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A TEXTBOOK OF TRANSLATION PETER NEWMARK PDF

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Newmark. Peter. A textbook of translation. 1. Translating and interpreting If the book has a unifying element, it is the desire to be useful to the translator, Its. A TEXTBOOK OF TRANSLATION. Peter Newmark. W *MRtt. SHANGHAI FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION PRESS. A TEXTBOOK OF TRANSLATION Peter Newmark SHANGHAI FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION PRESS A Textbook of Translation Peter.

This is also valid for photocopying. Said M. Garant Somersstraat B Antwerp Koninginnelaan NL EB Apeldoorn www. Every use beyond the narrow limitations of the copyright law is inadmissible.

This is followed by a list of scientific terms where students were asked to find their equivalents in the target language. These chapters can also be used to teach any course introducing students to the field of translation. This is something that is hardly ever found in textbooks on translation. Preface not many textbooks have included material on scientific translation.

It highlights the characteristics of legal texts. One of the important sections in this chapter is the discussion of the problems of translating legal texts. The chapter also defines the characteristics of legal texts and the problems associated with their translation. This is. One other distinguished aspect of this textbook is that at the end of each chapter.

Lateef and Shiyab All in all. Maryland USA for providing me with information used in this book. I would like to thank my colleagues Professor Alan Kaye. University of California Fullerton. Grateful acknowledgment is also made to my family. Professor Ben Bannani. Acknowledgement In addition to those who helped this textbook along its way. Without their insight and encouragement. UAE University for their valuable input and observations. Michel Lynch. Dedication This book is dedicated to all those who have contributed to its production.

He suggests that translation be viewed as the transfer of a text from a source language into a text in the target language. Looking at translation from a semiotic perspective. Tanke This latter definition may seem applicable to almost all types of translation. Toury In a different article. Translation is the process of communication in which the translator is interposed between a transmitter and a receiver who use different languages to carry out code of conversation between them Tanke It is as old as the history of our universe.

Translation is always an interpretation Bennani What do we mean exactly by translation and how is it understood by linguists as well as translation professionals? Newmark The second is the transference of a message communicated from one text into a message communicated in another. Sometimes it may even go beyond these two extremes. Whatever definitions we come across. The first definition is the replacement of one written text from one language to another in which the main goal of the translator is meaning.

Meaning-based definitions are those which take meaning as the base for interpreting and then convey the meaning of A Texbook of Translation equivalent of the source language message.

Frawley De Beaugrande believes that translating should not be studied as a comparison and contrast of two texts. As for literary translation. There is. Past and Present Despite the large amount of literature that has been produced on the process as well as the theory of translation. The best indication of such disparity of views is the fact that translation has many definitions.

De Beaugrande Rabin The act of translating is guided by several sets of strategies responsive to the directives within the text.

Nida In some respect. Translation has been defined in many different ways. Steiner Inter-lingual translation or translation proper is an interpretation of verbal signs by means of some other language. M Steiner Within this semiotic approach. M Jakobson It thus involves two distinct factors. The letter M stands for meaning based definitions.

Also all aspects of human communication are analyzed as systems of signals. M Savory M Catford The interrelation of these definitions is illustrated in the following table. S Rabin Introduction the original text into that of the target. Semiotic-based definitions. S stands for semiotic based definitions.

Inter-semiotic translation or transmutation is an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of nonverbal sign systems. S Firth M Diaz-Diocaretz S or M Tytler Translation is not a restatement. M De Beaugrande Translation should have all the ease of the original. M Newmark M Ross A Texbook of Translation Frawley The style and manner of writing should be the same character with that of the original.

Although these context specifications illuminate the intentions of the text-producer and shed some light on the semiotic contexts in which the text is used. While the translator tends to ignore the function and style in a word-for-word translation.

What is meant by pragmatics here is the study of purpose for which the texts are used. These theories demand word-for-word translation. As for semiotics. That is.

By the same token. Introduction yond the scope of this book. Even Halliday The interaction of these signs with one another creates the semiotic meaning of a text. Other theories. In this component. For example. What is also clear is that different translation theorists have concentrated on different types and strategies of translation.

These contexts do in fact facilitate translation but do not make it adequate in all respects. Different attempts have been made to look at translation from a pragmatic and semiotic view in which the essence of translation is treated as an interaction between text-producer and the message along with social and cultural contexts in which a particular piece of language is used Jakobson Wilss Mason Delisle and Woodsworth Lado argues that learning the structure of a language involves learning its culture.

Many definitions have been proposed to illustrate the role and the function of a translator. The many further meanings of the Greek word for translator-interpreter mediator. Adams and Thelen One may point out the role translation played in transferring knowledge from Ancient Greece to Persia. Slowly but surely. While the majority of linguists and translation theorists define a translator as the one who transfers the meaning and the form of a text from one language to another.

Adams and Thelen state that all throughout history. In ancient times. For more information. They argue that being a translator is not easy. A Texbook of Translation The above discussion is only brief. Delisle and Woodsworth suggest that ideas used to be primarily transformed into other civilizations and cultures through travelers and tradesmen.

One cannot really understand a foreign language without taking into account the culture of which it is a part. According to Robinson.

Importers of foreign cultural values and key players at some of the great moments of history. Along the same line. Robinson They have contributed to the emergence of national literatures. There are many instances in which translation played an important role in introducing one civilization to another.

The translator is more like an actor or a musician a performer than a tape recorder. Translation is more about people not words. In a nutshell. Another example is the introduction of Greek philosophical works into Arabic. Translators have invented alphabets. Translation is more about the jobs people do and the way they see the world. Newmark highlights the different methods of translating In his book entitled A Textbook of Translation.

