SAMACHEER KALVI 9TH SOCIAL SCIENCE BOOK
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Tamilnadu 9th Standard New School Textbooks – State Board Download Online. Department of School Education, Tamil Nadu has implemented new textbooks based on revised syllabus for 9th class students. Those students who need 9th standard school books in pdf format or eBook. Download Latest Tamilnadu 9th Standard New Books for free online through Pdf format. TN 9th Samacheer Kalvi TextBooks Free Download. Mathematics ( URDU) · Science & Social Science (TAMIL) · Science & Social. Students can download TN 9th Std Books for all subjects like Tamil, English, Social Science, Science, and Mathematics. Get subject wise.
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Did not find any relevant ads in your locality. Loading more results in Premium Gold Urgent. Resend OTP. Thanks but Your Mobile Number is not Verified! Verified Ads get more genuine responses To verify, Give a Missed Call to the below number Its completely free! Quikr will call you shortly to verify the Mobile Number entered by you Please wait for our Call. Coming soon. Hieroglyphic a Greek word, meant Holy picture. They first used a system of pictographs. There were more than pictograph symbols.
Writing materials consisted of papyrus, reed pen, ink and inkpot. Egyptian literatures are predominantly religious In nature which Included book of 'the dead' and 'coffin texts'. They also discovered the secrets of eclipses, movements of planets and prepared solar calendar. They calculated the days between floods in Nile and fixed solar year with days.
They prepared star tables. Tremendous progress in the field of medicine and surgery were made. They were the first to introduce a decimal system and to develop geometry. They Imported spices, scents, colours, fine cloth and sandal from India. They learnt the art of making jewellery, glassware and fumiture.
The world is deeply indebted to them not only for their contribution to the civilization but also for their art and crafts. Thus Egypt made several unique and valuable contributions to the world.
This civilization flourished In a region between two rivers, I. Both the rivers, the Euphrates kms long and the Tigris km long, have their source in the mountains of Amnenia. The valley between these two rivers is In the shape of crescent and the region Is fertile, hence Is known as the fertile crescent'. The fertility of the soil and availability of water UJ attracted many tribes to this region.
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The peculiar feature of the Mesopotamian civilization was its complex character. The historians tell us that they did not belong to the Aryan or the Semitic race. They settled in the southern part of Mesopotamia near the Persian Gulf.
They adopted city state type of government. Sumer was their chief city state, so they were called Sumerians. Their city states were governed by patesis Priest Kings. They had no physical barriers to prevent immigrations. So their kingdom was conquered by the Semitic king of Akkad, Saragon I.
Amorites were called Babylonians and their powerful king was Hammurabi. His reign witnessed all round prosperity and was sometimes described as the golden age of Mesopotamia.
Later on Assyrians conquered Mesopotamia.
They were cruel and believed in terror activities. The chief centres of Assyrian power were Assur and Nineveh. Later on they were conquered by the Chaldeans. The Chaldean empire reached the zenith of its prosperity during the reign by Nebuchad nezzar. He built the famous "Hanging Garden", which is considered as one of the wonders of the ancient world.
As a result of the joint contribution of the Sumerians, the Babylonians and the Assyrians, there flourished a great civilization in Mesopotamia for long time. Social Life The society was divided into three strata, the fanners, labourers and the slaves. The social regulation was based on religion.
The temples were the centres of education. Women had a honoured position. Agriculture was highly developed. They carried trade with Indus and Nile Valley people. The Babylonian merchants carried on commerce by barter at first, and the city of Babylon became the centre of the international commerce. Cuneiform Script The Sumerians evolved a system of writing with wedge shaped letters called cuneiform.
They wrote on wet clay tablets. They were then baked or dried. A large number of these clay tablets have been found. They used nearly signs. Their writings were from right to left. Most of the books of this period described gods and their activities. One of the most famous of these is the Epicof Gilgamesh. Hanging Garden of Babylon Cuneiform Script Science and Astronomy The science, especially astronomy and medicine had made astonishing progress.
