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The Hiram Key: Pharaohs, Freemasonry, and the Discovery of the Secret Scrolls of Jesus, is a . Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Lomas // The Hiram Key // Arrow, // Was Jesus a Freemason? of // Turning the Templar Key pdf file. The Book Of Hiram // ISBN // Jun Knight wrote The Brotherhood. All in all there have been over sixty accounts of Masonic ritual but they all have one thing in common. They were written with the .

The Hiram Key Pdf

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The Hiram Key. Pharaohs, Freemasons and the Discovery of the Secret Scrolls of Jesus. Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas. BARNES. & 8 0 OKS. books of the Lemegeton in the same breath, Ars Almade!, Ars Notoria, and. Ars Paulina The Lesser Key of Solomon Grammar Practice for Upper Intermediate . Ships from and sold by The Hiram Key: Pharaohs, Freemasons and the Discovery of the Secret Scrolls of Jesus Paperback – August 1, Robert Lomas is the co-author of The Hiram Key, The Second Messiah, and Uriel's Machine.

Apr 08, Pages Buy. Apr 08, Pages. Freemasonry, with its arcane rituals, occult symbols, and labyrinthine hierarchy, has mystifi ed the outside world for centuries. But it has become apparent that even the most senior Freemasons do not understand its ancient origins or purpose. So what is this powerful and arcane organization really for? They predicted the birth of the coming Messiah, and Jesus Christ was part of their mission. Soon after the Crucifi xion they were nearly wiped out by a program of mass genocide conducted by the Romans; later, in feudal Europe, they grew to a position of unparalleled power before being branded as heretics and forced underground.

A further piece of information emerged in March when visiting the library of Scottish Grand Lodge with the famous biblical scholar, Professor Philip Davies.

On this occasion we were looking at an uncata- logued volume written almost two hundred years ago by Dr Anderson. As Philip studied the words his lips puckered in concentration before he stated that this appeared to suggest that this Hiram was father- to King Solomon. But as everyone knows, David was Solomon's father, so Philip's only thought to make sense of what he saw was to suggest that perhaps it might mean that Hiram was the king's father-in-law. On the balance of probabilities we now accept that the character referred to in Masonic ritual as Hiram Abif could be the worker in metals supplied to work on Solomon's Temple by Hiram, King of Tyre.

However, this poten- tial identification does nothing to explain his relationship to King Solomon or to illuminate why this legend is so important within Freemasonic lore. In the Third Degree the candidate is told how a group of fifteen stone- masons wanted to extract the genuine secrets of a master mason from their master, Hiram Abif, so they planned to ambush him when he paused from his labours to give praise to a god referred to as the 'Most High'.

The words of the ritual state:. On the eve of carrying their conspiracy into execution, twelve of the fifteen recanted, but three of a more determined and atrocious character than the rest persisted in their impious designs, for which purpose they placed themselves respectively at the south, west and east gates of the Temple, whither our Master Hiram Abif had retired to pay his adoration to the Most High, as was his wonton custom, it being the hour of high twelve.

Whilst the proposed Temple was to house the 'new' god of the Jews, who was temporarily living in a tent, He was not seen as particularly important even to Solomon, who later stopped worshipping Him altogether.

However, Hiram's choice of deity will undoubtedly not trouble the can- didate too much, because at this point of the ritual he suddenly realises that he is about to become a murder victim. As the Worshipful Master tells how Hiram was struck a blow to the forehead at the south gate a blow is tapped to the side of the candidate's head, and the process repeated at the west gate. Then at the east gate the coup de grace is delivered and the can- didate is struck a 'fatal' blow to the centre of the head.

This can be done gently or vigorously. Scottish Freemasons are particularly famous for entering into the full spirit of the occasion, and many a poor candidate has been hurled to the floor in fear of his life.

The candidate is held straight so that he hinges backwards onto a funeral shroud previously placed on the floor that is immediately draped around him so only his eyes are uncovered. At this point the Masons of the lodge walk around the edge of the 'grave', and finally three attempts are made to retrieve the brother from the arms of death.