A translator has certain professional assumptions about how language works and how translation is done. The translator. It is this constant exposition of ideas and values that made translation a key element in the development of cultures and societies. All these characteristics can clearly make the difference between a professional translator and a mediocre one.

He states that the key term is experience. Translation is more about the creative imagination than about rule-governed text-analysis. While literal translation is not commonly used in translating texts.

A Textbook of Translation.pdf

What is involved in free translation is texts are translated into the other language based on their meaning not structure. In fact all of them. Although this seems very much like literal translation. Interpretation and paraphrasing are two ways of understanding and translating the text into the target language. Translation professionals generally agree that there are many types of translation.

What is the difference between semantic translation and free translation. A Texbook of Translation texts: Because of such overlapping. It actually ignores the semiotic. Based on this. Other times. The criterion for doing such translation is that the meaning for these two texts corresponds. It is not recommended for the casual reader where adequacy and clarity of meaning are involved.

This kind The problem with this kind of translation is that the outcome may not be meaningful. Apart from their grammatical differences.

Translation requires artistic skills and sometimes systematic and logical decisions. Only those who work in translation can envisage whether translation should be considered an art or a science. I believe that translation is both an art and a science. Taking the above three types of translation into account. Introduction of translation is the best simply because the translation outcome is meaningful. The status of translation whether it be an art or a science has been controversial for the last two decades.

From my professional experience. The examples below may seem common to almost all languages. This is not even called translation. Consider the following examples: Translation is not concerned mainly with finding words in the dictionary and replacing them with their equivalents in another language.

It also requires good mastery of the target language patterns of thinking. Translation has an important role to play in the cultural life of a particular society. Even in similar languages. One cannot imagine him or herself isolated from knowing what innovations and contributions other cultures or societies have if their work has not really been translated. One of the most fundamental purposes of translation lies in its definition.

Does the word dating contain an equivalent word in the other language? In social sciences. Can one explain the different lexical items such words entail in another language? Any discussion of the equivalent meanings of such words may entail moving from the domain of science into the domain of art. A Texbook of Translation Now. In another context. Apart from this. In medical science. Within a pedagogical context. Peter Newmark.

At the same time. Kasmer Have you discovered that they entail different lexical items? Do you think translation is an art or a science? Explain your answer. Draw a comparison between the three types of translation and demonstrate in what context each type will be used. Give two different definitions of translation. Illustrate your definitions with examples. Can you show the impact of translation activities on your culture? August Above all. The article is taken from the The Ukrainian Weekly.

Define a translator. Demonstrate how translation is important in everyday life. Almost all major Ukrainian writers have also been translators. Among other speakers. The program included over 80 reports. On May The researchers accentuated the role of translation as a factor important to the development of intercultural communication.

Issues in the history of translation were highlighted by Prof. Roksoliana Zorivchak discussed the legacy of Hryhoriy Kochur as a translator and a translation studies researcher. It has also become a treasure-trove as an effective medium for creating. Maryna Novykova underlined that translation is part of the spiritual legacy of a nation. Council of Europe. Orest Zemlianyi spoke about Ukrainian translations of Irish literature.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Recently the importance of training translators and interpreters became evident in Ukraine. Oleksander Cherednychenko. Literary translation has always played a very important role in the cultural life of Ukrainians. After the second world war — owing to the brilliant school of Ukrainian literary translation — Ukrainian translated literature developed as a kind of compensation for Ukrainian original literature whose development was being thwarted.

The country needs highly qualified interpreters and translators for the United Nations. Eduard Skorokhodko and many other researchers.

Italian and English literatures as interpreted by Russian classical writers. Etkind analyzed different levels and types of metatranslation. One of Prof. Its compiler. The first rather substantial English-Ukrainian dictionary comprising of Zenoviy Partyko.

According to Mr. The edition can be characterized as more convenient for users: Mykhailo Podvezko. It is an important contribution to Ukrainian lexicography.

Introduction The majority of the speakers dealt with the theory of translation. In they produced a bigger English-Ukrainian dictionary about The new twovolume edition comprising of about The first rather small English-Ukrainian dictionaries were published in Canada in the s and s. Nelli Kalustova. The participants of the conference had ample opportunity to listen to the outstanding Ukrainian lexicographer Mykhailo Balla. Methods of teaching interpreting and translating were discussed by Ion Chobanu.

Conference participants passed a resolution on the need to organize a federation of translators and interpreters in Ukraine. The resolution was passed unanimously. A Texbook of Translation The Kyiv conference contributed to the establishment of contacts among researchers in translation studies. The experience of such federations in other countries shows that such a body would be able to perform a number of significant functions: For foreign language specializations.

Translation is like any other discipline. This erroneous assumption about translation has misled and is still misleading students about the profession of translation.

As Gentzler and Tymoczko state. Rubrecht believes that in an age where media and fast communication have transformed the world into an interconnected community. Rubrecht highlights ten concepts he believes translation students should know before they embark on any translation major. With the generation and dissemination of new technology. I genuinely want the translation students to be aware of translation and what it requires before they embark on this very important discipline.

Let there be no doubt that academic institutions are not professional translation and interpretation schools. Students should have already been involved in some form of translation activities before they embark on a translation major. A Texbook of Translation courses are very fundamental simply because they are instrumental tools for language learning.

One course in translation cannot and will not make the student a good translator. They can only cover some important works of literary figures such as Shakespeare. He believes that students should know important facts about translation and interpretation courses. Students as well as teachers have too many assumptions as to how these courses are taught and how much students can get out of this lecturing process.

It is extremely important for students to be aware of certain facts about translation and interpretation before they choose a major or enroll in a translation or interpretation course. Newmark has outlined the responsibilities of instructors involved in teaching translation and interpretation courses. They are also seen as important means for learning a foreign language.

