THE SCIENCE OF INTERSTELLAR KIP THORNE PDF
Kip Thorne (Physicist). • Jonathan Nolan (screenwriter). • Christopher Nolan ( director). Closely involved in the script to make sure the science is as plausible as. Editorial Reviews. Review. "Eric Michael Summerer is an excellent choice for the narration of this challenging text." AudioFile. About the Author. Kip Thorne is. The Science of Interstellar to download this book the link is on the last page Yet in The Science of Interstellar, Kip Thorne, the Nobel.
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A Steve Jobs keynote presentation is an extraordinary expe- rience, and he. a passionate perfectionist and a visionary Beginning English Conversation. Kip Thorne Pasadena, California May 15, THE SCIENCE OF INTERSTELLAR. my friend Carl Sagan phoned me. I never imagined myself helping create. Yet in The Science of Interstellar, Kip Thorne, the Nobel prize-winning physicist who assisted Nolan on the scientific aspects of Interstellar.
Gravitational Waves. Where Can You Learn More? His infectious enthusiasm for science was obvious from our first conversation, as was his reluctance to proffer half-formed opinions. His approach to all the narrative challenges that I threw him was always calm, measured and above all, scientific. In trying to keep me on the path of plausibility, he never showed impatience with my unwillingness to accept things on trust although my two-week challenge to his faster-than-light prohibition might have elicited a gentle sigh. This attitude allowed him to enjoy the possibilities that speculative fiction presented for attacking paradox and unknowability from a different angle—storytelling.
Through this long hiatus. My reactions were sometimes wrong. I opened my e-mail queue to find a euphoric follow-on message: But she is a superb problem solver. Interstellar was going to be very expensive.
Finally in February Jonah was back. And waited. I was feeling a bit giddy. Then on June 9. Jonah Nolan. June Spielberg and Paramount could not reach an agreement for the next phase of Interstellar. Jonah called and told her. At last we were back on track. Steven and Lynda had independently told me. I envisioned Interstellar in limbo. I was devastated. So was Lynda. She and Christopher were interested. There were very few directors with whom Paramount would entrust a movie of this magnitude.
So we sat. Suddenly we had no director. I got an e-mail from Lynda: Lynda was tremulous with excitement. Our discussions were long. Jonah writes the initial drafts. As we talked. I fretted.
But she later confided having written these words to herself: Well chop my liver! In mid-January. His intuition was occasionally off the mark. Another producer could hand him a script he likes more. In that first meeting. At last! The Dark Knight Rises. Lynda e-mailed: They are brothers. They have a phenomenally successful history of collaborating on screenplays: The Prestige. He could decide to take a break.
The Science of Interstellar.pdf
So we wait. I laid on Chris my proposed science guidelines: Nothing will violate firmly established laws of physics. He could come up with his own idea. That shook me up a bit. Then I would have been wrong to have waited for him all this time. In front of me. Andy Thompson. He seemed positively inclined. That is my life. But with the movie now in postproduction.
The Dark Knight. Lynda projected an air of confidence. From time to time he or his assistant. Christopher Nolan would direct only if Paramount would share the movie with Warner Bros. And he was tremendously curious. It happens. Our conversations often diverged from Interstellar to some irrelevant science issue that fascinated him. Chris backed off and took that bit of the film in another direction. The next morning I would write up my thoughts in a several-paged memo with diagrams and pictures.
I almost always found a way to make them work. So in the end I have no qualms about defending what Chris did with the science.
And remarkable ideas arose from my discussions with Chris. He raised issues that made me think. As when working with Jonah. In the hands of Jonah and Chris. Chris brought remarkable science ideas of his own to the film. Only once did I fail miserably. It is so much better! And as for the science ideas: In response. On the contrary. In the late evening. He was modest in demeanor. I asked him which graphics company he was thinking of using for the visual effects.