The first two fail because they use methods from the previous degrees, but the third technique, pecu- liar to the third degree, succeeds.

With the assistance of the deacons the 'cadaver' is 'resurrected' from his tomb with a special grip applied by the Worshipful Master. Still in near- total darkness, the body swings upwards to be held in a complicated cer- emonial position, an embrace where the Master and Candidate touch each other at five distinct points.

The ritual name for this embrace is the 'Five Points of Fellowship'. Whilst in this position an incantation is spoken into the ear of the candidate, who is then shown the black grave just behind and to the west of him, which has a real human skull and crossed thigh bones placed upon it to represent the candidate's own mortal remains.

Next, the Worshipful Master directs the candidate's gaze towards the east, where he can see a five-pointed star shining in the darkness between the twin pil- lars of Boaz and Jachin. This star, he is told, is 'the bright star of the morning' - which is the planet Venus rising some minutes ahead of the Sun at dawn From this moment onwards, the man raised from the darkness of his figurative tomb will be a Master Mason for the rest of his life.

It is impor- tant to note that whilst the candidate represented the character of Hiram Abif up to the point of the ritual slaying, there is no suggestion that Hiram was ever resurrected. The most important information given to the newly 'raised' Mason is that the genuine secrets of a Master Mason were lost 'with the death of our Grand Master Hiram Abif'.

When we wrote The Hiram Key we had only the vaguest notion of the content of many of the so-called 'Higher Degrees' of Freemasonry, bur after the publication of this book we were contacted by hundreds of people with new information. Some would arrive by post, and sometimes when we were speaking at lodge meetings we would be given old documents of ritual that had been kept in dusty drawers for generations. Whilst researching The Second Messiah we came across a particularly significant source of mate- rial that pushed our researches forward in a lecture entitled 'Freemasonry and Catholicism' written by a Balkan scholar from Bosnia-Herzegovina by the name of Dimitrije Mitrinovic.

Mitrinovic came to live in London around the time of the First World War and he went on to become a leading figure in the 'Bloomsbury Group', a collective of intellectuals who took their name from the district near the British Museum in central London where most of the members lived. The statement which had attracted our attention was this:. Christ betrayed the secret word of Masonry. Let Masons receive Christ back into Masonry. Masonry has been the expression of Christianity for the last years.

Mitrinovic was not a Freemason and it had taken us seven years of wide- ranging research, using our specialist Masonic knowledge, to come to this view, so we wondered how he had reached the same conclusion.

Freemasonry and Catholicism in the New Order. We eventually tracked the collection down and found that they had been stacked in boxes after Mitrinovic died and stored in the back of his niece's garage for over forty years.

When eventually the time came to clear out his old books, wanting to give Mitrinovic's library a good home she decided to donate them to a university. Fortunately the university that offered to house them was Bradford, where Robert teaches. Back in , when we first became interested in Mitrinovic's books, they were not on public display because the new extension to the JB Priestley Library had not then been completed. Like many other more obscure books they were temporarily stored in the basement of the library in an area known as 'the stack'.

This consisted of a large windowless storeroom with a series of racked bookshelves set on rails in the floor. To access the inner shelves the outer bookcases, which were ten feet high and thirty feet long, had to be cranked aside, using a large handle.

When Robert requested access to the collection it took him nearly half an hour just to trundle aside the eight outer bookcases which had to be moved to reach the volumes assembled by Mitrinovic. In I he Second Messiah we discussed the implications of some of the Masonic commentaries that Mitrinovic had saved, but it was later, once his collection was properly shelved and catalogued, making it accessible without having to squirm into a narrow steel tunnel to reach them, that other Masonic treasures came to light.

Among the more general tomes were early copies of Masonic rituals which are no longer in use. One ritual book dated from the early nineteenth century and contained full details, illustrated with beautiful woodcuts, of all the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry.