Like physicians. Others make it clear that translation and interpretation courses are becoming more popular. Students should be aware of their responsibility towards translation difficulties. As pointed out earlier. Like any other discipline. These are: I myself belong to the latter group. No matter how experienced the teacher is and how well planned the syllabus is.

Whether such courses are part of a university curriculum or offered as a four year degree major. In many cases. In order to help students understand the nature.

I believe translation is a complex process. As for good knowledge. This perception is really not true. As for interpretation courses. They should have good knowledge of the native countries of that language. It is even more draining for students involved in interpreting as the demand on such students is high and they have to adapt themselves to stressful and fatigued environments.

One can imagine himself or herself sitting for hours checking all kinds of dictionaries. Interpretation students should get used to the idea of working without using dictionaries in a short period of time. Fallacies of Translation tion process and provide him or her with the methods and strategies on how to look at or approach a text.

There are in-class activities and homework assignments that are mentally and physically draining. Students should also be equipped with computer skills. It requires that students have good mental capacity that is extremely important to do the work. I believe. Let there be no doubt that translation students should undergo extensive training in translation activities. Learning the two languages will not enable students to be professional translators.

Communicating a message depends on context. According to them. There is very little overlap between learning a language and conducting translation and students should be aware of this fact.

Educational translation ensures reading and understanding a text to assess its accuracy. This may not sound good for our translation students. A Texbook of Translation Third. Translators or students of translation must worry about communicating meaning very accurately to the reader.

This assumption. Translation should maintain the stylistic impact of the source language text in the target language text.

Here one can refer to Vinay and Darbelnet where they state that translation is a matter of equivalence. Without understanding the context. Teachers should also teach students ways to communicate a message from one language to another. In order for translation students to be good translators.

Learning a foreign language is a prerequisite for translating a text. From a different perspective. Professional translation ensures text quality and precision. Students should also know that they should be willing to continue learning.

As for linguistic translation. Vinay and Darbelnet believe that there are three areas of translation: All these areas of translation should be mastered before students take translation courses. Some might be pertinent to translation.

Eco believes that translation is not about comparing two different languages. As Ward A translator must be a self-starter. Fallacies of Translation Another misconception about translation fed to students by teachers who lack good knowledge of translation studies is the belief that translation is an easy discipline.

The translator should also have solid integrity to do the very best job possible. Within the field of translation. Students must realize that doing well in translation helps them do well in other subjects. It is a problem-solving technique.

The question involving translation evolves around whether the translator is loyal or not. It is time consuming and requires a lot of hard work. He also states that irrespective of the fact that some linguists and philosophers claim that there are no rules on whether one translation is better than the other. As previously stated. Anyone teaching or majoring in translation knows very well that translation is a rigorous discipline. This is not an easy task. Please explain your answer with exemplifications.

Give four misconceptions students have about majoring in translation. According to your understanding of this chapter. Most fallacies about translation studies were fed by: According to this chapter. According to Chapter 2. Argue whether or nor not you agree with the types of misconceptions outlined in this chapter.

Ethics of translators have to do with: In translation. Translation from one language to another can be acquired from: In order to translate effectively. Fallacies of Translation 5. Within the field of language learning and language acquisition. Since translation deals with my native language. For those who are interested in a more complete translation glossary. Consider the following words or expressions: While it is very difficult to survey and define all terms in the studies of translation.

The term overlaps with the meaning of faithfulness. Two heads are better than one. Update me. Literality is fundamental here so as to enable the translation consultant to identify the rules and structure of the target text.

Calques This term refers to a word that is created through loan translation. Borrowing This term involves the idea of taking a word from another language. These words have equivalent words in Arabic. Translation practitioners must take into account the kind of audience. The translation is usually done literally. Back Translation This kind of translation involves the process of translating a document that has already been translated into a target language back to the original language.

What about the equivalent words or expressions in other languages? Do they have the same equivalents? In French. The objective behind this kind of translation is to enable a translator or a translation consultant who speaks other languages to understand what a translated text means in the target language. In order for the audience to clearly and effectively understand the meaning of the translated text. Audience This term involves those who read or hear a text.

It involves translating the meaning parts of one language to the meaning parts of another. Such a word. In most cases. Collocation Collocation involves placing or associating two words with one another. These two words always coexist with one another.

Context also refers to the parts of a written or spoken discourse that precede or follow a specific word. Consecutive interpreting is less stressful. Consecutive interpretation is often used at smaller conferences. It is usually carried out by one interpreter who accompanies the delegate or follows the speaker. Clarity This is a term that refers to the quality of the translation.

Clear translation has the quality of being easy to understand and free from any ambiguous or unnatural structures. Cohesion also aims at preserving smooth connection and internal unity among the sentences used in the text. These words are always used together and more likely in similar contexts. Cohesion Cohesion refers to the quality of the text and involves connectedness throughout the whole text. Consecutive Interpreting This is a strategy where the interpreter starts interpreting a spoken message after the speaker finishes the sentence.

If the translation is clear. Context This is a term that refers to the environment in which sentences are used. Some Relevant Terms in Translation Choppy This is a term that refers to the quality of the translation. Collocation also involves the relationship between two words that frequently go together. These forms should maintain the implicit and explicit meanings of the source language forms. Free Translation Free translation involves translating the text freely based on its meaning. Idiomatic Translation Unlike literal translation.

This kind of translation is the best simply because the translation outcome is meaningful. Equivalence involves two words or sentences having the same semantic value. A Texbook of Translation Effectiveness This term refers to the message communicated by the writer or translator. Idiomatic translation is synonymous with other methods of translation such as free translation.

It refers to the highest level of achievement of a communicative function or objective. Free translation aims at preserving the original meaning of the text and utilizes normal features of the target text. Its figurative meaning involves going to bed. Idioms cannot be understood by just analyzing their individual words. Faithfulness Faithfulness is a term that refers to the closeness and accuracy of the translated text to the original.