Paul Franklin. He reminds me of another friend of mine. He wanted to send a guy named Paul Franklin over to my home to discuss the computer graphics for Interstellar. Paul came the next day. Most relevant to me were Oliver James. Both driving old cars. In a video conference a few weeks later. Carolee and I threw a big party for Stephen Hawking at our home in Pasadena.
He showed a deep knowledge of the relevant science. We have employees in London and in Singapore. One April evening. Oliver James. As Paul was leaving. Chris and Emma came. Paul introduced me to the London- based leaders of his Interstellar visual-effects team. Kip and Christopher Nolan talking on set in the Endurance's control module. He was brilliant. It was so enjoyable! Chris is down to earth.
Gordon Moore. Both making me feel comfortable and. I struggled near full time. For several months. Paul Franklin and Kip. He devoured them. We quickly developed a great working relationship. Oliver has a degree in optics and atomic physics. It was a joy working with them. They speak my language.
I tested my equations using low-resolution. And scientifically accurate. Michael Caine. Lemme know please. What it does. Strewn over the floor and table were byinch sheets of paper. I hate Matt. And the end product. For the first time ever—and before any other scientist—I saw in ultrahigh definition what a fast-spinning black hole looks like.
The question was usually deep. He would pick up a sheet. Anne Hathaway. When I arrived. We sat on the couch. I received an e-mail from Matthew McConaughey. I said of course and asked what I should call him. He was ensconced there. If you are around L. Matthew McConaughey. You cannot imagine how ecstatic I was when Oliver sent me his initial film clips.
Jessica Chastain On July During the filming of Interstellar. I was not needed. She played trumpet in high school. What is the relationship of time to gravity? Why do we think there might be higher dimensions? What is the current status of research on quantum gravity? Are there any experimental tests of quantum gravity? The next e-mail. Thank you very much. I was on set very. Only at the end did she let us wander off subject. I left. It blew me away. On another occasion. She described herself as a bit of a physics geek.
It was a joy to discover for myself. It was tremendously impressive: I hope this e-mail finds you well. We wandered from the laws of physics. She could have told me what to expect. Later I told Lynda about our meeting. Despite having no role in the filming. Often the discussion would take off in unexpected directions. Interstellar is her third film with McConaughey. Emma Thomas passed along your e-mail in case I had any questions. I played sax and clarinet.
The answers are here. The phase where you. That notoriety triggered fascinating conversations with Hollywood icons: A fun bonus from my creative friendship with Lynda. The largest galaxies contain a few trillion stars and are about a million light-years across. When the gas got cold enough.
Achingly beautiful. There are roughly a trillion galaxies in the visible universe. But somehow the universe emerged as a vast sea of ultrahot gas. The earliest galaxy was born when the universe was a few hundred million years old. Fred was proved wrong. Galaxies As our universe expanded. The Big Bang Our universe was born in a gigantic explosion At the center of most every large galaxy there is a huge black hole Chapter 5. Except that the big bang was not destructive so far as we know.
I would love to write a long chapter about the big bang. Remarkably simple in some ways. A rich cluster of galaxies named Abell and many other more distant galaxies. The nearest large galaxy to our own is called Andromeda Figure 2. The Milky Way is a sort of twin to Andromeda. It is 2. And almost all the pinpricks of light that we see in the sky at night.
The Earth resides in a galaxy called the Milky Way. If Figure 2. It contains about a trillion stars and is about Solar System Stars are large.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun.
The Science of Interstellar
The Sun is a fairly typical star. It is 1. Chapter 6. It resides in the middle of the central bright sphere in Figure 2. The Andromeda galaxy. Andromeda contains a gigantic black hole. Its surface has flares and hot spots and cooler spots. Eight planets. Fig 2. The Sun then will shift to burning fuel in a shell around its core. Stellar Death: White Dwarfs.
After another 6.
PDF - The Science of Interstellar
Neutron stars have masses about one to three times that of the Sun. Black holes Chapter 5. Stars much heavier than the Sun burn their fuel much more quickly. Neutron Stars. I discuss the awful implications for interstellar travel.