Sun dials and water clocks were used to measure time. They made use of a Lunar calendar of days divided into 12 months. The ziggurat or towered building also served as an observatory. Ancient Chaldean astronomers Naburi and Kidinnu made many contributions to the science of astronomy.
They adopted units of sixty to count time. The Sumerians mostly used Sexagesimal system of counting. The concept of seven days constituting a week also goes back to the days of Chaldeans. Their chief god was Marduk and his queen Nanshe.
The Gods named Shamash, Nannar and Tammuz were worshiped by them. The tower temples known as Ziggu rats were built by them. Their scuiptures were inferior to those of the Egyptians. Code of Hammurabi Hammurabi was the greatest of the Babylonian rulers. IHe is famous in history as a warrior, conqueror, administrator and builder. The code of Hammurabi is the first written code of laws known to history.
This had earned Hammurabi the title 'The world's first Law g i ver". The code covered almost all aspects of man's life, for exampie debt, marriage, divorce, property, payment of taxes etc. The code contained 4 parts namely a civil code, a code of procedure, a penal code and commercial code. The civil code recognized 3 classes of citizens, freemen, semi-freemen and slaves.
The second part dealt with courts, rules and appointment of civil and religious judges. The penal code fixed punishment of crimes. This law based on the idea of "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth" is similar to the Mosaic Law. The laws fixed prices and wages, organized trade and fixed the rate of interests.
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These Laws, were engraved on a tall column of 2. Art and Architecture The Mesopotamians developed a distinct form of architecture. Arches, tombs and pillars were the notable features of their architecture. Hammurabi Code 8 The tower of Babel was considered one of the wonders of the ancient world and another which finds mention in the Bible was a Ziggurat raised to the Sun God.
According to one account it rose to a height of about m and measured about 95m wide at the base. The civilization represents the largest unbroken chain of development known to humanity.
The role of rivers Hwang- Ho, and Yang-tze Kiang are significant in shaping the culture, civilization and history of China. As the annual floods in Hwang-Ho causes much destruction to people, their possessions and agriculture, It is known as the 'sorrow of China'- The geography and topography of China had made its civilization to develop in isolation. The Chinese people belonged to the Mongol race. They have yellow complexion, short, oblique eyes, snubbed nose and black hair.
The Shang dynasty BC unified the territories of Yellow river. After the decline of Chou Dynasty China became disunited and feudal lords reigned supreme. Hence this age is known as feudal age. Shi - Huang -Ti who belonged to Chin dynasty, put an end to the feudal control. He is remembered in history as the builder of the great wall of China, one of the wonders of the ancient world.
Socio- Economic Condition The Chinese society was divided into the privileged and unprivileged classes. The nobility and the priests enjoyed most of the privileges in China. The life of peasants was generally miserable. Slavery and forced Labour were common features. Women were not given much freedom in the society.
The system of foot binding was common among women. They had no right to property. However there was no hereditary bureaucracy in China. The officials were chosen from a class known as "Mandarin" who were selected through a series of public examinations. After the spread of Confucianism, there was marked change in the society.
The Chinese cleared and drained the Hwang-Ho basin and cultivated crops; there canal irrigation was in practice. They wove silk garments which attracted the attention of the world trade. They developed the ceramic art to a very fine manner and even now ceramic cups are called as China cups. The horse was known to them and was used in warfare. The earliest commodities of trade in China were silk, ceramics, salt and iron.
There were guilds to protect the interest of the merchants. The popular drink "Tea" is also a gift of the ancient Chinese to the modem world. Religion and Philosophy Chinese believed in ancestor worship and made oferings to them. They also worshipped petty village deities and believed in the existence of good and evil sprits. To welcome the good spirits and ward off evil spirits, they used to build towers in each village and burst crackers to ward ofT evil spirits.