So what we have done is actually translate its figurative meaning. Equivalent When two words have a similar meaning or function. It also refers to how much meaning is preserved in the source language compared to the target text. While literal translation actually ignores the semiotic.

It should be pointed out here that in the study of literature. Intention This term involves the intention of the speaker. Legal Translation Legal translation is the translation of legal texts and binding documents. These texts or documents are culture-dependent subjects.

They should also have good knowledge of the target language culture and good knowledge of the relevant disciplines and subject matters. Some Relevant Terms in Translation Inadequate Meaning When we translate a text from one language to another we may end up conveying an inadequate meaning. It also involves the effect the speaker wants to impinge on his reader.

It aims at preserving the forms of the source language. Legal translation is not simple. It refers to both written and spoken forms of language. Interpretation can also refer to reading the text to figure out its implicit and explicit meanings. Literal Translation Literal translation focuses on the linguistic structure of the source text. All readings of intention from a text are at best provisional.

Interpretation This term involves the process of determining the meaning of something. Meaning When one wants to express a message. It can also refer to the implicit meanings expressed by the speaker. Pragmatics It is the relationship between language user and language use. Of course. Pragmatics is also understood as language in context. A Texbook of Translation Loan word A loan word is a word that is borrowed from another language. The computer or any other machine made for this purpose does the translating.

Natural When translation is natural. Although machine translation is not as frequently used as human translators. Meaning is not only expressed in lexical items. At conferences. Some Relevant Terms in Translation Simultaneous Interpreting This is a strategy where the interpreter starts interpreting a spoken message before the speaker finishes the sentence. Target Text The language into which translating or interpreting is carried out.

Translation Translation can be defined as the process of conveying the meaning of sentences from one language to another. Translation Theory Translation theory involves an examination of the rules and principles of translation. Telephone Interpreting It is a kind of interpreting where the act is done over the telephone.

Translating vs. It varies all the time. It is usually carried out by panelists using specific equipment. It refers to how language functions and under what circumstances. Unit of Translation Unit of translation can be defined as the smallest entity in a text that carries a discrete meaning. Interpreting Translating a text has to do with the written form whereas interpreting has to do with the spoken form. Simultaneous interpreting is a stressful act. In both cases. Understanding how language works is a key element to all translators.

Discuss the differences between translating and interpreting. Texts for Translation Translate the following texts into the target language. You may also apply other terms or concepts to the text. What is world knowledge. Out of the linguistic terms and concepts listed in this chapter. The problem with this kind of translation is that the outcome may not by meaningful. How can coherence contribute to a successful translation?

Make a comparison between a cohesive text and a coherent text. What is meaning? Why is idiomatic or free translation effective? Questions 1. World Knowledge World knowledge refers to whatever extra-linguistic knowledge is transported into the process of translation and brought into the mind of the translator.

What is translation theory? Compare between word-for-word translation and literal translation. A Texbook of Translation Word-for-Word Translation Word-for-word translation involves translating a word in the source language by a word into the target language. Show how world-knowledge is shared. Some Relevant Terms in Translation Melanin is the substance that normally determines the color of the skin.

It is the pigment produced in the cells called melanocytes. Severe trauma. Text 1 What Determines Skin Color? Leukoderma is a general term that means white skin. If melanocytes cannot form melanin. Vitiligo is just one of the forms of leukoderma. He is the top dog around here. Some Relevant Terms in Translation It is raining cats and dogs.

It also promotes learning the vocabularies. Such rules involve different kinds of topics such as semantics. There may be some theoretical arguments students may capture. I would like to argue that translation is a combination of theory and practice.

The problem-solution technique involved in the process of reading the text and comprehending it inevitably encourages the learning of language. All these are to be captured from a close analysis of the source text which translation requires. Other views advocate the idea that students of translation need only translation practices.

I would like to first look at translation as an exercise. The comments made here are not intended to be applied only to the process of translating a text from Arabic into English. In this chapter. The goal of the translation activities should not be limited to these issues. To this effect. Mason points out that graduate or undergraduate translation students.

The contrastive linguistics approach. For more information on this issue. A Texbook of Translation involve other modern language exercises at a professional level. Such a matching process has to take into account that the two meanings in both languages are as close as they could be.

Based on the above assumption. In addition to this. The most important thing. The objective of translation training. It also evolves around how language functions. Newmark continues. In order for translators to produce good and effective translations. Translation theory identifies different languages as having different forms to encode meaning. Newmark believes that translators should utilize the contrastive linguistics approach simply because it is useful enough to deal with choices and decisions of the source language text see Mason for more information on this topic.

Since translators explore meaning. Larson believes that translators find meanings behind the forms of the source language. In terms of the choices and decisions the translators make.

Widdowson views translation as an important pedagogical device. In the same way. Taking this into account. This can simply be manifested in the different grammatical categories of the two languages. Mason believes that this approach is not to be entirely avoided.

He believes that translation is an affective means of learning a language. At the language level. Along these lines. It does not focus on establishing a set of rules. Having said so. They are also helpful in demonstrating the necessary loss of information contained in structures whose constituent parts are not in a one-to-one correspondence.

Any attempt to look at translation in terms of words or Translation Theory and Practice different activity from contrastive linguistics. The purpose of the contrastive linguistics approach is to focus on the differences between one language and another especially in a language teaching context. Despite what has been stated against the contrastive approach. Any consideration of these rules is indeed helpful for making necessary changes in certain contexts. Other issues like gender absent or present.

Some suggest an approach in which one can analyze words into their main components. Unfortunately, however, this method, as pointed out by Mason , has some drawbacks, some of which are represented in its unsuitability to the training of translators. Second, this approach focuses on semantic distinctive features isolated from context. Also, this method is of limited applicability, simply because a word taken in isolation from its context is not a translation unit.

