BDC VOLUME 2 PDF
BD Chaurasia Human Anatomy PDF Download Direct Links [ALL VOLUMES] you will find the PDF Copies of BD Chaurasiya Human Anatomy Volume 1, 2. Textbook of Anatomy: Abdomen and Lower Limb, Volume II, 2e .. 2. Sigmoid colon, rectum, and anal canal. 3. Urinary bladder, lower part of the ureters, and. In this part of the article, you will be able to access cittadelmonte.info file of BD Chaurasia's Human Anatomy Vol. 2 Fourth Edition PDF by using our direct links. We have.
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more student-friendly. Volume 2 (LOWER LIMB, ABDOMEN, AND PELVIS). Human Anatomy - Lower Limb, Abdomen & Pelvis (Volume 2).pdf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. BDCHAURASIA. Lower limb, 2. Abdomen and 3. Pelvis. Gross anatomy and clinical aspect of these regions are covered in this volume of the book. You can use.
Read the overview below and download using links given at the end of the post. But on the contrary, its fun filled with exploration of how the human body works. There are many books for Anatomy one can read, but BD Chaurasia is still considered the best book of Anatomy. These three parts deal with the gross anatomy of the human body. There is, of course, a handbook also. The book has received numerous updates since it was first launched, creating a new volume every time it is updated.
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Search for: October 12, Author: Muhammad Faisal 0 Comments. Here are some of the features of this book: Dissection pics are given of lower limb and abdomen that is more effective for learning. Different organs and systems are explained in different chapters which makes it more simple. The book aims on giving the students a deeper knowledge of the subject in a consolidated manner.
Unlike most of the other books in the market that are more like journals and seem a tad difficult to understand, this book is more about explaining the concepts to the students and is completely user-oriented.
Chaurasiya happens to be one of the best authors on human anatomy and in this book, he has given all the little insights that are necessary for the student to understand the human body in an effective manner.
In these regards, this book is very unique because it has been authored by a very renowned person in the field. This book covers a vast portion of the upper body anatomy.
It comprises of highly detailed and well-versed chapters on the bones of upper limbs as well as the pectoral region, scapular region, the forearm and the anatomy of the hand, joints of upper limbs and so on.
Most importantly, the book contains detailed information on the wall of thorax, thoracic cavity and the pleura, pericardium and the heart. Because of these reasons, the book becomes a one-source of knowledge for medical students studying the human anatomy.
This book has been authored by Dr B. He is an Indian doctor and an educationist. Dr Chaurasiya has written many books to date. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. It covers medical problems in areas like the lower limb, abdomen and pelvis. The book is essential to both students and professionals. Download BD Chaurasia Volume 2. The contents include: Regional and Applied, and Dissection and Clinical. The book concentrates on the areas of the head-neck and the brain.
Download BD Chaurasia Volume 3. The lateral borderprovides insertion to vastus lateralis in its upper one-third or half.
The superior surface of the condyle articulates with the lateral condyle of the femur. Fusion is complete at puberty. The condition is bilateral and symmetrical Fig. This is prevented by 1 bony factor—the lateral edge of the patellar articular surface of the femur is deeper than the medial edge Fig. The patella probably improves the leverage of the quadriceps femoris by increasing the angulation of the line of pull on the leg.
The anterior and medial surfaces are marked by numerous vascular foramina. It is homologous with the radius of the upper limb. The lower pair of articular facets articulates during extension. Attachments on the Patella The superior border or base provides insertion to the rectus femoris in front and to the vastus intermedius behind.
The medial borderprovides insertion to the vastus medialis in its upper two-thirds or more. The anterior border of the shaft is most prominent and crest-like. The peripheral part is flat and is separated from the femoral condyle by the medial meniscus. Lateral Condyle The lateral condyle overhangs the shaft more than the medial condyle. Fracture of the patella should be differentiated from a bipartite or a tripartite patella Fig. The articular surface is oval and its long axis is anteroposterior.
The upper end is much larger than the lower end. The posterior surface of the medial condyle has a groove. The upper end includes: As in the case of the medial condyle. Features The tibia has an upper end. The articular surface is nearly circular. Medial Condyle Medial condyle is larger than the lateral condyle. Upper End The upper end of the tibia is markedly expanded from side to side. The lateral margin of the articular surface is raised to cover the medial intercondylar tubercle.
