classified as: Midsagittal Section 1.
Sphenoidal bone Greater 5. Vomer wing; Lesser wing; Sella 6. Palatine bone turcica; Sphenoidal sinus 7. Occipital bone 2. Frontal bone Frontal sinus 8. Temporal bone Squamous 3. Ethmoidal bone part; Petrous part Perpendicular plate 9. Parietal bone 4. Maxilla Incisive canal; Palatine process Comment: Note the interior of the cranium and the nasal septum.
The 8 cranial bones enclosing the brain include the unpaired frontal, occipital, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal bones and the paired temporal and parietal bones. The 14 facial bones include the paired lacrimal, nasal, palatine, inferior turbinate not shown , maxillary, and zygomatic not shown bones and the unpaired vomer and mandible not shown. The nasal septum is formed by the perpendicular plate of the ethmoidal bone, the vomer, and the palatine bones and septal cartilages. The petrous portion of the temporal bone contains the middle and inner ear cavities and the vestibular system.
A slight deviation of the nasal septum is common. However, if the deviation is severe or a result of trauma, it may be corrected surgically so as not to interfere with breathing. Frontal bone sinus 2. Nasal bone 3. Major alar cartilage 4. Maxilla Frontal process; Incisive canal; Palatine process; Alveolar process 5. Inferior nasal concha 6. Palatine bone Perpendicular plate; Horizontal plate 7.
Sphenoidal bone Sphenoidal sinus; Medial and Lateral plates of pterygoid process; Pterygoid hamulus of the medial plate 8. Ethmoidal bone Middle nasal concha; Cribriform plate; Superior nasal concha 9. Lacrimal bone Comment: The lateral wall of the nasal cavity prominently displays the superior and middle conchae called turbinates when covered with mucosa of the ethmoidal bone and the inferior concha.
Portions of other bones, including the nasal bone, maxilla, lacrimal bone, palatine bone, and sphenoidal bone, contribute to the lateral wall.
The palatine processes of the maxillae and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones make up the hard palate. The pituitary gland lies in the hypophyseal fossa, a depression seen just superior to the sphenoidal sinus in the sphenoidal bone.
The pituitary gland can be approached surgically through the nasal cavity by entering the sphenoidal sinus and then directly entering the hypophyseal fossa. Inferior View 1. Maxilla Incisive fossa; Palatine process; Zygomatic process 2. Zygomatic bone 3. Sphenoidal bone Medial plate; Lateral plate; Greater wing 4. Temporal bone Zygomatic process; Mandibular fossa; Styloid process; External acoustic meatus; Mastoid process 5.
Parietal bone 6. Occipital bone Occipital condyle; Basilar part; Foramen magnum; External occipital protuberance 7. Vomer 8. Palatine bone Horizontal plate Comment: Cranial bones and facial bones contribute to the base of the skull. Key processes and foramina associated with these bones can be seen in this inferior view. The largest foramen of the skull is the foramen magnum, the site where the spinal cord and brainstem medulla oblongata are continuous.
Basilar fractures fractures of the cranial base may damage important neurovascular structures passing into or out of the cranium via foramina openings. The internal carotid artery may be torn, cranial nerves may be damaged, and the dura mater may be torn, resulting in leakage of the cerebrospinal fluid CSF. Superior View 1. Foramina of cribriform plate Olfactory nerve bundles 2.
Foramen rotundum Maxillary nerve [CN V2] 5. Foramen spinosum Middle meningeal artery and vein; Meningeal branch of mandibular nerve 7. Foramen lacerum 8. Carotid canal Internal carotid artery; Internal carotid nerve plexus 9. Foramen magnum Medulla oblongata; Meninges; Vertebral arteries; Meningeal branches of vertebral arteries; Spinal roots of accessory nerves Comment: Key structures passing through each foramen are noted in parentheses. Fractures or trauma involving any of these foramina may result in clinical signs and symptoms associated with the neurovascular elements passing through the foramina.
Thus, it is important to know these structures and their relationships to the cranial base. Anterolateral Superior View 1.
Condylar process head and neck 2. Coronoid process 3. Submandibular fossa 4. Mylohyoid line 5. Mental foramen 6. Mental protuberance 7. Body 8. Ramus Comment: The mandible, or lower jaw, contains the mandibular teeth and the mandibular foramen. The inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle passes through the mandibular foramen; it innervates the mandibular teeth and supplies them with blood. The nerve ends as a cutaneous branch that exits the mental foramen mental nerve.
The condylar process of the mandible articulates with the temporal bone, forming the temporomandibular joint.
Because of its vulnerable location, the mandible is the 2nd most commonly fractured facial bone the nasal bone is 1st. The most common sites of fracture are the cuspid canine tooth area and the 3rd molar area.
Fractures of the mandible are fairly common. The most common sites of fracture are the cuspid canine tooth area and the area just anterior to the 3rd molar wisdom tooth area. When fractured, blood oozing from the mandible may collect in the loose tissues of the floor of the mouth, above the mylohyoid muscle.
Left Posterior View 1. Condylar process 2. Lingula 3. Mandibular foramen 4. Mylohyoid groove 5. Submandibular fossa 6. Sublingual fossa 7. Mental spines Comment: The inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle enters the mandibular foramen and courses through the bony mandible to supply the mandibular teeth and gums. Depressions, or fossae, on the medial side of the mandible mark the locations of the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands.
The mandible is the strongest and largest of the facial bones, and its landmarks are used for dental anesthesia via intraoral injections. Properly performed, the infiltrating anesthetic anesthetizes the inferior alveolar nerve and lingual nerve ipsilaterally on the same side as the injection where they lie in the pterygomandibular space proximal to the mandibular foramen. This will anesthetize the mandibular teeth inferior alveolar nerve , the epithelium of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue lingual nerve , all the lingual mucosa and lingual gingiva gums lingual nerve , all the buccal mucosa and buccal gingiva from the premolars to the midline mental nerve—terminal branch of the inferior alveolar nerve , and the skin of the lower lip also via the mental nerve ipsilaterally.