They believed that a mythological dragon was protecting their land and people. The great Chinese thinker LaoTse condemned ritualistic practices, and advised people to go with nature. Confucius, the great Chinese philosopher emphasized that, moral living, discipline and duty consciousness alone would lead us to peaceful and prosperous society.
Later on Buddhism was introduced and it soon became the most influential religion in China. Their writing was done on bones or tortoise shells with the help of some sharp instrument. In 2"" century A. D they invented the paper. Silk pieces were also used for writing. The Chinese pencils were made of bamboo.
Some of the valuable scientific discoveries owe their origin to ancient China. Theories of Lunar and Solar eclipses were also developed. They made some scientific inventions like the Water Mill, the Mariner compass, the gun powderand paper currency. Water Mill An anatomical study of human bodies was popular. In mathematics they introduced abacus method.
One of the noblest contributions of ancient China was its art of block printing. The Chinese civilization has left an indelible mark on human progress and cultural legacy of the world.
The early Greeks came and settled in Greece in different groups as Achaeans, lonians and Dorians. They came from the Danube River Valley. Greece is a peninsula washed by the Adriatic, the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas. The main land of Greece is full of rugged mountains. Its crisscross ranges cut up the main land into hundreds of valleys. One of the significant features of Greek civilization has been their city states. Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Thebes etc. Each of the city states 10 11 had its own government and rulers.
Democratic Governments were set up. The city states often quarreiied among themseives. The Athenian democracy reached its zenith during the ruie of Pericies. Ultimateiy the wars and conquests of Philip and Alexander of Macedonia put an end to the city states and Alexander built the first Greek Empire. As a result of this, trade developed between Europe and Asia.
In the field of language and literature the contribution of Greece is unparalleied. The iliad and Odyssey are the great epics written by a blind poet iHomer.
The most famous Greek philosophers were Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Plato was the student of Socrates. IHe wrote the book The Repubiic". Aristotle was a phiiosopher and a scientist, and he was the teacher of Aiexander.
Socrates is regarded as the father of Westem phiiosophy. IHerodotus Aristotle The Greeks considered science and philosophy as two sides of the same coin. Ptolemy a geographer and astronomer believed that the earth was the centre of the universe geocentric theory. The Greek contribution to the science of Mathematics, especially to geometry was really great.
Pythagoras was a great mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and philosopher. The temples in ancient Greece especially that of Zeus in Alexandria are the best specimens of Greek art and architecture. The best example of Greek architecture is the tempie dedicated to goddess Athena in Parthenon. Myron and Phidias were the famous sculptors of ancient Greece. The Greeks were pioneers in the field of sports and games too. Since BC, they used to conduct Olympiad festival in every four years, this Olympiad festival is the inspiration for the international Olympics of modem times.
The achievement of Myron ancient Greeks in the spheres of philosophy, literature, science and sports are marvellous, it is the Greeks who gave the worid the idea of freedom, namely freedom of thought, speech or writing.
The Roman Civilization The Apennine peninsula in the middle of the Mediterranean region had been the cradle of the Roman civilization.
That peninsular territory is called Italy" and the name Italy is of Greek origin. The river basins of "po" and "Tiber" were the centres ofy 12 civilizational activities. Tlie Alps mountain ranges in tlie north prevent the cold polar winds from penetrating into Italy, thus provide a very pleasant climate to Italy. In fact the Roman civilization can be deemed as Italian Civilization. In the beginning monarchical system prevailed in Italy.
There were Assemblies and Senates to advise and assist the kings. In due course, kingships were given up and "republics" were established. Of these republics the Republic of Rome emerged as the most powerful one. It is believed that the city of Rome was founded in B.
The "Senate" was the legislative wing of the Republic. In that senate the propertied and influential class known as the Patricians wielded much influence. The common people who had no property were called "Plebians" After a protracted struggle, the plebians too gained representations in the senate.