One or two centres at the superolateral angle of the patella may form separate pieces of bone. The central part of the surface is slightly concave and comes into direct contact with the femoral condyle. The patella has a natural tendency to dislocate outwards because of the outward angulation between the long axes of the thigh and leg.
It is sinuously curved and terminates below at the anterior border of the medial malleolus. The articular surface has a raised medial margin which covers the 1. The projection is called the medial malleolus. The medial side of the lower end projects downwards beyond the rest of the bone.
The patella ossifies from several centres which appear during 3 to 6 years of age. Its superior surface articulates with the medial condyle of the femur. The non-articular area on the posterior surface provides attachment to the ligamentum patellae below.
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Such a patella is known as bipartite or tripartite patella. Surfaces The lateral surface lies between the anterior and interosseous borders. Borders The anterior border is sharp and S-shaped being convex medially in the upper part and convex laterally in the lower part. It is subcutaneous and forms the shin. In its upper three-fourths.
The medial surface is subcutaneous and is continuous with the medial surface of the medial malleolus.
The medial surface lies between the anterior and medial borders. The anterior surface of the lower end has an upper smooth part. The inferior surface of the lower end is articular. Shaft The shaft of the tibia is prismoid in shape. It extends from the tibial tuberosity above to the anterior border of the medial malleolus below. It has three borders. The lateral aspect of the lower end presents a triangular fibular notch to which the lower end of the fibula is attached.
It extends from the medial condyle. Medially the articular surface extends on to the medial malleolus. It forms a subcutaneous prominence on the medial side of the ankle.
BD Chaurassia Volume 2 (Lower-Limb & Abdomen & Pelvis)
It articulates with the superior trochlear surface of the talus and thus takes part in forming the ankle joint. The posterior surface lies between the medial ai interosseous borders. The upper part of the notch is rough. It is divided into medial and laten parts by a vertical ridge. It i directed downwards and transmits the nutrient arter which is a branch of the posterior tibial artery. The medial border is rounded. The lower part is smooth and may be covered with hyaline cartilage.
A nutrient foramen i situated near the upper end of this ridge.
Lower End The lower end of the tibia is slightly expanded. The soleal line begins just behind tl fibular facet. Attachments on the Medial Condyle a The semimembranosus is inserted into the groove on the posterior surface.
The interosseous or lateral border extends from the lateral condyle a little below and in front of the fibular facet. It has five surfaces. It is broad. The area below the sole. The medial malleolus is a short but strong process which projects downwards from the medial surface of the lower end of the tibia. It is widest in its upper pa This part is crossed obliquely by a rough ridge calL the soleal line. Above the soleal line.
Mmmmmmmmmmmmmm e The posterior horn of the medial meniscus. The lower rough area of the tuberosity is subcutaneous. Attachment on Tibial Tuberosity The ligamentum patellae is attached to the upper smooth part of the tibial tuberosity. The tendinous arch for origin of the soleus is attached to a tubercle at the upper end of the soleal line. Attachment on the Shaft a The tibialis anterior arises from the upper twothirds or less of the lateral surface Fig. Still further posteriorly this surface gives attachment to the tibial collateral ligament along the media border.
It is a branch of the posterior tibial artery which enters the bone on its posterior surface. If the foot gets caught in a hole in the ground there may be forcible abduction and external rotation. Relations of the Tibia Apart from the relations mentioned above. A secondary centre for the upper end appears just before birth. This may also be caused by tearing of the nutrient artery. The primary centre appears in the shaft during the seventh week of intrauterine life.
The upper end of the tibia is one of the commonest sites for acute osteomyelitis. The groove for the tendon of the tibialis posterior continues downwards on the posterior surface of the medial malleolus.
The deltoid ligament of the ankle joint is attached to the lower border of the medial malleolus Figs The tibia is commonly fractured at the junction of the upper two-thirds and the lower one-third of the shaft as the shaft is most slender here.
In such an injury.
Separate secondary centres may appear for the tibial tuberosity and the medial malleolus Fig. The knee joint remains safe because the capsule is attached near the articular margins of the tibia. Sometimes a surgeon takes a piece of bone from the part of the body and uses it to repair a defect in some other bone called a bone graft.