Joint capsule 2. Lateral temporomandibular ligament 3. Sphenomandibular ligament phantom 4. Stylomandibular ligament 5. Mandibular fossa 6. Articular disc 7. Articular tubercle 8. Joint capsule Comment: The temporomandibular joint is the synovial joint between the mandibular fossa and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone and head of the mandible. This unique joint combines an upper uniaxial gliding joint, for forward gliding protrusion and backward gliding retraction movements and some side-to-side motion, with a lower uniaxial hinge joint, below the articular disc, for closing elevation of and opening depression of the jaw.
This joint contains an articular capsule and is reinforced by the lateral and sphenomandibular ligaments. The temporomandibular joint TMJ has both a hinge action and a gliding or sliding action. TMJ problems are more common in women than men.
Incisive fossa 2. Palatine process of maxilla 3. Horizontal plate of palatine bone 4. Greater and lesser palatine foramina 5. Central incisor 6. Lateral incisor 7. Canine 8. Humans have 2 sets of teeth: Permanent teeth in each quadrant of the jaw mandible and maxilla include 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, and 3 molars. The 3rd molars are often referred to as the wisdom teeth. The maxillary teeth are innervated by the posterior, middle, and anterior alveolar branches of the maxillary nerve.
The mandibular teeth are innervated by the inferior alveolar branch of the mandibular nerve. The most common sites of fracture are the cuspid canine tooth area and just anterior to the 3rd molar area. Crown 2. Neck 3. Root 4. Enamel Substantia adamantina 5. Dentine and dentinal tubules Substantia eburnea 6. Dental pulp containing vessels and nerves 7. Gingival gum epithelium stratified 8. Periodontium Alveolar periosteum 9. Cement Cementum Root central canals containing vessels and nerves Apical foramina Comment: Each tooth is composed of an enamel-covered crown, dentine, and pulp.
The pulp fills a central cavity and is continuous with the root canal. Blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics enter the pulp through an apical foramen. The crown projects above the gum, or gingival surface. The narrow portion between the crown and root is called the neck. The root is embedded in the alveolar bone of the maxilla or mandible and is covered by cement, which is connected to the alveolar bone by the periodontal ligament.
Dental caries tooth decay is caused by oral bacteria that convert food into acids that then form dental plaque a combination of bacteria, food particles, and saliva. If not removed by brushing, the plaque can mineralize and form tartar. Acid in the dental plaque can erode the tooth enamel and create a cavity. Atlas and Axis 2 1 9 10 4 Atlas C1: Axis C2: Atlas and Axis 1.
Anterior tubercle 2. Transverse process 3. Superior articular surface of lateral mass for occipital condyle 4. Groove for vertebral artery 5. Transverse foramen 6. Anterior arch 7. Spinous process 8. Dens 9. Superior articular facet for atlas Pedicle Comment: The 1st cervical vertebra is the atlas. It is named after the Greek god Atlas, who is often depicted with the world on his shoulders. The atlas has no body or spine but is made of anterior and posterior arches.
The transverse processes contain a foramen that transmits the vertebral vessels. The 2nd cervical vertebra is the axis. Its most characteristic feature is the dens odontoid process. A blow to the top of the head may fracture the atlas, usually across the anterior and posterior arches. Such a fracture is called a Jefferson fracture.
Fractures of the axis often involve the dens or involve a fracture across the neural arch between the superior and inferior articular facets. Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane 2. Capsule of atlanto-occipital joint 3. Transverse process of atlas C1 4.
Gray's Anatomy for Students Flash Cards - Third Edition [UnitedVRG].pdf
Capsule of lateral atlanto-axial joint 5. Ligamenta flava 6. Capsule of atlanto-occipital joint 7. Posterior atlanto-occipital membrane 8. Ligamenta flava 9. Ligamentum nuchae Anterior longitudinal ligament Vertebral artery Comment: The atlanto-occipital joint, on each side, is covered with an articular capsule and posteriorly reinforced by the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane.
The ligamentum nuchae is a strong median fibrous septum. It is an extension of the thickened supraspinous ligaments that arise from the spinous process of C7 and extend to the external occipital protuberance. While there are usually 7 cervical vertebrae, fusion of adjacent vertebrae can occur.
Most commonly, this fusion in the cervical region is seen between C1 and C2 the atlas and axis or between C5 and C6.
Anatomy Muscles Flashcards
Capsule of atlanto-occipital joint 2. Capsule of lateral atlanto-axial joint 3. Capsule of zygapophysial joint C 4. Cruciate ligament Superior longitudinal band; Transverse ligament of atlas; Inferior longitudinal band 5.
Alar ligaments 6. Posterior longitudinal ligament 7.
Tectorial membrane Comment: The atlanto-occipital joint is a biaxial condyloid synovial joint between the atlas and the occipital condyles. It permits flexion and extension, as when the head is nodded up and down, and some lateral bending.
The atlanto-axial joints are uniaxial synovial joints. They consist of plane joints associated with the articular facets and a median pivot joint between the dens of the axis and the anterior arch of the atlas.
The atlanto-axial joint permits the atlas and head to be rotated as a single unit, as when the head is turned from side to side. These joints are reinforced by ligaments, especially the cruciate and alar ligaments. The alar ligaments limit rotation. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and often involves erosion of the articular cartilage of weight-bearing joints, including the cervical spine. Extensive thinning of the intervertebral discs and of the cartilage covering the facet joints can lead to hyperextension of the cervical spine, narrowing of the intervertebral foramen, and the potential for impingement of the spinal nerves exiting the intervertebral foramen.
