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Music Societies Various types of private social and music societies proliferated in nineteenth-century Brazil. Most societies were organized by elite members, or by musicians who received strong patronage from the aristocracy and organized mixed ensembles which included both professionals and amateurs.

Usually, each society produced concerts and balls on a regular basis—weekly, biweekly, or monthly. Customarily, the events, although including musical performances, were more social than artistic occasions. Rio de Janeiro had twenty-seven musical societies between and , including the Sociedade Philarmonica, the Cassino Fluminense, the Club Mozart, and the Club Beethoven. Musicians would be accepted as participant members, and often would not been required to pay the monthly fees.

This offered wealthy amateurs the opportunity to perform alongside professionals. Concerts were social occasions in which amateur musicians appeared before an educated and select audience, and these became a status symbol in some elegant neighborhoods.

The symphonic organization of greatest importance was the Sociedade Philarmonica Fluminense, active from the late s until the early s. The Philarmonia concerts were attended by a high number of professional musicians and assisted by important aristocrats on its board of directors—two crucial ingredients for its success. Until , the repertoire was dominated by opera composers, but thereafter instrumental trios, quartets, and a few symphonies began to appear alongside operatic works.

The first move toward the performance of German music is noticeable in the programs of the late s, with the inclusion of pieces by Felix Mendelssohn and Robert Schumann. Musical Clubs became fashionable during the s, and they competed with the societies as the social entertainment. Clubs named after European composers became the norm: However, the most prestigious concerts in Rio de Janeiro were those sponsored by the Club Mozart, established in , and the Club Beethoven, established in The Club Mozart main purpose was to cultivate vocal and instrumental music.

There were four membership categories, including contributors, participants musicians who were expected to play , benefactors, and honorary members. According to the Almanac Laemmert, the Club Mozart had members, of whom were professional or amateur musicians.

At first the club had 56 members, growing to a number of by The Club started a music school for its members in offering courses of music theory, solfege, piano solo, piano accompaniment, flute, clarinet, oboe, violin, viola, cello, bass, horn, string quartet, ensembles, harmony, counterpoint, and composition.

Club Beethoven organized regular chamber concerts every other week and at least two yearly symphonic concerts. The concerts at Club Beethoven were presented mostly by professionals, maintaining high standards for music performance.

The report for the year of included, among others, the following performers: The Club Beethoven was a male society and no female performers were permitted, not even singers. The annual symphonic concerts were great events with an average audience of 2,, and were usually held in the largest room of the Cassino Fluminense.

The orchestra was larger than the usual, consisting in of 76 musicians, being 12 first violins, 10 seconds, 4 violas, 4 cellos, and 6 basses, winds, brass, and percussion. Domingos Miguel The most distinguished Brazilian clarinetist for the last quarter of the nineteenth century, it can be said without doubt, was Domingos Miguel Rodrigues Bastos. He had a beautiful tone combined with a precise technique, and he was also a very good saxophone player. According to Magaldi,79 Domingos Miguel was the only clarinetist to play chamber music at the prestigious Club Beethoven.

Cernecchiaro mentioned that Miguel played "a correct and admirable performance, displaying skill in the work performed with the string quartet. Music in the other States of Brazil Artistic life was not very well established outside the Brazilian capital. The monarchy had the power to centralize all decisions and to keep investments only in the capital.

The few states that already had a musical tradition established were Minas Gerais and Bahia. Since Bahia was the first capital of Brazil and a coastal city, most of the ships coming from Europe would stop first in Salvador- Bahia to deliver goods and resupply food and water supplies.

At the end of eighteenth century, Minas Gerais had a rich musical tradition that at the end of the eighteenth century went through a period of decline, but music was still important in the church.

Bahia was the first place the Portuguese arrived in Brazil, in , and the city of Salvador was founded to be the first capital of Brazil.

The city developed a strong cultural tradition and it was known for its more than catholic churches. In Minas, many clarinet players became band conductors and had considerable prestige in the local societies.

During his trips throughout the state, during the s, Henrique Levy established a good relationship with the family of the young composer Carlos Gomes. Carlos Gomes started his musical education playing the clarinet but soon dedicated himself to play the violin and the piano. During this period, Carlos Gomes wrote all his compositions for Clarinet: Il Guarany was a tremendous success in Europe and established Gomes as an international opera composer.