The solar system is a thousand times bigger than the Sun itself. In Chapter The distance to the nearest star other than the Sun. The white dwarf will gradually cool. Proxima Centauri. A white dwarf left. A black hole with about the same mass as a typical neutron star or white dwarf say 1. They contain no matter whatsoever.
See Figure 2. You see nothing between the magnets. Do you remember taking a sheet of paper. Since stars are generally no heavier than about Suns. This can be used for magnetic levitation. Magnetic force lines from a bar magnet.
The iron filings make the pattern shown in Figure 2. They orient themselves along magnetic force lines that otherwise are invisible. The magnetic field is the collection of all the magnetic force lines. For the white dwarf I show only a tiny segment of its surface. They must have formed in some other way. As a student in science class. The giant black holes in the cores of galaxies. The Earth also has two magnetic poles. These force lines grab a compass needle. Magnetic force lines depart from the south magnetic pole.
That fluorescent light is the Aurora. There the protons collide with oxygen and nitrogen molecules. Figure 2. As the star spins. Every time a jet sweeps over the Earth. These jets consist of all types of radiation: Neutron stars have very strong magnetic fields. One example is electric fields collections of electric force lines that. The universe contains other kinds of fields collections of force lines in addition to magnetic fields. As they reach inward.
The strength of the gravitational pull is proportional to the density of the force lines the number of lines passing through a fixed area. Another example is gravitational fields collections of gravitational force lines that. I give some details at the end of Chapter Similarly Figure 3. Using the concepts of warped time and warped space which I describe in the next chapter. By Einstein and others had found strong evidence that the Newtonian laws fail in therealm of the very fast objects that move at nearly the speed of light.
By the Americas were coming into focus. By Australia was coming into focus. With concepts such as force. By Eurasia was coming into focus and there were glimmers of South America. To remedy these failures Einstein gave us his revolutionary relativistic laws of physics Figure 3. In Chapter 2 we briefly met an example of a Newtonian law. Werner Heisenberg. By it became evident that the relativistic laws and the quantum laws are fundamentally incompatible.
Using the concepts that everything fluctuates randomly at least a little bit which I describe in Chapter They predict different things. By it was crystal clear that the Newtonian laws also fail in the realm of the very small molecules. To deal with this Niels Bohr.
World maps from to The physical laws that govern the universe. We do not yet know the laws of quantum gravity. These pulsar observations are beautifully and accurately explained by the quantum and relativistic laws. To be true. Another example of a truth is the black hole Gargantua and the bending of light rays by which it distorts images of stars Figure 3. Despite those insights. In precisely this sense. Educated Guesses. This leaves much elbow room for exciting science fiction.
By contrast. The biology. This is what it really would look like.
Astronomers have seen gravitational lensing by other objects for example. Figure Throughout recorded history. Gargantua bends the light rays coming from each star. Let me explain. This is enough for me. Scientists do not yet know how to deduce. The blights encountered by humans thus far have not jumped from infecting one type of plant to another with such speed as to endanger human life.
The biology that underlies these blights is based on chemistry. Entertainment Inc. That it might someday occur is a speculation that most biologists regard as very unlikely. Burning blighted corn. Although experimental physicists when measuring gravity have searched hard for anomalies—behaviors that cannot be explained by the Newtonian or. So is harnessing the anomalies to lift colonies off Earth Chapter That such a blight is possible is an educated guess.
But they are a speculation based on science that I and some of my physicist friends are happy to entertain—at least late at night over beer. In reality. And we have no idea whether the bulk. We are far from sure that the bulk really exists.
And it is only an educated guess that. Our universe. The anomalies and their harnessing are a rather extreme speculation. So they fall within the guidelines I advocated for Interstellar: For details see Chapter Throughout this book. I explain the status of that science—truth. Chapters 14 and 5. But around it was revolutionarily upended by a tiny observed anomaly in the orbit of Mercury around the Sun Chapter For nineteenth-century physicists.