Epiglottis 2. Hyoid bone 3. Thyrohyoid membrane 4. Arytenoid cartilage 5. Thyroid cartilage lamina 6. Vocal ligament 7. Median cricothyroid ligament 8. Cricoid cartilage 9. Trachea Comment: The cartilages of the larynx include the thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, epiglottis, and the paired arytenoid, corniculate, and cuneiform cartilages.
Not shown in the illustration are the cuneiform cartilages. These paired elastic cartilages lie in the ary-epiglottic folds and have no articulations with other cartilages or bones. The thyrohyoid membrane has an opening through which the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve enters the larynx to provide sensory innervation above the vocal folds.
Trauma to the cartilages of the larynx may result in fractures. Consequently, the underlying laryngeal mucosa and submucosa may hemorrhage, resulting in significant edema and the potential for airway obstruction. Malleus head 2. Handle of malleus 3. Stapes 4. Base of stapes footplate 5. Lenticular process of incus 6. Incus Comment: The 3 auditory ossicles reside in the middle ear, or tympanic cavity. They amplify sonic vibrations from the tympanic membrane and transmit them to the inner ear.
The 3 ear ossicles are the malleus hammer , incus anvil , and stapes stirrup. The handle of the malleus is fused with the medial aspect of the tympanic membrane; the head articulates with the incus. The incus articulates with the stapes, whose footplate is attached to the oval window.
Two small muscles attach to the auditory ossicles; the tensor tympani muscle attaches to the malleus and the stapedius muscle to the stapes. These very small skeletal muscles dampen large vibrations resulting from excessively loud noises. Frontal belly of occipitofrontalis muscle Origin: This muscle has no bony origin, and its fibers arise and are continuous with 2 other anterior facial muscles, the procerus and the corrugator supercilii.
The fibers are directed upward. They join the galea aponeurotica anterior to the coronal suture. Elevates the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead, as when a person looks surprised. Terminal branches of the facial nerve; temporal branch.
The epicranius muscle consists largely of the frontal and occipital bellies and an intervening galea aponeurotica aponeurosis. As a muscle of facial expression, this cutaneous muscle lies within the layers of the superficial fascia. These muscles vary from person to person, and they often blend together.
All of the muscles of facial expression are derived embryologically from the 2nd pharyngeal branchial arch and are innervated by the terminal branches of the facial nerve CN VII.
Occipital belly of occipitofrontalis muscle Origin: Arises from the lateral two-thirds of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone and the mastoid process of the temporal bone. Inserts into the epicranial aponeurosis. The occipital and frontal bellies of the epicranial muscle act together to draw back the scalp. This action raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead.
The extensive aponeurosis called the galea aponeurotica connects the frontal belly and occipital belly of the epicranial muscle.
Orbicularis oculi muscle Origin: Arises from the nasal portion of the frontal bone, the frontal process of the maxilla, the lacrimal bone, and the medial palpebral ligament. Attaches to the skin of the eyelids, surrounds the bony orbit, and inserts into the superior and inferior tarsi medial to the lacrimal puncta.
This muscle is a sphincter that closes the eyelids. Its palpebral portion closes the lids gently, as in blinking. The orbital portion closes the eyelids more forcibly. Terminal branches of the facial nerve; primarily the zygomatic branch. The orbicularis oculi has 3 parts: Orbicularis oris muscle Origin: Fibers arise near the median plane of the maxilla above and from the mandible below.
Fibers insert into the skin of the lips and into the mucous membrane beneath the lip. This muscle acts primarily to close the lips. Its deep and oblique fibers pull the lips toward the teeth and alveolar arches.
When all of its fibers act together, they can protrude the lips. Terminal branches of the facial nerve; primarily the mandibular branch. A major portion of this muscle is derived from the buccinator and blends with other facial muscles around the oral cavity. This muscle is especially important in speech because it alters the shape of the mouth. Buccinator muscle Origin: Arises from the mandible, pterygomandibular raphe, and alveolar processes of the maxilla and mandible. Attaches to the angle of the mouth.
Contraction of this muscle presses the cheek against the molar teeth and aids in chewing. This muscle also can expel air from the mouth, as when a musician plays a woodwind or brass instrument. Terminal branches of the facial nerve; buccal branch. By pressing the cheek against the teeth, the buccinator holds food between the molars. When the muscle contracts too forcefully during chewing, the teeth bite the cheek.
The buccinator is a muscle of facial expression. Fibers of this muscle blend with other muscles around the mouth. Platysma muscle Origin: Arises from the superficial fascia covering the superior portions of the pectoralis major and deltoid muscles.
Ascends over the clavicle and is directed medially to insert into the mandible below the oblique line. Other portions of the muscle insert into the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the lower portion of the face. Draws the lower lip and corner of the mouth inferolaterally and partially opens the mouth, as during an expression of surprise. When all the fibers act together, the skin over the clavicle and lower neck is wrinkled and drawn upward toward the mandible.
Terminal branches of the facial nerve; cervical branch. Auricularis superior muscle 7. Zygomaticus minor and 2. Auricularis anterior muscle major muscles 3. Epicranial aponeurosis 8. Mentalis muscle 4. Corrugator supercilii 9.
Depressor labii inferioris muscle Frontalis and muscle Orbicularis oculi, partially Depressor anguli oris cut away muscle 5.
Procerus muscle Risorius muscle 6. Nasalis muscle Transverse part; Alar part Comment: This lateral view shows additional muscles of facial expression.
The muscles around the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth blend with muscles of the lips, chin, and cheek. All are innervated by terminal branches of the facial nerve.