To this day II Guarany is one of the most celebrated operas by a composer from the Americas. Inside the establishment there was a coffee shop, where musicians, law students, and artists could meet.

Club Haydn was started in , organizing many rehearsals at the Casa Levy. The activities of the Club Haydn lasted until During the period, the Club Haydn presented thirty-five concerts of chamber and symphonic music.

Alexandre in particular was a prodigy who started composing at sixteen and went to study in Europe. After the arrival of the Portuguese Royal family, many musicians active in Lisbon came to Brazil. The Prince D. Da Silva lived the rest of his life in Brazil and surely influenced most clarinetists at the time. Clarinetists also participated in the process of establishing a printing industry in Brazil.

Moura started the tradition at the Conservatory of only hiring Brazilian teachers who had studied there, consequently the clarinet has the one of the oldest teaching traditions in Brazil.

During the nineteenth century the clarinet gained full acceptance in the Brazilian cultural milieu. Important Portuguese clarinet players arrived with the court and influenced the establishment of the early performance traditions. The presence of international musicians like the Italian Cavallini, the Portuguese Rafael Croner, and many European immigrants, made it possible for the Brazilian clarinetists of the time to learn some of the performance practices of Europe.

It was also the period in which Brazilian composers began to search for a common musical identity, a process described by some scholars as musical nationalism. The theater had surpassed the church as the main provider of musical entertainment in the second half of the nineteenth century, but the old theaters still operating were too modest for the cultural standards of modern Brazil. The search for Brazil's Musical Soul. Austin, TX: During the early twentieth century, Brazilian composers began a search for their national identity, this included writing vocal music in the Portuguese language instead of the predominant Italian language and using folk melodies as musical sources.

Composers like Alberto Nepomuceno and Luciano Gallet began to argue against the passive imitation of European models and started to look to folklore for inspiration. Heitor Villa-Lobos would synthesize the esthetic ideas of the time, creating an individual style that reflected the unique culture of Brazil. Unfortunately, this was not a rich period in which composers wrote pieces for clarinet.

The main objectives for composers at the time were to write music for the opera, followed by composition of symphonic orchestral music, and the creation of chamber music for strings and piano.

The only pieces written for clarinet during the period were the chamber works of Heitor Villa-Lobos and Lorenzo Fernandez. Clarinetists were of fundamental importance in the social achievements of musicians. However, clarinetists were still developing their own identity as performers. The role of principal clarinetist was an important position that pressured players to achieve the highest level of performance and consequently develop strong individual identities.

Philosophical doctrines like positivism were very influential for the establishment of a new educational and sanitary system in most cities, principally in Rio de Janeiro.

The abolition of slavery in and the overthrow of the monarchy in initiated a period of profound social, economic, and political change in Brazil. Those changes accelerated modernization. The development of an essentially modern spirit of progress and enterprise has created the new Brazil. Burns, A History of Brazil, Some of the most impressive architecture of this period was designed for the important cultural institutions like the Biblioteca Nacional, the Academia de Belas Artes, and the Theatro Municipal.

Historian Jeffrey Needel describes the situation by analyzing the architecture of the Avenida Central. The cultural development in Brazil mirrored the musical and theatrical fashions of Europe, in particular France.

Theaters in Rio de Janeiro After the proclamation of the Republic, most of the institutions and public places with names honoring the monarchy needed to be changed. It was usually used for concerts, operas, and balls. The Politeama caught fire in and was completely destroyed. Rio de Janeiro , The Revista was a theatrical genre that included a series of scenes parodying the life of the city and it was a chronicle of current costumes in a theatrical form.

These theaters employed a large number of artists. Each theater would have a very popular artist, a conductor, 25 actors who would also sing, and a piece orchestra, plus the crew. The Apolo and the Carlos Gomes were mid-size theaters, with a capacity of spectators, in which Operettas and Revistas were presented providing entertainment to the middle and high societies.