Can you identify in your own life speculations that became educated guesses and then truth?
Have you ever seen your established truths upended. He once described to me lying in a warm bath for hours on end. Revolutions that upend established scientific truth are exceedingly rare. They are so huge that they warp space and time enormously and randomly.
Of course. But when they happen. For Cooper. This slowing of time near a black hole plays a major role in Interstellar. Cooper despairs of ever seeing his daughter Murph again. Vessot found that time on the ground flows more slowly than at a height of The accuracy improved in At the surface of a black hole.
Time flows more slowly in the basement than in the penthouse by trillionths of a second each day. Their experiment was exquisitely accurate: The greater the slowing of time. On the surface of a neutron star. Everything likes to live where it will age the most slowly. On Earth. Finally in he had a brilliant inspiration. Will Basic Books. Putting General Relativity to the Test. Atomic clocks measure slowing of time on Earth.
Typically only four to twelve satellites can be seen at once from any location on Earth. Knowing the. Each radio signal from a viewable satellite tells the smart phone where the satellite is located and the time the signal was transmitted. This is one of many examples where his insights about the laws of physics could not be tested in his own day. Among other examples are the laser. It required a half century for technology to improve enough for a test with high precision. The global positioning system.
Time at a Perhaps the greatest scientist ever. They measure time with their own clocks. Einstein was a genius. This scheme would fail if the signal transmission times were the true times measured on the satellite. In —77 they transmitted radio signals to two spacecraft in orbit around Mars. But despite the most intense mental struggle of his life.
The Science of Interstellar by Thorne, Kip - PDF Drive
The Warping of Space: At first. As the Earth and Mars moved around the Sun in their orbits. From to late he struggled. The spacecraft. Finally in November It did not. Travel time for radio signals from Earth to Viking to Earth. When the radio waves passed near the Sun. The extra travel time is shown.
If space were flat. This motivates the way we physicists think about our full universe. From the extra time delay and how it changed as the spacecraft moved relative to Earth. Around a neutron star. Our universe has three space dimensions east-west. Reasenberg and Shapiro inferred the shape of the space warp. In Figure 4.
How many dimensions does the bulk have? I discuss this carefully in Chapter The shape that the team measured. This greater length would be impossible if space were flat. Figure 4. It bends downward inside and near the Sun. Around a black hole.
More precisely. Inside what does it bend? It bends inside a higher-dimensional hyperspace. Let's make that more precise. So throughout this book I draw pictures of our brane and bulk with one dimension removed.
Black holes and wormholes extending out of our brane into and through the bulk. In Interstellar. One space dimension is removed. The warping of space warping of our brane plays a huge role in Interstellar. Three are the space dimensions of our own universe or brane east-west. For example. As usual. Does the bulk really exist? Is there truly a fifth dimension.
The fourth is time. It is a fanciful drawing by my artist friend Lia Halloran. Very likely yes. And it distorts the sky around the wormhole and around the black hole Gargantua. The green paths. The two purple paths headed into the black hole begin parallel to each other. The picture of the hole is extracted from Lia.
As each path tries to remain straight. Four paths for planetary motion in the vicinity of a black hole. The warping of space and time drives them together. But in this case. It describes the details of the warping of space and time. I draw a woman lying on a red tendex line. It stretches her. The purple paths begin.
We found. The green paths begin. Several years ago. Tendex lines around a black hole. In Isaac Newton discovered them in his own theory of gravity and used them to explain ocean tides. This stretching and squeezing is just a different way of thinking about the influence of the warping of space and time. From one viewpoint. From another viewpoint it is the tendex lines that do the stretching and squeezing. Newton reasoned. Stars and planets and moons also produce them.