In this connection, it has been suggested that the relevant language unit for translation is not the individual word, but rather the text De Beaugrande Any analysis of the source text consists of inducing information about form and content together with information regarding source, authorship, and aim.

The relevant branch that focuses on the analysis as well as the description of texts is called pragmatics. Here, pragmatics refers to the relationship between the sender of the message, the message itself, and the receiver of the message. The relation is represented in Figure 1. There is a constant interaction taking place between the sender, message, and receiver.

The aim for which the text is written, and the readership for whom the text is addressed establishes the characters of any text.

Here the translator should be able to know whether or not the text is religious, political, literary, journalistic, legal, or technical. Once the text is characterized, the translator is not only identifying the text subject matter,. After establishing the domain of the text, features such as tone, function, and feeling are to be taken into account. Emphasis should also be placed on the formal features that are significant to the make-up of the text. Such features are important in terms of the text-linguistic and text-function categorization, i.

Within text-function, awareness of the referential meaning of lexes is also significant in determining the nature or domain of the text. Words put together are all means of indicating the field, function, and tone of the text. For what reason. In real life. The referential level. Can you visualise it? If you cannot. This is the level of the literal translation of the source language into the target language. Whether a text is technical or literary or institutional. This is the 'cohesive' level.

L'albumina e le sue interazioni medicamentose. Thus your translation is some hint of a compromise between the text and the facts. Not at all. For each sentence. And certainly it is all too easy to immerse yourself in language and to detach yourself from the reality. Thus the structure follows the train of thought.

A word on 'naturalness'. This is where the findings of discourse analysis are pertinent. This cohesive level is a regulator. July Similarly you have to spot differences between negative and neutral in say 'potentate' and 'ruler'.

Der Zauberberg. At this level. You may find both these sentences unnatural. It means tracing the thread of a text through its value-laden and value-free passages which may be expressed by objects or nouns Margaret Masterman has shown how a text alternates between 'help' and 'disaster'. The funnel unravels an enormous mass of black smoke like a plait of horsehair being unwound. A translation of serious innovative writing maybe Rabelais. You have to spot the difference between positive and neutral in.

The second factor in the cohesive level is mood. My third level. When you are faced with an innovatory expressive text. You get a piece like: Une doctrine nee dans une fraction du clerge de I'Amerique latine quifoisonne sous diverses plumes et dans diverses chapelles et qui connait dlja un debut d'application autoritaire sous la tutelle de I'Etat.

Thus in translating any type of text you have to sense 'naturalness'.. La cheminee devide une enormefumee noire. These differences are often delicate.

A still new patient. Now you still have to make that passage sound natural. Ein noch neuer Patient. In a serious expressive text. Thomas Mann. The passage has various misleading cognates. But you might consider: No stress. Both in West and East. He sees me regularly on Tuesdays.. Stress on 'Tuesdays'. Both these translations are by English students. It may even appear to be quite 'unnatural'. IIfit ses necessites: Again Si k regard du pasteur se promenait sur la pelouse.

In all languages. To put it figuratively. The book is actually in print' Le livre est actuellement sous presse. Natural usage comprises a variety of idioms or styles or registers determined primarily by the 'setting' of the text. Stress on 'regularly'. In all 'communicative translation'. In the 'mauve' example. The Economist watch that Time-Life-Spiegel style. Naturalness is easily defined.

All three varieties. You have to pay special attention to: Many sound natural when you transfer them. Thousands sound natural. You have to bear in mind that the level of naturalness of natural usage is grammatical as well as lexical i. Natural usage. Many more sound odd when you transfer them.

That is why you cannot translate properly if the TL is not your language of habitual usage. On Tuesdays he sees me regularly. You have to ask yourself or others: Would you see this. Is it usage. They are the most delicate indicator of naturalness: He regularly sees me on Tuesdays. How frequent is it? Do not ask yourself: There is more English than the patriots and the purists and the chauvinists are aware of.

That is why you so often have to detach yourself mentally from the SL text. For expressive and authoritative texts. If anything. Note any word you are suspicious of. I can only give indications: I am suggesting that you keep in parallel the four levels. It is rather easy to confuse naturalness with: I'empecheur de tourner en rond. For sincerite explosive. There is a natural tendency to merge three of the senses of the word 'idiom': Naturalness is not something you wait to acquire by instinct.

You work towards it by small progressive stages.

Your first and last level is the text. Beware of books of idioms. Look up proper names as frequently as words: In translating idiomatic into idiomatic language. If you are a translator. How do you get a feel for naturalness. You have to start checking them.

A textbook of translation

The danger of this procedure is that it tends to devalue literal language at the expense of 'idiomatic' language. If you are a translation teacher. As regards the level of naturalness. There is no universal naturalness. Check and cross-check words and expressions in an up-to-date dictionary Longmans. Elle avail frappe a la bonne porte.

What is natural in one situation may be unnatural in another. The too obvious answer is to read representative texts and talk with representative TL speakers failing which. L'Eglise verte. I'extension de la capacite d'intervention economique des collectives tenitoriales. The pragmatic not the referential component of copain is missed but 'pals' or 'mates' won't fit. I would suggest: If you are like me. Die Vignette hatte Thorwaldsen in Rom entworfen. Then comes the struggle between the words in the SL.

How do you conduct this struggle? Maybe if you are an interpreter. You translate: Usually you only have trouble with grammar in a long complicated sentence.

Since the sentence is the basic unit of thought. It is not so precise as precise. It is not an absolute there are no absolutes in translation. When you reluctantly! I couple with mandatory or virtually mandatory shifts and word-order changes only when its use makes the translation referentially and pragmatically inaccurate.