As muscles of facial expression, these cutaneous muscles lie within the layers of the superficial fascia. They vary from person to person, and they often blend together. All of the muscles of facial expression are derived embryologically from the 2nd pharyngeal branchial arch and are innervated by the facial nerve CN VII. Ipsilateral facial muscle paralysis results in an asymmetric facial appearance, with an inability to wrinkle the skin of the forehead, close the eyelids, smile, frown, purse the lips as in kissing , and tighten the skin of the neck.
Levator palpebrae superioris muscle Origin: Arises from the lesser wing of the sphenoidal bone, anterior and superior to the optic canal. Attaches to the skin and tarsal plate of the upper eyelid. Raises the upper eyelid. At the distal end of this muscle, near its attachment to the tarsal plate, is a small amount of smooth muscle called the superior tarsal muscle.
The fibers of the superior tarsal muscle are supplied by postganglionic sympathetic fibers of the autonomic nervous system. Because of the dual nature of this muscle it is skeletal and has a small smooth muscle component , drooping of the upper eyelid can result from a nerve lesion affecting the oculomotor nerve or the sympathetic fibers. This drooping is called ptosis. Ptosis can result from nerve damage at 2 different sites. Damage to the oculomotor nerve CN III can result in paralysis of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle and significant ptosis.
Damage anywhere along the sympathetic pathway from the upper thoracic sympathetic outflow to the head, the cervical sympathetic trunk, or the superior cervical ganglion and beyond can result in denervation of the small tarsal muscle smooth muscle that is found at the free distal margin of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle.
This will result in a mild ptosis: Superior rectus muscle 4. Superior oblique muscle 2. Medial rectus muscle 5. Lateral rectus muscle 3. Inferior rectus muscle 6.
Inferior oblique muscle Origin: The inferior oblique arises from the floor of the orbit. The 4 rectus muscles insert into the sclera, just posterior to the cornea. The superior oblique muscle passes forward, and its tendon passes through a fibrous ring trochlea and inserts into the sclera deep to the superior rectus muscle. The inferior oblique inserts into the sclera deep to the lateral rectus muscle.
In clinical testing, when the eye is abducted, the superior rectus elevates the globe and the inferior rectus depresses it. When the eye is adducted, the superior oblique depresses the globe and the inferior oblique elevates it. The medial rectus is a pure adductor, whereas the lateral rectus is a pure abductor.
The anatomic actions differ from the actions tested for clinical evaluation of the muscles. Third nerve palsy will result in ptosis, a dilated pupil, and an inability to adduct the eye at rest, the affected eye will be directed down and out. Temporalis muscle Origin: Floor of the temporal fossa and the deep surface of the temporal fascia. Attaches to the tip and medial surface of the coronoid process and anterior border of the ramus of the mandible.
This muscle elevates the mandible and closes the jaws. Its posterior fibers retract the mandible retrusion. Mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. The temporalis is 1 of the 4 muscles of mastication. It is a broad, radiating muscle whose contractions can be seen during chewing.
The muscles of mastication are derived embryologically from the 1st pharyngeal branchial arch and are innervated by the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve CN V3. Tension headache can be muscular in origin. Tensing the temporalis muscle, for example clenching the teeth , can lead to this type of headache. Masseter muscle Origin: Arises from the inferior border and medial surface of the zygomatic arch.
Attaches to the lateral surface of the mandible and lateral surface of the coronoid process. Closes the jaws by elevating the mandible. The masseter muscle is 1 of the 4 muscles of mastication. Some of its fibers also may protrude the mandible, and its deep fibers retract the mandible. The hearty spore of Clostridium tetani is commonly found in soil, dust, and feces and can enter the body through wounds, blisters, burns, skin ulcers, insect bites, and surgical procedures.
If the individual is infected and unvaccinated, the toxin from the bacteria can destroy the inhibitory neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord and cause nuchal rigidity, trismus lockjaw, a spasm of the masseter muscle , dysphagia, laryngospasm, and acute muscle spasms that can lead to death. Medial pterygoid muscle Origin: This muscle arises from 2 slips. Its deep head arises from the medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate and pyramidal process of the palatine bone.
Its superficial head arises from the tuberosity of the maxilla. The muscle fibers blend to attach to the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible, inferior to the mandibular foramen.
Helps close the jaws by elevating the mandible. With the lateral pterygoids, the 2 medial pterygoids protrude the mandible. When 1 medial and 1 lateral pterygoid on the same side of the head act together, the mandible is protruded forward and to the opposite side. Alternating these movements moves the jaws from side to side in a grinding motion. The medial pterygoid is 1 of the 4 muscles of mastication. It acts with the temporalis and masseter muscles to close the jaws.
The medial pterygoid and masseter muscles are important in biting, but all 3 muscles are necessary for biting and chewing with the molars. Sometimes individuals clench their teeth and grind their molars while in deep sleep. This grinding action of the pterygoid muscles can erode the teeth, and people suffering from this malady should seek the attention of their health care specialist. Lateral pterygoid muscle Origin: This short, thick muscle has 2 heads. The superior head arises from the infratemporal surface and infratemporal crest of the greater wing of the sphenoidal bone.
The inferior head arises from the lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate. Its fibers converge to insert on the neck of the mandible, articular disc, and capsule of the temporomandibular joint. Opens the mouth by drawing the condyle of the mandible and articular disc of the temporomandibular joint forward. With the medial pterygoid of the same side, the lateral pterygoid protrudes the mandible. The jaw is rotated to the opposite side, producing a grinding movement.
The other 3 muscles of mastication help close the jaws, whereas the lateral pterygoid opens the jaws. At the beginning of this action, it is assisted by the mylohyoid, digastric, and geniohyoid muscles. Mylohyoid muscle Origin: Arises from the mylohyoid line of the mandible. Attaches to a median fibrous raphe and the body of the hyoid bone.