This book alone was a won- derful find, as it contained accounts of rituals which had not been sub- jected to the hugely damaging modifications conducted at the behest of the Duke of Sussex, the First Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England in Browsing through the rituals in this fascinating book we noticed a sec- tion on the Royal Arch of Enoch.

The Hiram Key Series by Christopher Knight

Now we knew that the book of the prophet Enoch was lost in the early Christian period and not rediscovered until Yet the preface of this book claimed that the rituals it con- tained dated back to at least , and we could see that they went into. These themes were not widely accepted until the dis- covery of multiple copies of the Book of Enoch during the twentieth cen- tury, a point we will discuss more fully later.

How did these old myths come to hold such pride of place amongst these discarded rituals unless they were a survival of an ancient verbal tradition? Whilst researching Uriel's Machine we had become aware that a Masonic ritual relating to Enoch existed, but it had not been worked for over two hundred years, since the time of the Duke of Sussex.

Now as we read the original workings we found a description of a strange triangular pedestal, with sides of exactly the same length and angles of 60 degrees, making it equilateral. This shape was described as the 'Delta of Enoch' and was explained as the symbol by which the Mighty Architect of the Universe chose to reveal Himself to Enoch.

The pedestal was said to have been an important part of the furniture of the original Temple which Enoch built on the site which is now known as Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The ritual explained how Solomon's workers found this threefold altar in a buried vault beneath the abandoned ruins of an earlier temple which Solomon at first attributed to 'pagans' who occupied the site before his father David seized it.

At the time this meant little to us, but we were later to discover that the symbol of the equilateral triangle was of immense significance within the early Canaanite religion of the Jebusites, who built Jerusalem.

What did strike us, as we read this two-hundred-year-old printed ritual book, was that it seemed to be extremely familiar with early Jewish traditions and legends that were only recovered and confirmed in detail during archae- ological excavations carried out within the last fifty years.

This printed ver- sion of an older verbal ritual seemed to be preserving the story of a tradition of Canaanite temple building which was not recorded either in the Bible or in other early sources we were familiar with. When we read it we did not know of any earlier temples in Jerusalem that pre-dated Solomon's, but we were soon to find that there is very good archaeological evidence for just such a Canaanite tradition. We wondered what other lost traditions these old rituals might contain, and just how we could systemise our investigation of the various themes of early ritual.

Over recent years we have built up a considerable collection of old rit- uals and lectures, but in paper form. Now books, although often very beau- tiful objects, are not simple to search or sequence for their information. Robert set about the task of scanning the oldest versions of each degree to incorporate them into the website we called The Web of Hiram. As his work of digitising the ritual proceeded, it was clear both that there was a complex story being told throughout the sequence of degrees, and that it was not being told in chronological order.

This reali- sation led us to try to reconstruct the complete story which had once been told by Masonic ritual. It took a long time to complete the task but, as we will show, we have reconstructed an alternative account of history as told in the discarded and censored rituals of Freemasonry.

It is told in the Masonic Testament to be found in Part Two of the book. The website that Robert created has now been adopted by Bradford University and is freely available for anyone interested in the, arguably, more authentic rituals of Freemasonry. Another of our early discoveries was that the ritual of the Ancient and Accepted rite mentioned a question which had been bothering us.

What happened after the death of Hiram Abif, when the true secrets of Masonry were lost? Our reconstruction of the alternative account of history contained in Freemasonic ritual that we were now calling The Masonic Testament makes this comment about the two men who retained the true secrets of the ritual: Each Mason will apply our symbols and ceremonies according to his faith.

In no other way could Masonry possess its universality - that character which has ever been peculiar to it from its origin, and which enabled two kings, worshippers of different Deities, to sit together as Grand Masters while the walls of the first Temple arose; and the men of Gebal, who bowed down to the Phoenician gods, to work by the side of the Hebrews, to whom those gods were an abomination.