Black holes are not the only objects that produce stretching and squeezing forces. And indeed they do. What the Earth does feel is the red-arrowed lunar pulls in the left half of Figure 4. This is qualitatively the same as around a black hole Figure 4. To extremely high accuracy. They must be the same. It is remarkable that a warping so tiny can produce forces big enough to cause the ocean tides! Because of their role in ocean tides.
As the Earth turns on its axis. We now have three points of view on tidal forces: Relativistic viewpoint on tides: Scientists and engineers spend most of their lives trying to solve puzzles. Having three different viewpoints on the same phenomenon can be extremely valuable. Or it may be figuring out how black holes behave. This is what Professor Brand does. Peering at the puzzle first from one viewpoint and then from another can often trigger new ideas.
Einstein realized that if he were to fall. The puzzle may be how to design a spacecraft. Whatever the puzzle may be. If your universe were flat.
Now some explanation. The rubber sheet is your entire universe. Black holes are made from warped space and warped time. Nothing else—no matter whatsoever. To determine its shape. Your universe.
Ant on a Trampoline: A heavy rock bends the rubber downward. But the circumference. An ant on a warped trampoline. This is a two- dimensional surface. Figure 5. As seen from the bulk. Take an equatorial slice through the black hole. The warped space inside and around a black hole. In fact. Not so. In chapters For the trampoline. If this seems a. This warping-begets-warping scenario does not happen in our solar system hardly at all.
Event Horizon and Warped Time When you first hear mention of a black hole. And for a black hole. Throughout our solar system the space warps are so weak that their energy is minuscule. Just as it requires a lot of energy to bend a stiff bow in preparation for shooting an arrow. Warping begets warping in a nonlinear. Because one space dimension is removed from this diagram.
See Chapter 28 for how this plays out in Interstellar. I am a two-dimensional Kip. Nobody above the horizon can ever see the signals I send after I cross the horizon. My signals and I are trapped inside the black hole. And any signals I try to transmit in any manner whatsoever get pulled down with me. A spinning hole drags space around it into a vortex-type. Everything is drawn inexorably toward the future.
If I hover above the black hole. Like the air in a tornado. At the horizon itself. Near the horizon there is no way whatsoever to protect oneself against this whirling drag. I must experience an infinitely strong gravitational pull. Space Whirl Black holes can spin. That downward flow.
What happens inside the event horizon? Time is so extremely warped there that it flows in a direction you would have thought was spatial: The warped shape of the surface in Figure 5. Space around a spinnning black hole is dragged into whirling motion. At the transition from yellow to red.
Precise depiction of the warped space and time around a rapidly spinning black hole: The warping in Figure 5. If we were to restore the third space dimension. The white arrows depict the rate at which space whirls around the black hole. For the singularity. This is the event horizon. And at the black circle. It is a circle. At the transition from blue to green. From its details.
The whirl is fast at the horizon. The colors depict the slowing of time as measured by someone who hovers at a fixed height above the horizon.
We humans are confined to our brane. The black-hole funnels and whirlpools so often shown in movies. The space whirl gives them a boost. In Chapter 8 I talk more about this and other aspects of what a black hole really looks like. The black hole casts a black shadow on the field of stars behind it. Over the decades since Roy Kerr.
In The resulting black hole is made entirely from warped space and time. Kerr a New Zealand mathematician did the same for a spinning black hole: The most beautiful example is a massive black hole at the center of our Milky Way galaxy.
Along each orbit. Black holes surely do exist. Astronomers have seen compelling evidence for many black holes in our universe. So if black holes exist at all in our universe. No matter is left behind.
Its gravitational pull. Schwarzschild deduced the details of the warped spacetime around a nonspinning black hole. Computer simulations reveal the full details. Karl Schwarzschild. None whatsoever. It is to the lower right of the constellation Sagittarius. The heaviest yet measured is 17 billion times more massive than the Sun. Robert Oppenheimer — Left to right: Karl Schwarzschild — Stephen W. Black-hole scientists. Many of these are as heavy as Gargantua million Suns.
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