The vignette was designed by Thorwaldsen in in Rome. It represents the maximum degree of correspondence. By rule of thumb you know literal translation is likely to work best and most with written. Admittedly it is harder to say what is accurate than what is inaccurate. I do not know what it is but I think I know what it is not. Your problem is normally how to make sense of a difficult sentence.

Grammar being more versatile than lexis. On est oblige is stretched a little too far. L'abolition de ce qw subsistail des tulelles el la reorganisation du controle de legalite. If the translation of a sentence has no problems. You abandon the SL text. Below the sentence. You should bear in mind. You can either plough through this sentence. Physical Figurative Technical Colloquial maison house family home a home-made b firm a first-rate b tremendous element element a b c d element.

Other possible solutions to the 'word problem' are that the word may have an. If you cannot understand a word. The following measures have profoundly shaken French institutions in a way that has not been known in local government for a century: If we are desperate.

My next point is that most nouns. The above translation has converted a dozen verb-nouns into verbs. Les Institutions from. We have to bear in mind that many common nouns have four types of meaning: The man loved his garden'. Du verger. Within the clause. I think Masterman's breathgroup units may be more applicable to interpreters than to translators. Other difficulties with grammar are usually due to the use of archaic. The garden may symbolise privacy.

French and Italian sometimes arbitrarily translate them. You have to force your word usually it is a word into sense. Do not normally call Polish or Czechoslovak towns by their German names: See in every language. Bear in mind and encourage the tendency of place-names to revert to their non-naturalised names Braunschweig.

How many casualties at Cassino? One little item. Another general point about translating is that. If it is a fact. Im Saaletal is 'in the Saale valley' not 'in Saaletal'. Do not always be searching for synonyms. All translation problems are finally problems of the target language.

Stamm in a text on linguistics. Thus French words like silhouette. Is it the same in German? Can it be a Kupferstich? What is the difference between an etching and an engraving? Between gravieren and einschnitzen? All this. Only the English refer to the Channel as theirs. Upper prostate? Consider giving classifiers to any town. In a modern text. A change in word order may be the answer. So far I have been assuming that the word is more or less context-free. Check the spelling of all proper names.

Check the existence of any place name used in a work of fiction: Tonio Kroger's Aarlsgaard does exist. But be assured of one thing: Beijing is no longer Peking. Its numerous monosyllables make it the most pun-prone language in Europe. Be particularly careful of proper names in medical texts: Do not take sides on any political disputes about place-names.

Remember that while English keeps the first names of foreign persons unchanged. Freudian slip prostate craniate. This illustrates one of the main problems in translation. Very rarely. In the period between translating and revision. You are trying to get rid of paraphrase without impairing your text. Your text is dependent on another text but. Enterprising translators have to appeal to the research departments of their companies for more interesting papers.

Another tension. Finally all you have is words to translate. Why do you think he wrote cigogne when you translate it as 'migrating bird'? Why did he not write oiseau migratoiret Is it because you're into text-linguistics. It is difficult to resist making continual 'improvements' in the taste area. It is one of the numerous paradoxes of translation that a vast number of texts.

But my last word is this: If you are lucky. Others transfer from. I have tended to assume a demanding and challenging SL text. Many staff translators complain of the wearisome monotony of texts written in a humdrum neutral to informal style.

Mind particularly your descriptive words: If appropriate. This means translating le powrcentage de grossesses menees a terme not as 'the percentage of pregnancies brought to a successful conclusion'. But there is a caveat a warning and a proviso. The virtue of concision is its packed meaning. Revision is also a technique that you acquire.

The fact that you are subjected as a translator to so many forces and tensions is no excuse for plain inaccuracy. I am not denying neurolinguistic. If you have the time. A great translation is also a work of art in its own right. I am merely saying you cannot analyse or schematise them.

In another chapter Chapter 19 I detail the various points you have to look out for when you revise. I think they are fooling themselves. You couldn't have a clearer indication that this is what the author would write in the foreign language.

Surely not. I think that. You have no licence to change words that have plain one-to-one translations just because you think they sound better than the original.

One can admittedly find. Many translators say you should never translate words. They become remotely challenging only if they are poorly written. I think translation 'qualifies' as research if: Of the four principal types. For the purposes of translation. These are expressive when they are personal effusions. According to Biihler. Such texts have the personal 'stamp' of their authors.

I am taking Biihler's functional theory of language as adapted by Jakobson as the one that is most usefully applied to translating. Translation is most clearly art. Bear in mind that all translated books should have translators' prefaces. Text-categories and Text-types I suggest that all translations are based implicitly on a theory of language Jakobson. These are texts of any nature which derive their authority from the high status or the reliability and linguistic competence of their authors.

Firth and Wandruzska put it the other way round. But any deft 'transfusion' of an imaginative piece of writing is artistic. He uses the utterance to express his feelings irrespective of any response. I think the characteristic 'expressive' text-types are: Typical authoritative statements are political speeches. Thus in some respects only any translation is an exercise in applied linguistics.

I take notices. The personal components constitute the 'expressive' element they are only a part of an expressive text. I use the term 'vocative' in the sense of'calling upon' the readership to act. One normally assumes a modern. See Part II. The second factor is that these texts must be written in a language that is. Note that nowadays vocative texts are more often addressed to a readership than a reader. Language functions.

Note how metaphors can be a yardstick for the formality of a text. The first factor in all vocative texts is the relationship between the writer and the readership. This function of language has been given many other names. The format of an informative text is often standard: English is likely to have a greater variety and distinct! In my experience. Few texts are purely expressive. An expressive text will usually carry information.