From this comment we began to suspect that there must have been a tra- dition of some tension between the religions of Solomon and the king of Tyre which might be reflected in the ritual. According to Masonic tradi- tion both of them accepted the Third Degree ritual as a suitable substitu- tion for the lost secrets, 'until time should again reveal the real ones'.

We were convinced that tne implication of this ritual statement is that both.

We were beginning to suspect that a key point of this degree is the fact that the death and resurrection of the man takes place on a line with his feet in the east and head in the west. When the candidate is 'raised1 from his tomb his head rises in a curve towards the east to meet Venus, which is also rising above the horizon. The east-west line marks the equinox, the point of equilibrium between the two solstices when there are twelve hours of day and twelve of darkness.

The three degrees of Craft Freemasonry could therefore be seen as entirely astronomical. First the total novice is given information on the line of the Sun at dawn on the summer solstice, then he is advanced to the second degree on the line of the winter solstice, and finally he is made a Master Mason on the line that precisely bisects the previous two: As we were to dis- cover, this is entirely consistent with the purpose of King Solomon's Temple and of Phoenician structures that long pre-dated it.

The Master of the lodge sits in the east between the two free-standing pillars called Boaz and Jachin in the Bible. He marks the rising Sun, and the planet Venus rises behind him just before dawn when a candidate is 'raised from his tomb'.

The Senior Warden sits in the west to mark the set- ting Sun and the Junior Warden is in the south representing the Sun at noon. In English lodges there is normally a blazing Sun in the centre of the ceiling with a five-pointed star around it and the letter 'G' inside it, signi- fying God.

This association between the Sun and God is evident throughout Masonic ritual, when He is sometimes referred to as the 'Most High' - lit- erally the most high in the heavens. There are two officers known as deacons who move around the Masonic Temple with the candidate but are officially stationed in the northeast and the southwest along the line of the summer solstice sunrise.

They each carry with them a long rod, usually known as a 'wand', which we believe was once used to mark the angle of the sunrise and sunset by the shadow it cast. It is recorded that the deacons of the earliest Scottish lodges were sent for to align churches. In our book, Uriel's Machine, we said that we believed that churches were once aligned eastwards where the break of day at the location was deemed to be 'east'.

The first shadow cast from the deacon's wand would be taken as the line of the north wall. We fur- ther speculated that it should be possible to work out the name of an old church by considering the local topography and then calculating the two. The church would have been named after one of the saints whose day it was.

For example, a church aligned to either solstice is very likely to be called St John's Church. We have found a chain of belief that has survived being passed through several different cultures to end up in modern Masonic Temples, where it is now faithfully recited without any understanding.

It is over six years since we published The Hiram Key, and over the course of researching two further books together we have accumulated a consid- erable amount of extra material which throws a great deal of light on ques- tions we were originally forced to leave unanswered.

To try and deduce what might really be hidden under Rosslyn we have collected as many early Masonic rituals as we can, and Robert created an interlinked website to allow us to view the material in a variety of different sequences. We intend to use this invaluable research tool to investigate the complex, convoluted and mainly discarded myths of Freemasonry in a degree of detail never before attempted.

When we distil Freemasonry down to its key components we are left with the following ideas:. These are not common ideas today, but there was a culture in prehistory that appears to have been built on exactly these notions. They are known as the Grooved Ware People. Neolithic people first arrived in the British islands, around the northern coast of Scotland, about 9, years ago, before the North Sea plain was flooded and while it was still possible to walk overland from Norway.

These people arrived soon after the glaciers of the last ice age retreated, uncovering ice-free land. When the sea level rose the lands became sepa- rate, but the Neolithic Scandinavians and the early Scottish population share a common ancestry.

In the western fringes of Europe these people are better remembered as being megalithic builders - the word means 'massive stones'. These early stonemasons inhab- ited what is now Wales, Scotland, Ireland, England, France, parts of southern Scandinavia and northern Spain as well as Malta. Today, people go about their daily business in these countries without a thought for the unknown people who once owned the land. England alone still has over 4 0 , 0 0 0 known megalithic sites that have survived for more than five thousand years.