Elevates the hyoid bone and raises the floor of the mouth during swallowing, pushing the tongue upward as in swallowing or protrusion of the tongue. By the mylohyoid nerve, a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal.
The mylohyoids also can help depress the mandible or open the mouth. They are active in mastication, swallowing, sucking, and blowing. The mylohyoid and geniohyoid muscles form the floor of the mouth. Soft tissue injury in this area or fractures of the anterior mandible can cause significant bleeding in this area.
These muscles are also important in multiple actions associated with the mouth. Geniohyoid muscle Origin: Inferior mental spine of mandible. Attaches to the body of the hyoid bone. Slightly elevates and draws the hyoid bone forward, shortening the floor of the mouth.
When the hyoid bone remains fixed, this muscle also helps retract and depress the mandible. Genioglossus muscle Origin: Arises from the superior part of the mental spine of the mandible. Dorsum of the tongue and body of the hyoid bone. Its central fibers depress the tongue. Its posterior fibers protrude the tongue, as in sticking the tongue out of the mouth. The genioglossus is 1 of the 3 extrinsic muscles of the tongue.
This occurs because of the strong force of pull by the posterior fibers of the contralateral genioglossus, which is unopposed by the paralyzed ipsilateral fibers.
This causes the tongue to protrude and then deviate beyond the midline to the unopposed side side of the nerve lesion. Hyoglossus muscle Origin: Arises from the body and greater horn of the hyoid bone. Attaches to the lateral and dorsal surface of the tongue. Depresses, or pulls, the tongue into the floor of the mouth. Also retracts the tongue. The lingual artery, a branch of the external carotid artery in the neck, is the major blood supply to this area and can be located as it passes deep to the hypoglossus muscle.
Bleeding that results from soft tissue damage in this region causes swelling as the blood accumulates in the floor of the mouth. Styloglossus muscle Origin: Arises from the styloid process and stylohyoid ligament. Attaches to the lateral side of the tongue.
Some fibers interdigitate with fibers of the hyoglossus muscle. Retracts the tongue and draws it up during swallowing.
The styloglossus is 1 of the 3 extrinsic muscles of the tongue. All are innervated by the hypoglossal nerve. Three muscles arise from the styloid process: Each is innervated by a different cranial nerve. The styloglossus is important in swallowing because it pushes the bolus of chewed food up against the hard palate and backward into the oropharynx. Levator veli palatini muscle Origin: Arises from the cartilage of the auditory tube and the petrous portion of the temporal bone.
Attaches to the palatine aponeurosis of the soft palate. Elevates the soft palate during swallowing and yawning. Vagus nerve CN X. After the soft palate has been tensed by the tensor veli muscle which hooks around the pterygoid hamulus , the levator elevates the palate. Note the arrangement of these muscles in the figure posterior view. If there is damage to the vagus nerve on one side, the soft palate will deviate contralaterally, that is, to the normally functioning side and away from the abnormally functioning side.
Tensor veli palatini muscle Origin: Arises from the scaphoid fossa of the medial pterygoid plate, spine of the sphenoidal bone, and cartilage of the auditory tube.
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Tenses the soft palate and, by contracting, opens the auditory tube during swallowing and yawning to equalize pressure in the middle ear. This muscle tenses the fibers of the soft palate so that the levator veli palatini muscle can act on them. The tensor not only tenses the soft palate during elevation by the levator veli palatini but also opens the auditory pharyngotympanic, eustachian tube during swallowing and yawning.
This helps equalize the pressure in the middle ear and explains why chewing gum, swallowing, or yawning can relieve the pressure and pain in the middle ear when landing in an airplane. Uvular muscle 2. Palatopharyngeus muscle 3. Palatoglossus muscle 4. Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle 5. Pterygomandibular raphe 6. Buccinator muscle Comment: Interdigitating fibers of the levator veli palatini muscle make up most of the soft palate, along with the little uvular muscle.
The palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches contain small slips of muscle with the same names as the arches beneath their mucosal surfaces. These thin muscle slips are innervated by the vagus nerve. The palatine tonsil is nestled in the palatine fossa, between these 2 folds. The buccinator muscle lies deep to the oral mucosa of the cheek and helps keep food between the molars. Numerous minor salivary glands populate the mucosa lining the hard palate. If the parasympathetic fibers of the facial nerve are damaged they travel in the lingual nerve of CN V3 , 2 of the 3 major salivary glands will be denervated the submandibular and sublingual glands , as will the numerous minor salivary glands, also supplied by facial parasympathetic nerves.
Consequently, the oral mucosa will appear drier than normal. Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle Origin: This broad muscle arises from the pterygoid hamulus, pterygomandibular raphe, posterior portion of the mylohyoid line of the mandible, and side of the tongue.
The muscles from each side meet and attach to the median raphe of the pharynx and pharyngeal tubercle of the occipital bone. Constricts the wall of the upper pharynx during swallowing.
Pharyngeal plexus of the vagus nerve CN X. The 3 pharyngeal constrictors help move food down the pharynx and into the esophagus. To accomplish this, these muscles contract serially from superior to inferior to move a bolus of food from the oropharynx and laryngopharynx into the proximal esophagus. The superior constrictor lies largely behind the mandible. While the motor innervation of the pharyngeal constrictors is via the vagus nerve CN X , the sensory innervation of all but the most superior part of the pharynx the constrictor muscles and the mucosa lining the interior of the pharynx is via the glossopharyngeal nerve CN IX.
Together, the fibers of CN IX and X form the pharyngeal plexus and function in concert with one another during swallowing.
Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle Origin: Arises from the stylohyoid ligament and the greater and lesser horns of the hyoid bone. The muscles from both sides wrap around and meet to attach to the median raphe of the pharynx. Constricts the wall of the pharynx during swallowing. The middle pharyngeal constrictor lies largely behind the hyoid bone. The fibers of the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors often blend together, but the demarcation point can be seen where the stylopharyngeus muscle intervenes.
Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle Origin: Arises from the oblique line of the thyroid cartilage and side of the cricoid cartilage.
The 2 inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles wrap posteriorly to meet and attach to the median raphe of the pharynx. Constricts the wall of the lower pharynx during swallowing.
The inferior pharyngeal constrictor lies largely behind the thyroid and cricoid cartilages. Its lower end is referred to as the cricopharyngeal muscle, which is continuous with the esophageal muscle fibers. Where the inferior constrictor attaches to the cricoid cartilage represents the narrowest portion of the pharynx.
Injury to the pharyngeal fibers from CN X can result in difficulty swallowing dysphagia. Stylopharyngeus muscle Origin: Arises from the styloid process of the temporal bone.
Attaches to the posterior and superior margins of the thyroid cartilage. Elevates the pharynx and larynx during swallowing and speaking.
Glossopharyngeal nerve CN IX. This muscle passes between the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors. The stylopharyngeus is 1 of 3 muscles arising from the styloid process of the temporal bone the others are the styloglossus and stylohyoid.
Each muscle is innervated by a different cranial nerve and arises from a different embryonic branchial arch. The stylopharyngeus arises embryologically from the 3rd pharyngeal branchial arch and is the only muscle innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve.
A lesion to the motor fibers of CN IX that innervate the stylopharyngeus muscle can cause pain when the patient initiates swallowing. Sternocleidomastoid muscle Origin inferior attachment: This muscle has 2 heads of origin.
The sternal head arises from the anterior surface of the manubrium of the sternum. The clavicular head arises from the superior surface of the medial third of the clavicle. Insertion superior attachment: Attaches to the lateral surface of the mastoid process of the temporal bone and the lateral half of the superior nuchal line. Tilts the head to 1 side, flexes the neck, and rotates the neck so the face points superiorly to the opposite side.
When the muscles of both sides act together, they flex the neck. When the head is fixed, the 2 muscles acting together can help elevate the thorax during forced inspiration. The sternocleidomastoid SCM is 1 of 2 muscles innervated by the spinal accessory nerve. Although the accessory nerve is classified as a cranial nerve, it does not possess any fibers originating from the brainstem. The SCM is innervated by the accessory nerve CN XI , and this nerve is susceptible to injury where it crosses the posterior cervical triangle between the SCM muscle and the trapezius muscle.
CN XI innervates both of these muscles. Torticollis is a contraction of the cervical muscles that presents as a twisting of the neck such that the head is tilted toward the lesioned side ipsilateral and the face away from the lesioned side contralateral.
Commonly, the SCM is affected unilaterally by this congenital fibrous tissue tumor. Sternohyoid muscle Origin: Manubrium of the sternum and medial portion of the clavicle.
Body of the hyoid bone. Depresses the hyoid bone after swallowing. C1, C2, and C3 from the ansa cervicalis. The sternohyoid is part of the group of infrahyoid muscles. Swelling within this confined space can be painful and potentially damaging to adjacent structures. Sternothyroid muscle Origin: Arises from the posterior surface of the manubrium of the sternum. Attaches to the oblique line of the thyroid cartilage. Depresses the larynx after the larynx has been elevated for swallowing.
C2 and C3 from the ansa cervicalis. The sternothyroid is part of the group of infrahyoid muscles. Long head of biceps brachii cut 6. Fibularis longus Extensor hallucis longus Internal intercostal Internal oblique cut Brachioradialis Masseter Tibialis anterior Frontalis 2.
Deltoid Rectus femoris Scalenes 5. Pectoralis minor 7. Adductor magnus Flexor carpi ulnaris Buccinator 3. Obturator externus Orbicularis oris 4.
Sternocleidomastoid Orbicularis oculi Vastus medialis Sartorius Extensor digitorum longus Rectus abdominis Biceps brachii External intercostal Short head of biceps brachii cut 8. Trapezius Vastus lateralis External oblique Coracobrachialis 9. Thenar Transversus abdominis Biceps brachii tendon cut Supinator superficial head Pectineus Gracilis Tensor fasciae latae Palmaris longus Iliotibial tract Adductor longus Flexor pollicis longus Gastrocnemius Pronator quadratus Adductor brevis Flexor carpi radialis Brachialis Pronator teres Iliopsoas Posterior wall of rectus sheath Hypothenar Serratus anterior Flexor hallucis longus Triceps brachii Quadratus femoris Calcaneal tendon Rhomboid major 6.
Splenius capitis 3. Splenius cervicis 4. Gluteus medius Internal oblique Popliteus Lateral head of triceps brachii cut Extensor pollicis longus Erector spinae Levator scapulae 7. Flexor digitorum longus Teres minor Long head of biceps femoris cut Gemellus superior Semitendinosus Teres major Plantaris cut Supraspinatus 8. Supinator deep head Medial head of triceps brachii Extensor digitorum Extensor indicis Abductor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis Latissimus dorsi cut Gluteus maximus Infraspinatus 9.
Piriformis Infraspinatus Semimembranosus Long head of triceps brachii Gemellus inferior Latissimus dorsi Rhomboid minor 5. Extensor carpi radialis longus Long head of biceps femoris Short head of biceps femoris Obturator internus Plantaris Fibularis brevis tendon Soleus cut Semispinalis capitis 2. Right subclavian artery Anterior tibial artery Arch of aorta 4.