Thus for translation. Through images. Apart from tone of voice. Metaphor is the link between the expressive and the aesthetic function. Whilst the preceding four functions may operate throughout a text. The sound-effects consist of onomatopoeia. Most informative texts will either have a vocative thread running through them it is essential that the translator pick this up. Consider now Jakobson's three other functions of language: The epithets 'expressive'.

Add to these the German modal particles ja. Gardez-vous d'une blessure narcissique. Tu sais. References to the weather can be modified by translating with a TL phaticism. Ein Wiesel soft auf einem Kiesel Inmitten Bachgeriesel. Some phaticisms are 'universal'. The only translation problem I know is whether to delete or over-translate the modal particles.

In many cases it is not possible to 'translate' sound-effects unless one transfers the relevant language units: In written language. In nonsense poetry. In translating expressive texts. Descriptive verbs of movement and action. Thus original metaphor. TV commercials they are essential. In other expressive texts.

I have proposed three main types of texts. When these are more or less universal e. The rhythm. Ponderous translations. The argument has been going on since at least the first century BC.

The argument was theoretical: This view culminated in the statements of the extreme 'literalists' Walter Benjamin and Vladimir Nabokov. In den letzten vierjahren habe ich Miinzen geprdgt und auch viel Geldgescheffelt. I put it in the form of a flattened V diagram: Now the context has changed. Ces quatre demises annees. It is also useful to divide texts by topic into three broad categories: Tyndale and Dolet were burned at the stake.

Note also that SL expressions signalling metalingual words. Wvcliff s works were banned. I literally coined money'. The SL word-order is preserved and the words translated Too often. I have adopted and adapted the Biihler-Jakobson functions of language operationally as the most convenient way of looking at a text for translation. Up to the beginning of the nineteenth century. Literary texts are distinguished from the rest in being more important in their mental and imaginative connotations than their factual denotations.

This was the often revolutionary slogan of writers who wanted the truth to be read and understood. Then at the turn of the nineteenth century. Usually it is a paraphrase much longer than the original. I should first say that only semantic and communicative translation fulfil the two main aims of translation. Idiomatic translation Idiomatic translation reproduces the 'message' of the original but tends to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms where these do not exist in the original.

A textbook of translation by peter newmark

The main use of word-for-word translation is either to understand the mechanics of the source language or to construe a difficult text as a pretranslation process. I refer to 'expressive' as 'sacred' texts. Communicative translation Faithful translation A faithful translation attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures.

It 'transfers' cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical and lexical 'abnormality' deviation from SL norms in the translation. Cultural components tend to be transferred intact in expressive texts. Authorities as diverse as Seleskovitch and Stuart Gilbert tend to this form of lively. There are grey or fuzzy areas in this distinction.

The distinction between 'faithful' and 'semantic' translation is that the first is uncompromising and dogmatic. As a pre-translation process. Adaptation This is the 'freest' form of translation. Literal translation The SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TL equivalents but the lexical words are again translated singly.

Semantic translation is used for 'expressive' texts. A semantic translation is more likely to be economical than a communicative translation. It attempts to be completely faithful to the intentions and the text-realisation of the SL writer. It is used mainly for plays comedies and poetry. Semantic translation Semantic translation differs from 'faithful translation' only in as far as it must take more account of the aesthetic value that is.

Cultural words are translated literally. In general. The deplorable practice of having a play or poem literally translated and then rewritten by an established dramatist or poet has produced many poor adaptations. Semantic translation is personal and individual. Semantic and communicative translation treat the following items similarly: Free translation Free translation reproduces the matter without the manner.

The expressive components of'expressive' texts unusual syntactic structures. SL difficulties clarified. De Gaulle. The gorgeous girl walked gingerly through the closet'. In semantic translation. Nida calls it 'dynamic equivalence'. There is no need to discuss again the propriety of'converting' Keats' 'Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness' or Shakespeare's 'Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?

At a pinch. A semantic translation is normally inferior to its original. Too often it is still being imposed as a teacher's 'fair copy' or model. Kerne blasse Ahnung or Nicht die geringste Ahnung or Ich habe keinen blassen Schimmer davon have the closest equivalent effect?

A translation is pre-eminently a matter for discussion rather than fiat. In any event. Cultural concessions e. In informative texts. I have dealt at length with the 'equivalent effect' principle because it is an important translation concept which has a degree of application to any tvpe of text. Hence unser our Shakespeare.

Communicative translation. Equivalent effect is an important intuitive principle which could be tested but. As I see it. This is also called the 'equivalent response' principle. In translating 'I haven't the foggiest idea'. The reader's response. The metalingual sound-effects which the translator is trying to reproduce are in fact unlikely to affect the TL reader.

The three versions reflect the more colloquial style of the English two phrasal verbs and the more formal German. I suggest that commonly vocative and informative texts are translated too literally. There are plenty of words. Ce modele est le dernier cri dans le domaine des meubles design. This model links up with the latest trends in furniture design. The programme exists out of different items. In principle only!

On the other hand. Note that I group informative and vocative texts together as suitable for communicative translation. In the UK the standard of foreign language FL publicity and notices is now high but there are not enough of them.

Son programme se compose de differents meubles. Das Programm besteht aus verschiedenen Mobeln. This is another way of looking at the word versus sentence conflict that is always coming up.. In expressive texts. Translate by sentences wherever you can and always as literally or as closely as you can whenever you can see the wood for the trees or get the general sense.

The translation of vocative texts immediately involves translation in the problem of the second person. Teh sont let qualifiedtifs de Vanessa. But translate virtually by words first if thev are 'technical'.

I should mention that I have been describing methods of translation as products rather than processes. In 'informative' texts. Where communicative translation of advertisements works so admirably. Dieses Model schliesst hei den letsten Trends im Mobeldesign an.