We can appreciate how impressive this is if we ask ourselves what will remain of our own civilisation in 5, years' time when flimsy, modern buildings are so often demolished within a single generation. The climate in the British Isles at the time was far warmer than today,. The megalithic people, however, were both boat-builders and sailors, making great use of the sea as their highway. They colonised the many islands off the coast of Scotland, and there is plenty of evidence that they were trading widely.

For example, quarried stone found only on the island of Rum was used in buildings on the mainland and on other islands' of the Inner Hebrides. This maritime trading link appears to have extended to Scandinavia from the time of the earliest settlements.

So we have no formal information about their culture, such as we find with later groups such as the Sumerians and the ancient Egyptians. Archaeologists call them simply the 'Grooved Ware People' after the grooved designs that they etched into their clay pots. However, they did leave behind them a system of symbols that amounts to proto-writing, some of which can be understood because of its astronomical references. Most people are aware of the splendid stone circles that they erected, but they also constructed the earliest surviving stone buildings in the world, structures typically a thousand years older than the cities of Sumer.

The perceived quality of the stonework varied considerably from apparently unworked upright slabs to beautifully engineered vaulted chambers such as Maes Howe in Orkney, whose standard of construction has been described as 'one of the supreme achievements of Neolithic Europe'.

As archaeologist Dr Euan Mackie comments:. If the European megaliths, and even the Maltese temples, are older than the oldest towns then it is difficult to see how urban societies could have played any significant part in the great social processes which were under way in Atlantic Europe between and BC. The Megalithic Builders, Phaidon Press, The structures these people built included standing stones in various for- mations, tunnel mounds, earth mounds and ditches. They extend all the way along the coasts of Europe from southern Spain up as far as Scandinavia, also appearing on the northern Mediterranean coast as well as in southern Italy and in Malta.

There is even evidence that these types of stone structure were built in parts of North Africa, including Egypt and in Israel.

The whole of the British Isles is covered with them. Tunnel graves are an early type of structure whose contents often lend themselves to carbon dating, and we know that the megalithic mounds of Brittany pre-date BCE.

In Sir Norman Lockyer, who was at that time the editor of the prestigious scientific publication Nature, studied the temples of ancient Egypt and noticed that many were built so as to allow the Sun to shine on important parts of the interior on special days of the year.

He surveyed a number of sites in Britain including Stonehenge and arrived at the conclu- sion that some of the alignments he observed formed part of a calendar which was based on the solstices and the equinoxes.

An important megalithic settlement had been discovered half a century before Lockyer put forward his theory, when a severe storm washed away part of a sand dune on Orkney Mainland, and revealed ancient stone dwellings. The site, known as Skara Brae, was not properly excavated until archaeologist Professor Gordon Childe started a dig in What he found is generally accepted as the best-preserved prehistoric village in northern Europe. Skara Brae had been continuously occupied for approximately Before Civilisation 7 Lockyer, N: The built-in fireplaces, dressers, tables and stone beds have been pre- served.

The site consists of seven near-identical apartments and what may have been a workshop, or a brewery,10 and it is thought likely that there were more apartments that have been eroded into the sea. It is known that there was no supply of wood to burn, so firewood had to be brought in by boat from the Scottish mainland.

It is also evident from the study of bones that meat was shipped in, pre-butchered, which indi- cates that the inhabitants were considered to be important people who deserved to be carefully looked after. A quite different kind of stratified Neolithic society can be postulated. Such a society could have achieved all that Thom has suggested it did because the members of the elite would have been free from the need to obtain their own food and build their own dwellings and could have devoted their entire time to religious, scientific or other intellectual pursuits.

If our hypothesis of a Religious Revolution is approximately correct it began with the progressively wider establishment of professional priesthoods in early Neolithic times, from about BC.