Left common iliac artery Vertebral artery Radial artery Brachial artery Popliteal artery Celiac trunk 7. Deep artery of thigh Posterior tibial artery Superior mesenteric artery 9. Arteries 1. Dorsalis pedis artery Inferior mesenteric artery Descending branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery Superficial palmar arch Facial artery Anterior circumflex humeral artery 5.
Left subclavian artery 3. Transverse branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery Axillary artery Ulnar artery Left internal iliac artery Left external iliac artery Deep palmar arch Thoracic aorta 6. Femoral artery Left renal artery 8. Brachiocephalic trunk Profunda brachii artery Ascending aorta Left common carotid artery 2. Internal thoracic artery Small saphenous vein Posterior fibular vein Inferior mesenteric vein Ulnar vein Inferior vena cava 7.
Median cubital vein Hepatic vein Anterior tibial vein Right subclavian vein Left external iliac vein Brachial veins Left subclavian vein 4. Veins 1. Great saphenous vein Superior mesenteric vein Dorsal venous arch Superior vena cava 6. Basilic vein Femoral vein Facial vein Left internal jugular vein 3. Portal vein 9. Anterior jugular vein Left external jugular vein 2.
Popliteal vein Deep vein of thigh Cephalic vein Posterior tibial vein Radial vein Left brachiocephalic vein 5. Azygos vein Left internal iliac vein Axillary vein Splenic vein 8. Right brachiocephalic vein Left common iliac vein Suboccipital Region Spinal Cord Skeletal Framework: Typical Vertebra Sacrum and Coccyx Vertebra 2 Vertebra Radiograph II Vertebra 3 Vertebra 1 Spinal Cord Details Intervertebral Disc Protrusion BACK 9.
Transversospinalis and Segmentals Superficial Group Vertebra Radiograph III Erector Spinae Spinal Cord Meninges. Vertebra Radiograph I Intervertebral Foramen Vertebral Ligaments Spinal Nerves Intermediate Group Trapezius Innervation and Blood Supply Spinal Cord Arteries Detail Intervertebral Joints Vertebral Column Spinal Cord Arteries How many vertebrae are in each region?
Coccygeal 3 or 4 coccygeal vertebrae. Sacral 5 fused vertebrae I-V. Thoracic 12 vertebrae. Cervical 7 vertebrae. LI-LV 4. Lumbar 5 vertebrae. Vertebral body 2. Pedicle 7. Superior articular process 8. Lamina 6. Inferior vertebral notch Inferior articular process 9.
Vertebral foramen 3. Spinous process 5. Transverse process 4. Identify the indicated structures. Foramen transversarium 3.
Spinous process 4. Groove for vertebral artery 9. Atlas and Axis superior view 1. Anterior tubercle 2. Posterior arch 7. Transverse process 5. Apical ligament of dens Ligaments posterior view Foramen transversarium Anterior arch Superior longitudinal band of cruciform ligament Superior articular facet Lateral mass 4. Vertebral foramen 6. Alar ligaments Dens Posterior tubercle 8.
Transverse ligament of atlas Anterior articular facet B. Articular facet for dens 3.
Lamina 5. Spinous process 6. Vertebral foramen 8. Superior demifacet for articulation with head of rib above 2. Superior articular processes Demifacets for articulation with head of ribs Facet for articulation with tubercle of rib 7. Pedicle 3. Vertebral body 9. Spinous process 3. Posterior sacral foramina 3. Coccyx 4. Anterior sacral foramina 2. Facet for articulation with pelvic bone B. Sacrum 1. Rib 2. Body of thoracic vertebra 3. Pedicle 2.
Intervertebral disc 4. Nucleus pulposus 4. Intervertebral disc 2. Zygapophysial joint 3. Intervertebral foramen 3. Passing through the foramen is a spinal nerve and vessels. Superior vertebral notch 2. Inferior vertebral notch 5. Any pathology in structures forming the boundaries of the foramen can affect the spinal nerve. Anterior longitudinal ligament 3. Ligamentum flavum 5. Any pathology that reduces the dimensions of the foramen can compress the nerve.
Posterior longitudinal ligament 2. Intervertebral foramen 4. Supraspinous ligament 6. Vertebral canal containing cerebrospinal fluid CSF and cauda equina 2. Compression of spinal nerve roots 8. Disc protrusion herniated disc B. Dura 7. Cauda equina 6. Intervertebral disc protrusion in lower lumbar region of vertebral column 1. Intervertebral disc protrusion superior view 3.
Herniation of nucleus pulposus 9. Defect in anulus fibrosus 5. Superficial Group 1. Rhomboid major 4. Rhomboid minor 3. Levator scapulae 2. Latissimus dorsi 5. Accessory nerve XI 2. Superficial branch of transverse cervical artery 3. Intermediate Group 1. Serratus posterior superior 2. Erector Spinae 1. Pathology of function can lead to back pain and abnormal posture.
Longissimus 4. Splenius capitis 2. Spinalis 3. Intertransversarius 8. Rectus capitis posterior minor 2. Rectus capitis posterior major 4.
Multifidus Levatores costarum short. Semispinalis thoracis Obliquus capitis inferior 5. Obliquus capitis superior 3. Rotatores thoracis short. Erector spinae cut 9. Obliquus capitis inferior muscle 3. Posterior ramus of CI 5. Vertebral artery 4. The suboccipital triangle can be used to access the vertebral artery.
Rectus capitis posterior major muscle 6. Obliquus capitis superior muscle 2. Suboccipital Region 1. Lumbosacral enlargement of spinal cord 4. Filum terminale pial part 7. Subarachnoid space 2. Spinal Cord Relation of spinal nerve roots to vertebrae. Filum terminale dural part 9. Conus medullaris 5. This is normally done in the lower lumbar region. Cervical enlargement of spinal cord 3. Gray matter 3. White matter 4. Central canal 2. Anterior median fissure 6. Spinal Cord Details 1.