The lower social classes would attend the Revistas. The Brazilian form of light theater included popular music. The Teatro de Revista was the entertainment that provided parodies, songs, dances and a review of the political facts of the day, always satirizing politicians, and national or international events. The Teatro de Revista had an important role in the development of later forms of entertainment, especially radio and TV.

A vehicle to propagate manners and customs, it was a sociological picture and linguistic map of each time period; promoter of laugher and the joy through monologues or dialogues of double meaning or pure irony; love songs, amusing hymns; visual appeal for the exhibition of flashy scenarios, rich costumes, and partial nudism to exhibit corporal beauty, together with dances of irresistible allure.

Salons would present some smaller Revistas or comic acts like the High Life and Alcazar Parque where Chiquinha Gonzaga presented some of her maxixes. Editora Nova Fronteira, , 6. It became extremelly popular in the Teatro de Revista, the main vehicle for the popularization of the genre.

International opera companies visited Brazil regularly during the winter months in Europe. Managers organized the groups, and they would rehearse many operas during the boat trip across the Atlantic in order to present as many performances as possible in each city.

For instance in one visiting Italian company presented: The presence of foreign companies was so common that it was very difficult for national companies to compete with them. Brazil lived in a paradoxical situation: The theater was the ultimate popular collective entertainment, before the TV and soccer began to share its place. But, Brazilians could not afford economically and artistically to compete with the foreign productions. Brazilians were very knowledgeable about what was being performed at theaters in France, Italy and Portugal, to a lesser extent in Spain.

The capital of Brazil hosted numerous drama and opera companies during the early twentieth century. Caruso returned in , during World War I, to present a series of operas at the Municipal; and this time sang Il Guarany, to the delight of Brazilian audiences. The foyer was decorated with paintings, crystals, ivory, red velvet carpet, tapestry, and gold chandeliers, so sumptuously that one would find no parallel in South America. Elite Culture and society in turn-of—the-century Rio de Janeiro, On January 12, , by decree no.

The establishment of the Instituto greatly benefited musicians since it became independent of the Academy of Arts. The direction of the Instituto was assigned to the current violin teacher, the composer and conductor Leopoldo Miguez, who had very good relations with politicians, businessmen, and musicians.

Miguez was an accomplished administrator who could bring his professional background to the Instituto, and thus was able to buy instruments, organize the curriculum, and hire good teachers. Following the establishment of the Instituto, the government published a decree creating a contest for the composition of a new Brazilian National Anthem. The faculty included some of the most gifted musicians in the history of Brazil, and they influenced generations to come.

The faculty included the following professors: The number of students increased to 1, in , and by then there were many more females than male students. According to Cernecchiaro there were female students and males. Lima Coutinho was the clarinet professor from until the turn of century.

But the exact date that Lima Coutinho stepped down as clarinet professor is not certain. He was succeeded by his student Francisco Nunes Jr. Leopoldo Miguez died in , and the direction of the Instituto was given over to the composer Alberto Nepomuceno.

Without Miguez, the Instituto lost much of its prestige among the authorities, and Nepomuceno had various difficulties in his position, resigning in He did his early studies in Fortaleza and Recife, moving to Rio in His principal idea was: Nepomuceno faced strong opposition to his ideas, most of all by the premier music critic of the time, Oscar Guanabarino, who considered the performance of songs in Portuguese an offense to the bel canto tradition.

Nepomuceno never capitulated, and continued to compose a large number of art songs and five operas: Audiences in Rio de Janeiro became more acquainted with symphonic music by the last quarter of the nineteenth century, when there were early attempts to organize public concerts of symphonic music.

Carlos Mesquita organized an orchestra to promote a series of symphonic concerts in and These were known as the Concertos Populares and presented standard works with an emphasis on French music. Funarte, , 9. Nepomuceno was also a very active conductor in Rio de Janeiro.

Between and , he conducted symphonic concerts, both in Brazil and Europe, and was an important organizer of symphonic ensembles at the turn of the century.

In , Nepomuceno sent a proposal to the National Congress recommending the creation of a stable symphonic orchestra funded by the government, but the idea was dismissed. Nepomuceno choose to play the contemporary music of the time, performing works by Russians, and by young French and Brazilian composers.