This vision implies the existence of some type of formal training for these specialists. It is impossible to prove but, given the concentration of. The Megalithic Builders 12 Mackie, E: The Megalithic Builders. Megalithic structures across Orkney, it seems reasonable to suppose that Skara Brae might have been a kind of Neolithic university. No archaeologist would today deny that many megalithic sites are built with alignments to the solstices and equinoxes as well as towards key rising and setting points of the Moon and other heavenly bodies.

The man who, almost single-handedly, founded archaeoastronomy as a true science was Alexander Thom, a distinguished professor of engineering at Oxford University.

Thom, who spent fifty years of his life surveying and studying megalithic sites, made one of the most astounding breakthroughs in the field of archaeology. Thom first become interested in megalithic structures as a young man in his native Scotland. He began his surveying work because he suspected that the sites did have astronomical alignments. His painstaking measure- ment of site after site slowly produced data that indicated that these pre- historic builders, from the islands off northern Scotland right down to Brittany in France, had shared a standard unit of measurement.

It was sur- prising enough that they were so well organised as to agree an interna- tional standard unit, but the sheer precision with which the unit had been applied was truly amazing. The Megalithic Yard, as Thom called it, was clarified over the years he spent surveying, and eventually he defined it as being equal to 0.

Thorn's work was initially ignored by the archaeological establishment, but thanks to an objective study by statisticians it became accepted among numerate scientists that a system of measurement was in use over large expanses of prehistoric Europe. However, it is still ignored by some less well informed archaeologists, who proffer ludicrous notions such as the idea that this highly respected professor of engineering had fooled himself by identifying nothing more than the average pace of a megalithic builder.

Had these critics taken the time to check their supposed counter-. The existence of an ancient standard unit of length demonstrates that a shared mathematics was in use over a remarkably large geographical range. Professor Thom was convinced that he had found a genuine mathematical artefact in the Megalithic Yard, but he died without ever understanding how on earth these people had been able to reproduce such a precise meas- urement.

We have been able to solve this riddle because we came to it from a very unexpected direction. Our interest was a 2,year-old Jewish text found amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls in the ancient settlement known as Qumran, and we could never have guessed how this would lead us to the origin of the Megalithic Yard.

The Book of Enoch, popular in the first couple of centuries of the Christian era, soon became completely lost and was not found again until Scottish Freemason James Bruce went in search of it during the eighteenth century. He found what he was looking for, hidden away in Ethiopia, and when he translated it people were sure that this must be a heavily cor- rupted version, as it contained very strange material, including a whole sec- tion on incomprehensible astronomy.

The finding of several copies of this ancient text among the Dead Sea Scrolls demonstrated that Bruce had found an entirely authentic version. In the section entitled 'The Book of the Heavenly Luminaries' the reader is told how the early biblical hero Enoch was taken on a journey north- wards to be shown the secrets of astronomy. From the dates of the year given and the length of daylight seen, it is possible to reconstruct the lat- itude at which the observer must have been standing.

In Uriel's Machine we explained how this information led us to believe that the descriptions attributed to Enoch refer to a journey to the megalithic structures at Stonehenge in England and Newgrange in Ireland. We also knew that Jewish tradition places Enoch over five thousand years ago, when these megalithic sites were active.

This analysis sounded strange to some people because they view history as discreet units, sepa- rated by time and geography. The Catholic Herald informed its readers in very colourful language that this was 'bogus' research. Its correspondent Damian Thompson told us we were wrong. When we asked him why, he had to admit that he did not understand the calculations - but we had to be wrong because our conclusions sounded strange.

But we were not alone. We were later to find out that someone else,. Robin Heath, a scientist, academic and writer, had been interested in tracing the development of civilisation from western Europe to the so-called first civilisations of the Middle East. His research, conducted over many years, led him to conclude that the mega- lithic culture of western Europe was an important influence on the devel- opment of civilisation in the Middle East.

In his own words:. Despite the research of many people indicating that the megalith builders were practising high astronomy and geometry before BC, it still remains true that this culture is wholly undervalued as a vital component of our history.

