Science Friends With Benefits Pdf


Tuesday, April 23, 2019

FRIENDS WITH BENEFITS. Written by. Name of First Writer. Based on, If Any. Address. Phone Number. Page 2. INT. JAMIE'S APARTMENT - NIGHT. Jamie and. PDF | Friends with benefits (FWB) refers to "friends" who have sex. Study 1 (N = ) investigated the prevalence of these relationships and. PDF | Friends with benefits (FWB) relationships are formed by an integration of friendship and sexual intimacy, typically without the explicit commitments.

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Dylan walks past friends, family and drivers holding signs. He scans for his name. INT. TERMINAL - DAY. Jamie walks in and watches as a woman greets. The Science of Animal Friendships -- Printout -- TIME 7/31/12 PM Back to Article Click to Print Monday, Feb. 20, Friends With Benefits By Carl Zimmer . Friends with Benefits occur at this time, it was considered relatively inappropriate (especially for women). PAUL A. MONGEAU, LISA J. VAN RAALTE, Several.

Let's see where we are. We could move this, get. That kind of freaks me out. Don't need her. Okay, we could start with this.

As evidence for the F word piled up, the question shifted from "Do animals make friends? If having friends somehow leads to having more babies, the friendliness trait gets passed on, becoming more common across the species. For male dolphins, the reproductive benefit may come from a friend's playing wingman.

A single male may have a hard time driving off other males while mating, but two males working together may be able to do the job. Females lean on one another more after their babies are born. A group of dolphin moms will often form circles around their calves, perhaps protecting them from predators. Silk looked for a similar reproductive benefit among the Amboseli baboons. She ran a new analysis, comparing the number of offspring a female had with her number of friendships.

Here too there was a statistical baby bump. While female baboons with strong friendships were not necessarily likely to produce more young, the offspring they had were likelier to stay alive than the babies of females with shallower friendships.

The mechanism behind this wasn't clear, so Silk decided to team up with Robert Seyfarth, a primatologist at the University of Pennsylvania, and his wife Dorothy Cheney, who have studied friendships among chacma baboons in Botswana. For this study, the scientists looked at the longevity of the friendly adults.

On average, they found, the survival rate to age 15 for female baboons with strong friendships is four times as high as that of those with weak ones. Long-lived mothers should increase the odds, at least in theory, for long-lived babies. Silk's research has spurred other scientists to see what effects friendships have in other species. The horses live in bands that are typically not made up of close relatives. Sometimes the horses are aggressive.

One might bite another or chase it away. But they can be sociable too.

They run around together playfully. They use their teeth not to bite but to groom each other's manes. She found that pairs of mares would establish strong bonds, and those bonds endured throughout her study. Cameron then did what Silk had done: And similar to Silk, she discovered that the more close friends a mare had, the more foals she could rear.

Never Mind the Genes The principal explanation biologists always had for social behavior between unrelated animals is the favor- for-favor arrangement of reciprocal altruism. This would be particularly true among males, which don't have such a heavy investment in raising long-lived babies and thus would expect more immediate payback. There's little question that this plays a powerful role.

But Seyfarth doesn't think animal friendship can be reduced to just a marketplace of immediate favors. But if you look at chimpanzee pairs that have established friendships, these favors are separated by long periods of time. Over six months, it's much more balanced, and over two years, it's more balanced still. Animals are happy to tolerate a temporary imbalance because what matters is the long-term relationship.

In her best-selling book Unlikely Friendships, journalist Jennifer Holland describes many such surprising pairs--a gorilla and a kitten, a cheetah and a dog, a hamster and a snake.

YouTube, a decidedly more ad hoc source, is filled with clips of cross-species buddies. But what you see onscreen may be less authentic than it seems. Barbara King, an anthropologist at the College of William and Mary and the author of Being with Animals, thinks a lot of these cases reflect wishful thinking more than actual friendships. For King, it's not enough that two animals spend time near each other or greet each other enthusiastically.

She'd use the term friendship only if the animals put some effort into their relationship--by grooming, for example. Few of the relationships that you can find online meet King's standard, even those in which a predator gets cozy with an animal that might ordinarily be prey. Predators aren't on the prowl all the time, King points out, and they use a lot of cues such as the size and fitness of potential prey to determine if it's worth trying to go for a kill.

This might help explain the popular on-line clip of a cat that seems to befriend a crow--a very large and very smart bird that would not succumb easily.

(PDF) Friends With Benefits | Carl Zimmer -

Owen was found as a 1-year-old alone and dehydrated near the coast in Kenya in He was put in an enclosure at a wildlife sanctuary with the year-old Mzee. To the surprise of the park managers, the two animals became inseparable.

They slept and ate together, and Mzee would sometimes lick Owen's face. King is especially impressed by how the two animals communicate. Owen nudges Mzee's feet when he wants to do the same," she says. King speculates that the young Owen simply sought protection and comfort from Mzee. Despite what we might suspect, the science so far does not rank canines very high on the friendship scale. Echoing King, they note the lack of evidence in dogs of the constancy, reciprocity and mutual defense observed in species such as chimpanzees and dolphins.

They also point out that dogs evolved from wolves or wolflike mammals, and scientists don't see friendships in wolf packs. Thanks to domestication, dogs have become capable of being sweet and loyal to humans, but it's likely that they treat us more as guardians than friends. Dogs are neither our best friends nor one another's--which is not to say they're not warm and wonderful company all the same.

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Healthy Friendships Studies of animal friendships may deepen our understanding of how complex the nonhuman world is, but there are more tangible benefits as well. The better we understand how friendships change an animal's physiology--improving its health in the process--the more we can learn about the power of those processes in ourselves.

Brent conducts her work on a small island off the coast of Puerto Rico called Cayo Santiago that is home to about 1, rhesus monkeys.

Brent spent four years on Cayo Santiago, carefully observing one monkey group. Once she identified probable friend pairs, she wanted to determine if their relationships influenced their hormone levels--specifically glucocorticoids, which are produced in response to stress. Drawing the monkeys' blood would have been a stressful experience in itself, skewing the results. Fortunately, it's now possible to measure levels of hormones and other molecules from urine and feces.

The only trouble came when the monkeys figured out what Brent was up to. They'd sometimes fight her for their feces. Brent found that the amount of glucocorticoids in the rhesus monkeys varied with the strength of their social networks. When monkeys had strong friendships with a few other monkeys, their glucocorticoid levels were low.

Less sociable types had higher readings. Seyfarth and his colleagues found similar results in baboons.

When members of that species lose close family members, their glucocorticoids soar. They respond by making new friendships with other baboons, offering to groom them and perform other favors. Soon their hormone levels fall to normal. Research on nonprimates also lines up with these findings. In studies of domesticated horses outfitted with sensors, researchers found that when friends groom each other, their heart rate slows.

Wells plans to study hormones in dolphins by taking tiny skin samples from them. All these findings, of course, closely track what we know about friendship benefits in humans. Studies have shown that people with close social networks have lower blood pressure, lower levels of stress hormones and more robust immune systems than those without. In , scientists at Brigham Young University analyzed data gathered from more than , people. They found that having poor social connections can raise the risk of premature death as high as that from a smoking habit and even higher than that from obesity.

If humans came late to the idea that other animals have the same capacity to form friendships that we do and derive the same benefits, it may be that we weren't paying attention. Chimpanzees and baboons, which both form long-lasting friendships, share an ancestor with humans, one that lived 30 million years ago. Maybe that monkey-like progenitor formed friendships with its troopmates, and maybe it inherited the ability from a still more distant mammalian grandparent.


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Summary This chapter contains sections titled: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.

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