Scanning the numerous multilingual advertising leaflets available todav. On the one hand translation bv standard terms and phrases is used mainly for notices: In der Tat. A pragmatic component is added to produce a semantic or a communicative translation.

Tristesse d'ete may suggest the sun bathing the golden hair of a sleeping girl lying on the sand struggling against what? Le soleil. Rieu for Penguin Books. These last two concepts are mine. Graeme Ritchie. The rain obscured everything'. La pluie brouilla les objets. Plain prose translations are often published in parallel with their originals. I do not know to what extent this is mainly a theoretical or a useful concept.

This type of translation. It irons out the expressiveness of a writer with modish colloquialisms. I add further definitions of translation methods. The term is not widely used. That life was to transcend itself through martyrdom and now martyrdom was not to be long in coming". Research is now proceeding on how people translate.

This applies to poetry as to technical translation. This conveys all the information in a non-literary text. Cette vie se surpassera par le martyre. Throughout the pre-translation process. I quote tiny scraps of Ritchie's weaknesses: La Notre-Dame avanca. The Notre-Dame worked her way in'. The archetype of this tradition. The reader can appreciate the sense of the work without experiencing equivalent effect.

Usually stanzas become paragraphs. The prose translation of poems and poetic drama initiated by E. Free translation has always favoured the sentence. A Greek or seventeenth-century French tragedy. Its main concepts are cohesion. The subject now tends to be swallowed up in text linguistics. My own view of texts derives from Biihler's functional theory of language: I categorise all texts as expressive or informative or vocative. In the last fifteen years the argument has been revived by those who maintain that the only true UT is the whole text.

Vinay and Darbelnet define the unit of translation as 'the smallest segment of an utterance whose cohesion of signs is such that they must not be separately translated'. The other aspects of text linguistics affecting a translation are: The three typical reader-types are: The text can rather be described as the ultimate court of appeal. Other stereotypes. This view has been underpinned by the vast industry in discourse analysis. The general properties of a text have often been described.

These are the tone. Consider first its genre. The argument about the length of the UT. There is at present a confusing tendency for translation theorists to regard the whole text. The largest quantity of translation in a text is done at the level of the word. Recent work on conversations of all kinds. Discourse analysis can be defined as the analysis of texts beyond and 'above' the sentence.

That would be chaos. The functions represent a dominant emphasis. It is a futile. For example: Translating fiction titles is a separate problem. A I'ombre des jfeunes Filles en fleur. Or highlight the main point: Remembrance of Things Past for Sodome et Gomonhe. A la Recherche du Temps Retrouve. The title should sound attractive. For serious imaginative literature. Un siecle de courtisans. Un nouveau cas de septicemie a Candida albicans provoquee par les catheters de perfusion veineuse.

Hero and Leander. It may be useful to the translator to note deviations from these and other standard structures. For a seventeenth-century French tragedy. This is mistaken. Days of Hope is more inviting than L'espoir. Cohesion is closer in the give and take of dialogue and speech than in any other form of text. The Sweet Cheat Gone. But a sub-title such as Periode de decadence morale et spirituelle may not suit the English house-style for instance.

La Fugitive. Cities of the Plain. Voulez-vous bien Ca ne tefaitriensi Je ne sais pas si tu Versuch's vielleicht kannst du Ich mochte. Apart from transposing the structure of the sentence e. C'est vrai. Scott-Moncrieff's Proust titles. For non-literary texts. I think a descriptive title should be 'literally' kept Madame Bovary could only be Madame Bovary.

Within a Budding Grove. Here the main cohesive factor is the question. An example of mistranslation of pronouns is in the Authorised Version. The paper interested me. French suspension points indicate a pause. SL pronouns and deictics including le premier. Gasschwaden und Tankflotillen zerstampfen. Note here English's tendency to turn SL complex into co-ordinate sentences on the lines of Si tu marches. The succession of French dashes. And when they arose early in the morning.

Vetsh Cz. Here the translator has to some extent extended the sound. The translator has to make a conscious decision whether to drop or retain them. At dawn the next day. Thus referential synonyms.

Isaiah My question-mark here indicates irony I do not think it is a triviality. The most common forms these take are connectives denoting addition. Punctuation is an essential aspect of discourse analysis. Then the angel of the Lord went forth and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred and four score and five thousand.

The use of semi-colons to indicate a number of simultaneous events or activities. German notably uses modal connectives mots-chamieres such as aber. These connectives are tricky when they are polysemous. French tends to use commas as conjunctions.

The translator has to reconcile the functional. Russian obligatorily and Italian stylistically distinguish rheme by word-order. Numerical adverbs are usually straightforward.

Und da fiel er herunter. The thematic elements are communicatively less dynamic. A further distinction in English between 'Robert Smith' and 'Smith' may be that the first is not known. C'est X qui. In the normal theme-rheme. Die Linguistik kann man zu den progressiven Wissenschaften zdhlen.

Die Sprachwissenschaft ist ein Element des Fortschritts. Firbas's 'communicative dynamism' indicates the importance of correctly preserving emphasis in translation. Elements that belong neither to theme nor rheme are transitional. Thus Dressier. In many cases.

Newmark, Peter Textbook-Of-Translation (1988)

Unter andern may have to be cunningly translated 'include'. Normally one proceeds from the known to the unknown: There is always at least an argument for retaining a theme-rheme or rheme-theme order at the sacrifice of syntax and even lexis.

Whilst the translator must reproduce the new information. C'est jusqu'au fond qu'il tomba. We may perhaps assume that: FSP examines the arrangement of the elements of a sentence in the light of its linguistic. The second sentence is almost redundant. What is known. Rheme in English is often signalled by an indefinite article.

Er kam herunter: Words more or less vaguely expressing analogy.

ROMONA from Colorado
I do enjoy reading novels properly. Look over my other posts. I take pleasure in bridge building.