He also gave eminence to Brazilian composers, presenting pieces by Francisco Braga 13 , Carlos Gomes 30 , Leopoldo Miguez 37 , and 65 of his own compositions. The government allocated funds for the organization of an orchestra to present a series of 26 concerts within a period of two months.

Nepomuceno was appointed Musical Director and Principal Conductor, and he chose the programs, consisting primarily of contemporary music by Brazilian, French, and Eastern European composers. Villela worked in most theaters in Rio de Janeiro during the turn of the century and died in All three clarinetists were very active members at the Centro Musical do Rio de Janeiro, the first labor organization for musicians after the Republic.

Nepomuceno, a great supporter of Brazilian music, died in , at the age of The Instituto went through two major structural reforms. The first reform was in , when the Ministry of Education changed the laws regarding the educational system and required that every institution of higher education should be linked to a University. Francisco Nunes Francisco Nunes Jr. French composer Camille Saint-Saens visited Rio de Janeiro in and was acclaimed as one of the most prestigious composers of the time.

Nunes 2 Saint-Saens - Africa, fantasie pour deux pianos. Franscisco Nunes was the most important Brazilian clarinet teacher during the early twentieth century. Another student, Romeu Malta, receveid the third prize in The orchestra was the only organization solely dedicated to the performance of symphonic music in Rio. The orchestra was conducted by Francisco Nunes as well as the composer and clarinetist Francisco Braga. In Francisco Braga said that he would step down as the conductor, but he continued to conduct the orchestra until , together with his assistant, Lorenzo Fernandez.

The last concert under the direction of Francisco Braga was a performance of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. In the city government ceased to invest money in the society, and the society went through a period of economical difficulties.

Francisco Nunes died on August 20, , leaving behind an important legacy of accomplishments as a clarinetist, conductor, composer, educator, and social leader. The institutions he helped to create were important contributions to the development of music in Brazil. Centro Musical do Rio de Janeiro The establishment of industries in Brazil also made necessary workers to organize unions, associations, and political parties.

The first Brazilian socialist parties date from , and many unions and professional organizations were established in the early s. The process of forming labor organizations was strongly influenced by European immigrant workers, principally the Italians, who had a tendency to promote socialism and anarchism.

On May 4, the Centro Musical do Rio de Janeiro was created, a civil association not a union yet that represented the musicians. One of its main objectives was to create a pay scale for the musicians playing at the local theaters.

The Centro Musical also created a beneficiary fund for pensions as well as for providing medical treatment, pharmaceutical prescriptions, and funeral expenses. Other objectives were to organize concerts and even to offer loans to members. The first President was the composer, conductor, and clarinetist Francisco Braga, who was considered a notable personality among musicians. Braga was the ideal person to lead the process of establishing this new kind of organization.

In the Centro Musical inaugurated its first building at a celebration in which they honored the composer Alberto Nepomuceno as Honorary President. Also in , the Centro Musical started to oversee the labor conditions in Refers to page The main complaint was that the orchestras had longer rehearsal schedules than the labor agreements with the Centro allowed.

The second Board of Directors was elected, and by this time the Centro had by members in At this time Prof. Francisco Nunes Jr. The Centro Musical began to discuss the working conditions at the movies. Multiletra, , The Centro Musical also instigated a charge for foreign companies presenting in Rio de Janeiro once they became a competitive threat to local productions.

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The Centro Musical was an important gathering place for musicians. Some of the Centro Musical members would keep their instruments at the Centro Musical after the performances, and some of them chatting until late hours.

Often companies would bring along an ensemble of performers, thus hiring only a few local musicians to complete the orchestras.

The Centro Musical strongly opposed this practice and tried to create policies that mandated the presence of more local musicians, even to the extent of forbidding members to participate in such companies.

Nonetheless, the Centro Musical welcomed foreign musicians as members, with the condition that they had been living in the country for the least six months. At the time, there was a wide variety foreign members, as the list of new members from April displays: At the time no social security system existed in Brazil, and many organizations tried to support their members financially.