This is the commonest type of the fracture at the ankle. Forward dislocation of the tibia on the talus produces the characteristic prominence of the heel in this injury. The upper epiphysis usually includes the tibial tuberosity. It is very thin as compared to the tibia. For this purpose pieces of bone are easily obtained from the subcutaneous medM aspect of the tibia. The tibia ossifies from one primary and two secondary centres. It is homologous with the ulna of the upper limb.
A secondary centre for the lower end appears during the first year. These stages are termed 1st. Such fractures may unite slowly. The medial surface of the shaft gives origin to: The posterior surface is the largest of the three surfaces. The posterior border is rounded. The posterior surface is marked by a groove. The part of the posterior surface between the medial crest and the interosseous border.
The upper end. It is twisted backwards in its lower part Fig. It has the following four surfaces. The origins of the extensor digitorum. The head of the fibula receives the insertion of the biceps femoris on the anterolateral slope of the apex.
Shaft The shaft shows considerable variation in its form because it is moulded by the muscles attached to it. The common peroneal nerve terminates in relation to the neck of fibula Figs 2. The medial side of the lower end bears a triangular articular facet anteriorly.
Lower End or Lateral Malleolus The tip of the lateral malleolus is 0. The lateral surface is subcutaneous. The apex of the head or the styloid process projects upwards from its posterolateral aspect. The fibular collateral ligament of the knee joint is attached within the Cshaped area Fig.
In its upper two-thirds. The lateral surface lies between the anterior and posterior borders. The interosseous or medial border lies just medial to the anterior border. Surfaces The medial surface lies between the anterior and interosseous borders. Features The fibula has an upper end. It lies between the interosseous and posterior borders. Its upper end lies in line with the styloid process. The medial surface bears a triangular articular facet for the talus anteriorly and the malleolar fossa posteriorly.
The part of the posterior surface between the medial crest and the posterior border gives origin to: Upper End or Head It is slightly expanded in all directions.
The superior surface bears a circular articular facet which articulates with the lateral condyle of the tibia. The constriction immediately below the head is known as the neck of the fibula Figs 2. This insertion is C-shaped. At its lower end it divides to enclose an elongated triangular area which is continuous with the lateral surface of the lateral malleolus. It has three borders—anterior. The anterior surface is rough and rounded.
Borders The anterior border begins just below the anterior aspect of the head. It terminates below at the upper end of a roughened area above the talar facet of the lateral malleolus.
The capsular ligament of the superior tibio fibular joint is attached around the articular facet. The lateral surface of the shaft gives origin to: The lower end or lateral malleolus is expanded anteroposteriorly and is flattened from side to side.
The triangular area above the medial surface of the lateral malleolus gives attachment to a the interosseous tibiofibular ligament. The attachment leaves a gap at the upper end for passage of the anterior tibial vessels Fig. The anterior border of the fibula gives attachment to: The posterior border gives attachment to the posterior intermuscular septum. The interosseous border gives attachment to the interosseous membrane.
The attachments on the lateral malleolus are as follows. Right fibula. Posterior aspect. Anterior aspect. Blood Supply The peroneal artery gives off the nutrient artery for the fibula. A secondary centre for the upper end appears during the fourth year. The fibula violates the law of ossification because the secondary centre which appears first in the lower end does not fuse last.
The fibula ossifies from one primary and two secondary centres. The groove on the posterior surface of the malleolus lodges the tendon of the peroneus brevis. The reasons for this violation are: The primary centre for the shaft appears during the eighth week of intrauterine life.
From medial to lateral side these are the medial cuneiform. In the first stage of Pott's fracture. Each tarsal bone is roughly cuboidal in shape. The tarsal bones are much larger and stronger than the carpal bones because they have to support and distribute the body weight. Another bone. Though it does not bear any weight. The tarsus is made up of seven tarsal bones. In the proximal row. The fibula is an ideal spare bone for a bone graft. The upper and lower ends of the fibula are subcutaneous and palpable.
The common peroneal nerve can be rolled against the neck of the fibula. This nerve is commonly injured here. In other words. In the distal row. The body bears a large triangular. It has a head. R is directed forwards and slightly downwards d medially. The rounded head is directed forwards. The posterior 2. The downwards. The long axis of this surface is directed downwards and medially. It articulates with the posterior surface of Side Determination the navicular bone.