Heath helped set up the Rationalist Press Association, which encour- aged research into the origins of scientific thought. As a child Robin Heath met Prof. Alexander Thom, who also worked at Oxford University and was a friend of his father. Robin became fascinated by Thorn's work on megalithic measurement systems, and when he retired as Head of Department at a South Wales Technical Institute he decided to look more closely at the megalithic culture which Alexander Thom had discussed with him so many years before.

In particular Heath was interested in investigating if there were common links to be found between the measurement systems of ancient cultures.


As he said:. The megalithic culture was until quite recently never considered to be other than an isolated phenomenon, a cultural oddity, and any possible links with other cultures were vehemently denied.

In particular he looked at the units of length used by the Egyptian and Sumerian cultures and used statistical tests to see if they were related to the Megalithic Yard. Making use of Thorn's highly accurate survey of Stonehenge, he noticed overlaps between Egyptian units of measurement - the royal cubit and the pharaonic inch - the Sumerian foot and the Megalithic Yard, a unit used throughout Western Europe. He comments on what he found:.

Sun, Moon and Stonehenge. Proof of High Culture in Ancient Britain. This observation led him to further observe that the geometry of the henge platform at Stonehenge, a structure known to have been built by the Grooved Ware People, used area measurement systems, based on an ancient Egyptian unit of area called the aroura and the modern acre, which had also been used in building the Great Pyramids at Giza.

He said of this:. Here we have a physical artefact representing historically validated measurement techniques, which are taken to be Egyptian in origin. He went on to add that this interpretation had to be called into question, as the ditch and henge at Stonehenge pre-dated the Great Pyramids by hun- dreds of years. In Heath's own words:. Who says that there are no accounts of the European megalithic culture and its astronomy in the Middle East cultural record? It appears that Enoch's observations were taken at or very near the latitude of Stonehenge.

Robert e-mailed Robin Heath and asked him his views on the possibility of Enoch visiting Newgrange as well as Stonehenge. He wrote back saying:.

During some interminable and unutterably boring maths lecture, whilst my lads were doing an examination, I sketched out a BASIC program to 'do' the latitude from his data. Enoch kindly gives us four repeats of each quarter of the sine wave19 that he is fumbling with, and I thought that this was reasonably good proof that the data would fit accurately to the original.

There are problems with the data. When is 'night' defined? It seemed a little post modern to ascribe 20 minutes after lighting up times, a la Highway Code, and being a bit of a dab hand at astronomy, I decided to plumb for half an hour after sunset and before dawn as a definition of 'night'. I ran the program that night at home, sometime in , debugged it for about an hour and came up with the revelation that Enoch wasn't in the Middle East.

I later ran the problem to my Navigation III students and they concluded that Enoch was observing through portals somewhere between 50 and 55 degrees, presumably north because the days lengthen in the spring time, he describes, and the Sun, of course, 'mounts up' at midsummer: We had concluded that it was more than just a coincidence that the Book of the Heavenly Luminaries is a dissertation on.

The way in which the day lengthens and shortens can be written down in a mathematical formula called a Sine wave. This knowl- edge and the formula which can be deduced from measurements of the time of daylight underlay Heath's calculations. In the end we found that the unit was derived from observing three fac- tors: Whilst these are obviously complex mat- ters, we found that anyone can reproduce a Megalithic Yard in one day using astronomical observation, a length of rope, two rods, a piece of twine and a stone with a hole in its centre.

A full description of the technique for making your own Megalithic Yard can be found in Appendix 1. When we announced that we had rediscovered the method of creating the Megalithic Yard some people thought we were mad.

Indeed, one highly- respected professor of astronomy who was there when we presented our findings at the Orkney Science Festival admitted that he put us down as being mad - until he checked our findings. Then Professor Archie Roy described our results on the origins of the Megalithic Yard as 'true science', adding that the discovery 'opened up a new chapter in our understanding of Megalithic Man'.