The administrative powers were in the hands of three elected consuls. Theplebians later on secured recognition of their rights through codes of law.
These codes engraved in slabs of woods were known as the "Laws of Twelve Tables" Rome in the process of its expansion, had to fight three wars with the state of Carthage in North Africa.
The brave Carthagenian general Hannibal was finally defeated. All these wars made Rome a society of slaves and slave holders. The rich vied with one another in possessing slaves and accumulating wealth, resulting in moral decay of the whole society. The JuOus Caesar rule of the Consuls was followed by the rise of Julius Caesar, the most powerful general and popular leader and the foremost of the dictators of Rome. Though he introduced many reforms in the senate and improved the condition of the poor, the enemies of Caesar murdered him in a senate meeting in 44 BC.
After his death, his nephew Octavious Caesar became the undisputed master of the Roman Empire. He was given the title of 'Augustus' meaning the "magnificent", He ruled for forty one years. He completed the work which Caesar started. They grew bariey, wheat, beans, grapes, figs etc. Along with agriculture, they domesticated animals, such as oxen, sheep, horses, assess and goats. Roman nobles employed large number of slaves fordoing agricultural work and cattle rearing.
The Romans had trade relations with India, Arabia, and China. Rome once expanded in territory, therearose another class in society. This class consisted of slaves, who were engaged to work in estates. As time passed on, the slaves began to occupy high position in the state. Roman conquests and its affluence, made the rich to squander their wealth in extravagance. These Laws were codified by a later ruler Justinian and that code is known as the "Corpus Juris Civils " or "Justinian code" The Roman concept of "Pax Romagna" ensured rule of law through out the empire and it prohibited discriminations in Judicial procedures.
Religion played an important part in Roman government and life.
They worshipped many gods; Janus, the double faced god, protected their home and family, Jupiter was the god of sky and Mars protected their armies. Venus was worshipped as the goddess of love. Prayers and sacrifices were offered by the priests on behalf of the Roman people. At first the emperors were hostile to Christianity and persecuted Christians. Christianity was popular among the slaves.
In due course Rome became the seat of the Pope, the religious head of the Christians. Roman art shows distinct Greek influence. They copied the Greek style in the construction of columns, or pillars. Pompey was a great architect.
Their contributions to architecture are the arch and the dome. They developed mural paintings. The Romans developed their own alphabet and their language was known as Latin. Rome produced some remarkable literary figures. Livy wrote History of Rome. Another famous historian was Tacitus.
His "Annals and Histories" is a trust worthy work on Roman Government and society. Virgil wrote an epic poetry.
Cicero was a versatile genius. Seneca, Plautus and Terence were the most popular Roman dramatists who borrowed liberally from the Greeks. Cicero, Seneca and Marcus Aurelius Antoninus were notable philosophers.
In the field of science, the Romans improved the medical science, Pliny, the Elder wrote a Natural History which contains scientific facts. Ptolemy a Greek and a great astronomer and geographer lived in the Roman empire. Galen was the greatest physician of his time. He studied the respiratory system and related diseases and wrote number of medical treaties. The world is indebted to the Roman's for their share in the march of human civilization.
The Romans acted as agents to spread and preserve much of what the ancient, Greeks had left behind as their legacy. The Latin language, the concept of Pax Romagna emphasising on one world, one citizenship and one law the military system, works of engineering and codified law are precious contributions of the Romans to the world civilization. H Breasted described the area as the "fertile crescent".
The form of writing was cunie form. Epic of Gilgamesh was famous. The code of Hammurabi is the first written code of laws to history. They were polytheistic in the religion.
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The hanging gardens of Babylon were also another wonder of the ancient world. The contributions in the field of Astronomy, Medicine and Geometry were noteworthy. The Ziggurat served as an observatory. The Astronomers Nabu and Kidinnu were famous. Described as the "Gift of Nile" or the "Daughter of the Nile".