The Centro Musical instituted an Emergency Fund, dedicated to helping members with medical and retirement problems. Trajano Lopes left the presidency in January 15, ending his contributions to the Centro. However, Francisco Nunes Jr. He decided to accept the policy, stepping down from the presidency of the Centro Musical. Cecilia November Sometimes the celebrations were performed on November 15, in the honor of the young Republic.

In the early s, a novelty from the U. At this time, the Centro Musical approved a policy that allowed musicians to wear lighter color suits instead of the traditional black dinner coats during the day. The Centro Musical created, in , a behavior code for musicians playing in theater orchestras that included the following items: Also, Ibid. On the eighteenth anniversary of the Centro Musical, there was a celebration in which some members were awarded titles of Benefactor Members.

Among them the clarinetists Trajano Lopes and Leopoldo Salgado, who received the Benefactor diploma for their services to the Centro Musical. In a great crisis would profoundly affect the way music was made in Brazil. First, there was the arrival of the sound movies, which eventually replaced all the musicians working at the cinemas.

This released employers from making any contribution to the social security, and musicians were left with no benefits. The s were a time of extreme censorship and control by the government.

President Vargas reorganized the labor laws, establishing a strong control over unions and working organizations. The Centro Musical attempted to please the government by adapting its internal structure according to Ministry of Labor regulations.

In when the project for a Music Union was approved. The orchestra was organized by the clarinetist Francisco Nunes Jr. A new orchestra was created in by the Brazilian conductor of German descent, Walter Burle Marx, who arrived from Europe in The young conductor brought discipline and organization, creating an ensemble of high quality.

During the period between and the Philharmonic played 50 concerts to largely sold-out audiences, presenting compositions, including 21 works by Brazilian composers and 26 works heard for the first time in Brazil. Unfortunately, the orchestra ceased its activities in , due to financial problems as well as animosity between the conductor and musicians. During the s, opera was the still the principal music activity for the elite in Rio de Janeiro, and the city government started to promote an opera and ballet season at the Teatro Municipal.

On September 5, the orchestra gave its first concert, under the direction of Francisco Braga, playing the Brazilian National Anthem and Il Guarany. The orchestra played a continuos season from April to December every year, performing five concerts per week for the following forty years. Their performances brought special attention to symphonic music by the Carioca audiences, having been highly acclaimed in the press. A pioneer group of musicians was deeply impressed with the American ensembles and decided to create an outstanding symphonic orchestra in Brazil.

The idea of creating an orchestra was also supported by business men and intellectuals, like the writer Guilherme Figueiredo, and Arnaldo Guinle, a traditional patron of the arts, who was appointed as the Board Chairman.

The Board hired an experienced Hungarian conductor, Eugene Szenkar, and scheduled a concert series. The first concert was presented on August 17, at the Teatro Municipal do Rio de Janeiro, starting a very successful trajectory for a prestigious institution in the Carioca society.

The orchestra became a full-time ensemble in , and by , the orchestra already had 3, subscribers, and more than concerts per year were presented. During the following years, the orchestra became the most distinguished ensemble in Brazil.

In the orchestra will complete 60 years of service, in promoting the symphonic repertoire, especially Brazilian classical music. Villa-Lobos also learned to play the guitar and, at times, would participate in performances.

After , he traveled around Brazil, collecting folk melodies that later would significantly influence his music. University of Texas at Austin, TX, , p. During the s, Villa-Lobos wrote most of his chamber pieces that use clarinet, in particular the Choros no. During the s Villa-Lobos was committed to music education, promoting choral groups as a form of educating the youth. As a result of his collaboration with the government, music was introduced music as part of the regular elementary school curriculum.

Villa-Lobos organized large choirs, presenting concerts with up to 40, children singing patriotic songs in soccer stadiums. During that time he also started the composition of his series of Bachianas Brasileiras. He conducted concerts of his works in Europe and in the United States.

In the U. Villa-Lobos received commissions from the most important orchestras, including the Boston and Philadelphia Symphonies. Villa-Lobos died in , leaving a legacy of more than a thousand compositions. Soares was the most active and well-regarded clarinetist from the first half of the century until his death in The first performance was on September 17, alongside flutist Ary Ferreira, and the same players recorded the Choros no.