There are many impressive megalithic structures in the Boyne Valley of Ireland, but one is particularly large. Newgrange is a ,ton struc- ture that started to be built around 3 5 0 0 BCE - more than a thousand years before the Egyptians cleared the sands of the Giza Plateau for the Great Pyramid of Kufu and over two and a half thousand years before Hiram's team of builders laid the foundation stone of King Solomon's Temple.

The mound is made of river-rolled granite stones and the east-facing wall is faced with gleaming white quartz. The design of this building is unique, and yet it perfectly fits the building described in the Book of Enoch and is at a location that corresponds with the day and night data recorded in the book.

When we first visited Newgrange together, we missed a turning and ended up stopping by the roadside to look across the bright curve of the. River Boyne, towards the sparkling white sunlit frontage. The effect was nothing less than stunning. Had we not known what we were looking at it could have been taken as an ultra-modern building, having all the scale and dramatic presence of a Le Corbusier creation.

The Book of Enoch describes a night visit to a large, impressive structure at this latitude which was lit by a string of burning torches:. And I ivent in till I drew nigh to a wall ivhich is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire: The technique requires the reader to accept a basic premise, and then proceeds in a logical order; requiring the reader to weigh the merit of each step on the way to a conclusion.

If the initial premise, and each of the steps in logic towards the conclusion have merit, the conclusion can represent a legitimate, possible explanation. The authors of The Hiram Key propose a possible sequence of events that led to modern Freemasonry , although much of their narrative has been debated by historians and other researchers.

A criticism of their approach by those unfamiliar with the science of "dialectical progression" is that the authors have gathered irrelevant and often unevidenced 'facts' to arrive at an equally unproven theory. Even those familiar with the application of dialectics may concede that the conclusion of such logic is only as good as its weakest link. All Historical study is based on dialectical appraisal of evidence, and all sources of information subject to interpretation as the "weakest link.

Knight and Lomas are not professional historians nor have they any qualifications in history or research, and their case is open to the criticism that they accept references that fit their theory and reject those that conflict with it. Nonetheless they argue in the book that the foundations of the Christian religion are a distortion by the early Roman Catholic Church of the teachings of the real Jesus and his followers.

They claim to have found in Freemasonry a new 'key' to unlock the secrets of civilization. This key is also the key to the origins of Christianity and, they assert, proves that many of the beliefs of modern Religion may well have come to be, at least partly, through imprecise historical interpretation.

Knight and Lomas state that one of the main motivations in writing the book stemmed from a desire to ascertain the origins of Freemasonry, following their own experiences of being initiated into it. Did it arrive, fully formed at the foundation of the Premier Grand Lodge of England on 24 June , or was that the first public acknowledgement of something much older? One widely held theory is that Freemasonry evolved out of guilds of stonemasons.

Traditional Masonic ritual claims that one of the first Freemasons was Hiram Abiff , a widow's son from the tribe of Naphtali , who was the Architect of King Solomon's Temple. His name has never been recorded as such historically, although there is a similar character in the Old Testament of the Bible , who is not named, but is described as a widow's son, in the First Book of Kings.

Although not apparently named in some translations of the bible, others, such as the Coverdale translation and the original Martin Luther translation do indeed refer to him as "Hiram Abiff" or as "Huram Abi". The word "abi" is translated as "father" or "my father" in other translations whilst the Luther and Coverdale translations treated it as a personal name.

The Hiram Key

The Jewish Study Bible suggests that the word "father" is an honorific title applied to a skilled craftsman. The use of "abu" meaning "father" as an honorific is still used in the Middle East today, hence "Abukir" named after "Father" or Saint Cyril.

The book's authors claim that the stonemason-origin theory could be discounted because it had so many apparent fallacies. Splendor Solis. Georgiana Hedesan , Joscelyn Godwin , Dr. Stephen Skinner and Dr. Rafal T. Towards a New Manifesto. Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno.

The Hiram Key Revisited

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