It lies between the tibia above and the calcaneum below. This surface is also called the trochlear surface. It is wider anteriorly than posteriorly. The sulcus tali lies opposite the sulcus calcanei on the calcaneum.
Body The body is cuboidal in shape and has five surfaces. The smaller angle in young children accounts for the inverted position of their feet.
Human Anatomy - Lower Limb, Abdomen & Pelvis (Volume 2).pdf
The neck-body angle is to degrees in infants and degrees in adults. It is convex from before backwards and concave from side to side. The medial part of its plantar surface is marked by a deep groove termed the sulcus tali. The medial border of the surface is straight. The superior surface bears an articular surface. In habitual squatters. The facet articulates with the anterior margin of the lower end of the tibia during extreme dorsiflexion of the ankle.
Attachments on the Talus The talus is devoid of muscular attachments. It forms the prominence of the heel. The posterior surface is large and rough. The anterior surface is small and bears a concavoconvex articular facet for the cuboid.
The talus ossifies from one centre which appears during the 6th month of intrauterine life. The media tubercle provides attachment to the superficial fibre of the deltoid ligament above and the posterta talocalcanean ligament below Figs. The groove is bounded by medial and lateral tubercles.
The lower. A posterior tubercle is also present. The groove on the posterior surface lodges th tendon of the flexor hallucis longus. It is roughly cuboidal and has six surfaces. The surface is concave from above downwards. The lateral surface bears a triangular articular surface for the lateral malleolus. It is occasionally separate and is then called the os trigonum. Its long axis is directed forwards. The posterior surface is small and is marked by an oblique groove. The articular surface is comma-shaped and articulates with the medial malleolus.
The posterior part of the lateral surface is separated from the trochlea by an ill-defined. The following ligaments are attached to the neck. The lateral surfaceis rough and almost flat. The medial surface is concave from above downwards. Its lower surface is grooved. The plantar surface is rough and triangular Fig. The latter is separated from the anterior border by a roughened depressed area. The posterior one-third is rough. It can be compared to the attachment of ligamentum patellae Fig.
The upper area is smooth while the others are rough. The lateral surface is flat. The dorsal or superior surface can be divided into three areas. The posterior surface is divided into three areas. It presents in its anterior part. The upper surface of this process assists in the formation of the talocalcaneonavicular joint. Features The anterior surface is the smallest surface of the bone. The facet. The middle one-third is covered by the posterior facet for the talus. The plantar surface is rough and marked by three tubercles.
The upper area is covered by a bursa. The articular part is in the form of an elongated facet present on the sustentaculum tali. It is covered by a concavoconvex.
This facet is oval. The anterior one-third is articular in the anteromedial part. The middle rough area on the posterior surface receives the insertion of the tendocalcaneus and of the plantaris. The concavity is accentuated by the presence of a shelf-like projection of bone. The medial and lateral tubercles are situated posteriorly. Attachments and Relations of the Calcaneus 1. The lower area is covered by dense fibrofatty tissue and supports the body weight while standing.
The lateral part of the non-articular area on the anterior part of the dorsal surface provides: The dorsal or upper surface bears a large convex articular surface in the middle. Attachments 1. The attachments and relations of the medial surface as follows.
The attachments on the plantar surface are: The medial tubercle provides: The peroneal tubercle lies between the tendons of the peroneus brevis above and the peroneus longus below Fig. The primary centre appears during the 3rd month of intrauterine life.
The plantar surface is small and slightly concave from side to side. The lateral tubercle gives origin to the abductor digiti minimi. The anterior tubercle and the rough area in front of it provide attachment to the short plantar ligament.
The lateral surface is rough and irregular. The secondary centre appears between years to form a scale-like epiphysis on the posterior surface. The calcaneofibular ligament is attached about 1 cm behind the peroneal trochlea.
The calcaneus ossifies from one primary and one secondary centres. The groove on the lower surface of the sustentaculum tali is occupied by the tendon of the flexor hallucis longus. The medial surface has a blunt and prominent tuberosity.