He specially got involved with symphonic ensembles, working to establish himself as a symphonic player instead of a theater player. The theater-orchestra musician always has a secondary role to the performance taking place on stage, and theater musicians thus rarely received the recognition they deserve.

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The symphony orchestra displays the musician as a soloist, featuring the woodwinds as respected players in the ensemble. The public awareness of the principal wind player is also an important psychological stimulus, which encourages the musician to excel. The new orchestra provided the Pepercorn, Lisa M. The world of Villa-Lobos: Scolar Press, Brookfield-VT, Facsimile programs , page 80 and Urban and industrial development in the city took place during the turn of the century, when the Paulista elite was still establishing its cultural traditions.

The Polytheama Nacional was inaugurated in The Sociedade had two types of members: The first concert was on December of the same year, under the direction of Francisco Murino at the Teatro Santana. The orchestra became very popular in a city looking for new forms of entertainment. Rochi had played principal clarinet at the La Scala, in Milan, under the direction of Toscannini, but an argument between the two musicians led to the departure of Rochi for Brazil.

However, there was no institution that provided music instruction. Rochi was an influential professor of clarinet and cello, preparing many students to play in the orchestras of the period. One day Driussi had an argument with the conductor or orchestra manager became so furious he left his seat as principal player and sat at the end of the clarinet section. He refused to play principal clarinet thereafter and Nabor Pires Camargo was appointed in his place.

He played with the orchestra until his retirement in He wrote a clarinet method, published in the s. In his method, he made some suggestions for players, including using the Boehm system clarinet until the s it was common among Brazilian clarinetists to play the key non-Boehm system.

First edition, At the end of the World War II, Brazil was one of the few countries that had not been affected by the conflict. The period of financial crisis in Europe and Asia after the war made South America an important market for international soloists looking for audiences.

The institutions that were created in the early twentieth century provided the structure for the development of a rich cultural environment in the following decades. The presence of good orchestras would directly influenced the development of good players, since they needed to achieve a high level of performance to be able to perform in these outstanding groups. Brazilian clarinet players in the period established a good foundation for the next generations.

Through their playing and their initiative to create institutions which supported musicians, they left an important legacy for future generations. Now, clarinetists became more involved with solo performance and the pedagogic aspects of the clarinet.

The most celebrated composers who were active at the time included H. The radio became extremely popular as a mass media product, which could draw millions of listeners. The main radio stations in every capital hired orchestras that played largely live music for 12 hours a day or more. The main radio station of the period was the Radio Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, which maintained an orchestra composed of almost one-hundred musicians, including five clarinetists.

The OSB also had a period of strong membership. The last quarter of the century also witnessed the creation of many symphonic orchestras in almost every Brazilian state. The overall quality of the music performed improved considerably, and more students went to do graduate studies in Europe or the United States. After World War II, Brazil started a new phase of economical development that reflected positively in the music environment. Theaters and music halls were constantly presenting productions by local and international artists and clarinetist were pushed to excel and achieve the highest standards of musical performance.

Otaviano, and Conducting with Francisco Mignone. Santos graduated with honors in , obtaining the first prize Gold Medal by unanimous decision. He continued graduate studies at the E. B, obtaining the title of Livre-Docente professor certificate writing the document: Estudo Geral. However, Jayoleno remained in the Army Band until the , until the work at OSB became a full-time position and he could leave his steady military job.

Jayoleno was chosen, based on his great abilities as a clarinet player, his strong knowledge of music theory and composition, and in part due to his professor certificate.

In Jayoleno was the first Brazilian clarinetist to adopt the single lip embouchure, and he influenced the next generations of clarinet players to adopt the same model. In his dissertation, he explains the other two other types of embouchure: Jayoleno Santos was also a composer, and he wrote the first clarinet sonata by a Brazilian composer.

His Sonata para Clarineta e Piano, from , is in three movements and explores modern tonal techniques in a traditional sonata form structure. The Sociedade organized a series of concerts that included some very prestigious performers, among them: This objective was achieved, as Mr. Jayoleno Santos is undoubtedly a clarinet virtuoso who knows the secrets of the instrument and is able to explore its expressive capabilities. Jayoleno Santos was the most influential clarinet professor Brazil ever had.