Posterior median sulcus 5. Anterior root 2. Posterior ramus 6. Motor fibers leave the spinal cord anteriorly. A lesion in the anterior root of a spinal nerve results in loss of all motor output from the spinal cord in that spinal nerve. Posterior root 3. Spinal ganglion 4. Spinal nerve 5. Spinal Nerves 1. Segmental medullary arteries 4. Segmental spinal artery Ascending cervical artery 6. Subclavian artery Vertebral artery 5. Spinal Cord Arteries Arteries that supply the spinal cord anterior view.
Thyrocervical trunk 9. Costocervical trunk 8. Deep cervical artery 7. Artery of Adamkiewicz branch from segmental spinal artery Posterior intercostal artery Segmental medullary arteries branch from segmental spinal artery Posterior spinal artery 2. Anterior spinal artery 3. Segmental medullary artery 5.
Posterior branch of left posterior intercostal artery 7. Left posterior intercostal artery 8. Aorta 9. Posterior radicular artery 3. Anterior spinal artery Posterior spinal arteries 2. Segmental spinal artery 6. Anterior radicular artery 4. Spinal Cord Arteries Detail 1. Subarachnoid space 5. Spinal Cord Meninges 1. Arachnoid mater 3. Pia mater 4. Dura mater 2. Right Lung Sternum Pleura Pericardial Sinuses Left Ventricle Right Pulmonary Artery Parietal Pleura Thoracic Skeleton Left Atrium Chambers of the Heart Right Atrium Anterior Surface of the Heart Rib I Superior Surface Diaphragmatic Surface and Base of the Heart Thoracic Cavity Typical Rib Coronary Veins Pericardium Plain Chest Radiograph Superior Mediastinum Superior Mediastinum: Cross Section Thoracic Wall Great Vessels.
Left Lung Pleural Cavity Intercostal Space with Nerves and Vessels Subdivisions Left Pulmonary Artery Coronary Arteries Conduction System Right Ventricle Trachea and Esophagus Right Lateral View Thoracic Aorta and Branches Posterior Mediastinum Left Lateral View Normal Esophageal Constrictions and Esophageal Plexus Azygos System of Veins and Thoracic Duct True ribs I to VII 2.
The remaining ribs are false ribs because they either articulate anteriorly with the costal cartilages of the ribs above. Thoracic Skeleton 1. Tubercle 4. When this occurs. Neck 3. This could allow air to enter the pleural cavity. Costal groove 6.
Angle 5. Typical Rib 1. Head 2. Area for attachment of middle scalene 9. Rib I Superior Surface 1. Area for attachment of serratus anterior 4. Neck 2. Tubercle 3. Scalene tubercle attachment of anterior scalene 7. Costal cartilage 5. Groove for subclavian artery 8.
Groove for subclavian vein 6. Sternal angle manubriosternal joint 4. Manubrium of sternum 3. This is used as a reference point for counting ribs.
Xiphoid process 7. This elevation marks the articulation of rib II with the sternum. Attachment site for rib I Sternum 1. Articular facets for rib VII 8. Transverse ridges 5. Body of sternum 6. Articular demifacets for rib II Jugular notch 2.
Costal cartilage 4. Superior costal facet 2. Inferior costal facet Intervertebral disc 8. This pump-handle type of movement changes the anteroposterior dimensions of the thorax. Because the midshaft of each rib tends to be lower than the two ends. Superior articular process 7. Costal facet on transverse process 6. When the ribs are depressed. When the ribs are elevated. Body of sternum 3.
Rib V 5. This bucket-handle movement changes the lateral dimensions of the thorax. The anterior ends of the ribs are inferior to the posterior ends. Internal intercostal muscle Costal groove 8. Endothoracic fascia 7.
Intercostal vein 4. Innermost intercostal muscle 9. Parietal pleura 6. Collateral branches 5. They also provide structural support to the thoracic wall during breathing.
Intercostal artery 3. Thoracic Wall 1. Intercostal nerve 2. Internal thoracic artery 7. Posterior intercostal artery 5. Internal intercostal muscle 3. Right lung 9. Anterior ramus of spinal nerve intercostal nerve 8. Left lung Thoracic Cavity 1. Innermost intercostal muscle 4. Anterior intercostal artery 6. External intercostal muscle 2. Anterior intercostal artery and vein 3.
Internal thoracic artery and vein 4. Anterior perforating branches of intercostal vessels 5. Posterior intercostal artery and vein 2. Anterior cutaneous branch of intercostal nerve 6. The tube is inserted over the superior aspect of the rib because insertion at the inferior border of the rib could injure the intercostal vein. Lateral branches of intercostal nerve and vessels 7. Trauma or injury to the root of the neck can involve the superior extension of the pleura.
Mediastinum 3. Body of sternum 7. Sternal angle 6. Manubrium of sternum 5. Pleural Cavity 1. Left pleural cavity 4. Right pleural cavity 2. Xiphoid process 8. Pleural cavity 4. Pleura 1. Parietal pleura 2. Mediastinum 5. Visceral pleura 3.
The surface of the lung is covered by visceral pleura. Left lung 6. Parietal Pleura 1. Pulmonary ligament 4. Mediastinal part 5. The visceral pleura is innervated by general visceral afferent GVA fibers and is relatively insensitive to painful stimuli. Costal part 3. Cervical pleura 2. Inferior lobe 3.
The surface of the middle lobe lies mainly adjacent to the lower anterior and lateral walls. Inferior vena cava Superior vena cava Diaphragm Oblique fissure 2. When listening to breath sounds from each of the lobes. Rib I 7.