The anterior surface is convex. The posterior surface is concave and oval for articulation with the head of the talus. The attachments and relations of the lateral surface are as follows. Below the groove for the flexor hallucis longus. The tuberosity of the navicular bone receives the principal insertion of the tibialis posterior. The groove below the tuberosity transmits a part of the tendon of this muscle to other bones Fig.
The medial margin of the sustentaculum tali is related to the tendon of the flexor digitorum longus and provides attachment to: The dorsal surface is broad and convex from side to side. The rough strip between the three tubercles affords attachment to the long plantar ligament Fig. The trochlea itself gives attachment to a slip from the inferior peroneal retinaculum. It is rough for the attachment of ligaments. The medial. The plantar surface provides attachment to the spring ligament or plantar calcaneonavicular ligament.
It is situated on the medial side of the foot. It is rough and non-articular. The lateral surface is marked by a vertical facet along its posterior margin. The distal surface is much larger than the proximal.
In the medial cuneiform. The dorsal surface is formed by the base of the wedge. The hilum of this facet is directed laterally. There are three cuneiform bones. Features 1. The medial surface bears an inverted L-shaped facet along its posterior and superior margins.
This forms a deep recess for the base of the second metatarsal bone. These are for the base of the second metatarsal bone. The plantar surface receives a slip from the tibialis posterior. The proximal and distal surfaces are fully articular. The distal surface has a large kidney-shaped facet for the base of the first metatarsal bone. The proximal surface is rough in its lower onethird.
Along the anterior margin of the surface there is a narrow strip often divided into two small facets. The lateral surface is marked by an inverted Lshaped facet along the posterior and superior margins for the intermediate cuneiform bone. The medial cuneiform is the largest and the intermediate cuneiform. The thin edge forms the dorsal surface. The proximal surface is a pyriform facet for the navicular.
The dorsal surface is formed by the rough edge of the wedge.
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As their name suggests. The anterosuperior part of the facet is separated by a vertical ridge. A part of the peroneus longus is inserted into the rough anteroinferior part of the lateral surface Fig. The distal surface is completely covered by a triangular articular facet for the third metatarsal bone. In the intermediate and lateral cuneiforms.
It is indented in the middle. The medial surface is marked along its posterior margin by a vertical strip indented in the middle. The distal surface bears a large kidneyshaped facet for the base of the first metatarsal bone.
The medial surface is rough and subcutaneous. The anterior parts of the medial and lateral cuneiforms projects further forwards than the intermediate cuneiform. The plantar surface is formed by the base of the wedge. The greater part of the tibialis anterior is inserted into an impression on the anteroinferior angle of the medial surface Figs 2. The plantar surface is formed by the edge of the wedge.
Additional Features 1. The proximal and distal surfaces bear triangular articular facets. It ossifies from one centre which appears during the third year of life.
The anteroinferior part of the lateral surface is roughened. This part is for the base of the second metatarsal bone. This facet is for the lateral cuneiform bone. An oval facet in the middle articulates with the lateral cuneiform bone. For the differences between the two. The shaft is slightly convex dorsally and concave ventrally. The ridge posterior to the groove gives attachment to the deep fibres of the long plantar ligament Fig.
Attachments The plantar surface receives a slip from the tibialis posterior. The dorsal surface is rough for the attachment of ligaments. The short plantar ligament is attached to the posterior border of the plantar surface. Each cuneiform bone ossifies from one centre. The cuboid bone ossifies from one centre which appears just before birth. The distal surface is also articular. Side Determination Determination of the side of a metatarsal bone is as follows.
The nonarticular part of the medial surface provides attachment to ligaments. It is directed upwards and laterally. The lateral surface is short and notched. The notch on the lateral surface. The groove is bounded posteriorly by a prominent ridge. The proximal surface is concavoconvex for articulation with the calcaneum.
Proximal to this a small facet may present for the navicular bone. Each metatarsal is a miniature long bone and has a a shaft. The head or distal end is flattened from side to side. The lateral surface is marked in its posterosuperior part by a triangular or oval facet for the cuboid. The medial surface is extensive. It is prismoid in form.
The lateral surface is much shorter than the medial. Chapter 2. The bases of the metatarsals are set obliquely so that the deeper edge is directed backwards and laterally. The proximal surface is concavoconvex and articular. The posteromedial part of the plantar surface provides a insertion to a slip from the tibialis posterior.
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