Before Jayoleno, most players were prepared only to perform in bands, small orchestras or at most in the opera. Now, Jayoleno became the first Brazilian clarinetist soloist, playing recitals and the repertoire for clarinet and piano. As a teacher, he introduced a solid work ethic.

His teaching style was based on a strong emphasis on tone quality and technique. He used a curriculum very similar to the Paris Conservatoire and demanded much practice from his students. Jayoleno required every student to play in public from memory, and often challenged them with sight singing exercises. He had a strong background in composition and used musical analysis as a teaching tool for the better understanding of the music. C presented a series of programs of classical music.

Brazilian musicians performed most of the programs and the Radio MEC organized a series of ensembles, including a symphony orchestra, a chamber orchestra, string quartet, and a wind quintet in which Jayoleno played during the late s. The programs would present above all the music of Brazilian composers, and the period was one of the richest in the history of music in Brazil.

Brazilian classical music was no longer promoted anymore. A few years later, all ensembles were disbanded and many recordings erased, for reasons unknown to this day. In an interview with Jayoleno, he stated that the period of the early s was so busy for him that he needed to build a special clarinet case, with the instrument already assembled and ready to play.

He could arrive just in time for a rehearsal or performance and only have to put on a reed to start playing. Jayoleno did not carry an A Clarinet, transposing all orchestral and solo parts. He continued teaching harmony, counterpoint and fugue at the Instituto Villa-Lobos until He would cross the Guanabara Bay by boat and return to his quiet neighborhood after a very busy schedule in Rio de Janeiro. Botelho auditioned and was selected as the principal clarinetist of the Orquestra do Teatro Municipal do RJ, playing there for the next twenty years.

Most of the players used Selmer instruments, crystal mouthpieces or the traditional Vandoren B45, and french reeds. Jayoleno Santos, at the end of his dissertation, also presents a list of methods and compositions for clarinet that did not include any Brazilian music. He encouraged his son to write a concerto for clarinet and the result was the Concertino for Clarinet and Orchestra, composed by Francisco Mignone in , played for the first time in Rio de Janeiro the same year.

Botelho was a popular personality among players; his permanent smile and good humor, allied with a strong Portuguese accent, made him well regarded as a colleague. There he performed as principal clarinetist for the next seventeen years. In addition to his qualities as performer, Botelho also was a very influential clarinet professor, preparing most of the clarinetists that are today in the professional orchestras of Rio de Janeiro.

At the time, Italian players dominated most of the orchestras and Righi was welcomed in the Paulista musical. He won the competition for the post of principal clarinetist at the Orquestra do Municipal, playing there until his retirement in the lates. In , he recorded the Choro para Clarineta e Orquestra, composed by Camargo Guarnieri, one of the most important works in the repertoire.

He was born in Paulista, in the northeastern state of Pernambuco, in a city dependent on the cotton factory. He lost his father when he was only eight, but at the time he was already playing in the community band.

Gonzaga Carneiro continued his clarinet studies in the capital city of Recife, 40 miles away, with an English clarinetist John Johnson who played in the local theaters. He continued to play in the community band until he could apply for the military draft and join the Army Band in Recife. In Rio, Gonzaga Carneiro could become a bridge between the musical circles of military musicians and the highest circles dedicated to the orchestral musicians.

Gonzaga Carneiro played the clarinet and the saxophone effortlessly, with dazzling technique, and was often requested to play in big bands and recordings. He would manage his busy schedule of the military duties during the day, academic studies during the late afternoon and early evening and popular gigs until late in the night.

He joined the jazz-band at the Radio Mayrink Veiga and accompanied most of the artists that played there. A presidential decree that would completely change the life of Gonzaga Carneiro came in The decree stated that every person in the military who had been more than 15 years in the same city should be moved to a different company in another city.

At the time, he had been in the same company for the last Gonzaga Carneiro had only two more years until his retirement and could not afford to quit the military to stay in Rio de Janeiro. He was devastated with the news and tried to be appointed to a city with more musical opportunities. Metodo para trompete almeida dias de Partitura de Banda. Flauta Transversal 20 Mtodo.. Mhmrez pdf Metodo klose metodo completo para todos.

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