Monarchs called as Pharaohs ruled. The form of writing was Hieroglyphics. Egyptians were first to make paper from a plant called papyrus. They were worshippers of Nature, Ra, Osiris, iris and Horus was their god and goddesses.
They embalmed dead body known as IVIummy was famous. The Pyramids and the Sphinx were the most beautiful and wonderful specimens of Egyptian art and architecture.
The most famous and the largest of pyramid is found in Giza. The temple of Karnak and Abu Simbel were fine monuments of the Egyptian temple architecture. The contribution in the field of mathematics was very much astonishing.
The cycle of Zodiac is a gift of Egyptians to the science of Astronomy and Astrologers. Described as "Yellow River" and also referred as the "River of Sorrow".
System of Monarchy was followed. The teaching of Confucius was very popular and important. The hot beverage "Tea" is a gift to modern world. The Chinese Scholars have also contributed to the Astronomical Science. They could also foretell the Eclipse correctly. The land of Greece lies in the region of the Balkan peninsula. The land juts into the Mediterranean Sea. Different groups as Achaeans, lonians and Dorian's settled in Greece.
The most famous philosophers were Socrates, Plato, Aristotle. Iliad and Odyssey were the great epics. The language was of Indo European origin. The Greeks have mastered in Epic, Drama, Poetry and history. Homer, Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides were dramatists. Herodotus, Thucydides and Plutarch were historians and Biographers. Science and Philosophy are the two sides of the same coin. Euclid was a eminent mathematician Hippocrates is the father of modern medicine.
The best architecture of Greece is the temple dedicated to Goddess Athena in pantheon. Myron and Phidias were the famous Sculptors of ancient Greece.
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Italy was the centre of the early Roman Civilization. River Tiber runs through the centre of Italy Oligarchy was the form of government and the idea of republicanism was their contribution.
Jupiter, Mars, Juno and Mercury were the other gods. Romans developed their own Alphabet and Latin became their language. Cicero, Marcus and Aurelius were the most famous Philosophers of Rome. Horace and Virgil were famous Poets. The Romans contribution to architecture is the Arch and the Dome. The Romans improved the Medical Science by giving medicines freely to the poor.
The significant contribution of Romans is their calendar. Gun powder was invented by. Pyramids Hilly region 2. Great wall Babylone 3. Hanging garden Rome 4. All roads lead to China 5. V Answer in a Paragraph. VI a Mark the following places on the outline map of the world. The reformers of all over the world raised their voice against the existing social beliefs and systems and endeavoured to reconstruct them on a rational basis. In Persia, Zoroaster launched his protest against the prevailing religious superstitions and in China, people welcomed the philosophic teachings of Confucius which gave them a higher conception of duties in life.
It was an age when people in India were disgusted with old philosophical, religious and social dogmas and were striving for hoiistic alternatives. The new philosophy of revolt was anti - establishment in form and anti-caste in spirit. The ultimate aim of the revolt was not only spiritual but also materialistic. In due course some of the socio- intellectual movements assumed a religious form.
Jainism, Zoroastriarism, Buddhism. The thinkers of the new movements were intellectual philosophers-and concerned with life as a philosophy of power and knowledge. In India such thinkers were the wandering teachers Sramanas. They rejected the authority of the Vedas and Vedic priests, denounced the bloody sacrifices which constituted a very large part of the Brahmanic rituals and they did not make their philosophy and doctrines, god-centric ones.
Confucianism Early Chinese religion was essentially a worship of spirits and ancestors, but there was a tendency towards monotheism in the fomn of worship of the supreme ruler or the spirit of heaven. Heaven was the chief nature-spirit, the forefather of the emperor, and chief of the ancestor spirits. Heaven was not considered a place. Confucius Confucius was not the founder of any religion nor was he even a religious reformer. I n his own words, he was "not a maker but a transmitter, believing in and loving the ancients".
Like Gautama, he at first lived a life of luxury. His restless and penetrating mind would not allow him to remain in active. Like Socrates, Confucius was a great teacher. He established a school, in which he taught history, poetry and rules of propriety.
Those who were in superior positions as father, teacher, husband or ki ng had the responsibility of providing protection and fair treatment to the dependents; and if they failed in their responsibility, revolt would become unavoidable. Thus Confucius Kung-Fu-Tse was advocating a fair social order based on discipline and fairness to all.
It would be difficult to overestimate the influence of Confucius on the Chinese people. Most Chinese scholars took pride in being his disciples. For more than 2, years, the philosophy of Confucius moulded and dominated the Chinese mind. At that time they practiced polytheism and worshipped several deities representing natural forces, like Mitra, Varuna, Surya etc; they indulged in costly, bloody and senseless rituals, leading to exploitation of people by priestly class.
Polytheistic faith and superstitions obstructed social unity, rational thought and moral life. Greed and selfishness ruined Persian Society. There was a need for a healthy philosophical base to redeem the Persian society from degeneration and chaos. It was at that time that Zoroaster Zarathustra appeared in Persia and gave them a better socio-religious order in the form of Zoroastrianism. He was concerned with the superstitions, barbaric religious cults, polytheism and moral degeneration in Iran.
He was pained to see that his people paid no discrimination between good and evil, right and wrong, individual greed and social need and between faith and superstitions. To begin with, he asked the people to give up polytheistic cults, and to accept Ahura Mazda as the only god, representing good and right.
Ahura Mazda, personified as sun ,flre and light, had been carrying on a relentless struggle against the evil forces Devas who represented ignorance, selfishness and all vices. The struggle between good and evil became the central theme of Zoroastrianism. This struggle is manifested not only among humans, but also in all natural expressions. He asked his people to be with the good, and abjure everything that was evil so as to attain salvation and immortality.
His concept of good and evil strengthened the moral base of Persian society and his monotheism served the cause of social unity among Persian people. The Zoroastrian Ahura Mazda cult did not involve in costly rituals. Zoroaster 20 Zoroastrians could practice Mazda worship in tlie form of fire worsliip in their own houses. For them the body is only the instrument of spirits hence the corpse dead body did not deserve reverence or preservance.
Hence the Parsees neither cremate nor bury their dead, instead they expose the corpses to disposal by nature to decomposition or to be consumed by animals or birds. This method of disposal of the dead is considered as rejection of superstitious practices centered round death, and this contrasts the Egyptian practice of mummification.
Zoroaster's teachings are found in Zend Avesta, the holy scripture of the Parsees. The Social unity brought in by Zoroastrianism, made it to gain economic and political strength. Very soon, the Persians built a political civilization and powerful empire. Their Achaemenian empire emerged as the largest empire in the middle east.
Ahura Mazda In due course superstitious rituals, and priestly dominance crept into the Zoroastrian system. However the Zoroastrian concepts of monotheism and the ongoing struggle between the good and evil, the necessity of humans identifying themselves with the good for salvation, influenced the theologies and philosophies of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. They recognised the realties view of life.
Their doctrines of Karma did not accept the belief that man's destiny is being pre-determined by super natural forces. Instead, man's own activities Karma determine his future. Hence man can seek salvation not from religious rituals, but by righteous conduct. Mahavira Jainism was as old as the Rig Veda. It was a revolt against the then existing Brahmanism. The new system wanted to make religion simple and avoid irrational rituals. It gave new socio-religious code of conduct.
The Jains claim that their religion derives its tenets from 24 preceptors of different ages. These preceptors are called Thirthankaras. The earliest Thirthankara was called Rishabha. However only the 23'" and 24" Thirthankaras are considered to be historical figures. He became an ascetic and preached four disciplines to his disciples. Non - injury to living beings ahimsa 2. Many of them are in tamil only kindly publish in english also 6th to 10th.
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