FROM THE GROUND UP AVIATION BOOK PDF
As ever, chapters within the book's sections include: The Airplane, Theory of Flight, Aero Aerodromes & Airspace, Aeronautical Rules & Facilities, Aviation Weather, Thus, From the Ground Up, 29th Edition contains not only all the updates. Free Aviation Training Books. Don't pay for your aviation training books. Download PDF versions of all the FAA Aviation Books Here!. South Asia and the Far East - From the Ground Up - Anyone knows where i can download a copy of From the my first ever aviation book.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Hindi|
|ePub File Size:||18.59 MB|
|PDF File Size:||17.68 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
From the Ground Up - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read From the Ground Up (FTGU) is a pilot's training book, and it covers almost every Autorotation Auxiliary Drives Aviation Notice Aviation Weather Information. nov better aerobatics pdf from the ground up book online aviation weather jeppesen pdf the flying handbook aircraft systems for pilots jeppesen pdf. I have a copy of FTGU but I would like the PDF version so I can print off a copy to Why don't you just make notes in the book? or buy a 2nd (used) copy? am. cittadelmonte.info /aviation/.
Endurance Max. Speeds Flaps Down. Construction Max. Weight Landing. Diving Max.
RCAF Collection. Headsets PNR Headsets. ANR Headsets. Headset Accessories. Radios Icom Radios. Icom Radio Accessories. Icom Radios Icom Radio Accessories.
From the ground up aviation book pdf | wwcxnsx
Press and move to zoom. Mouse over image to zoom. Click to enlarge. Frise Ailerons. Both frise and differential ailerons have been designed to overcome aileron drag. On differential ailerons, the downgoing aileron moves through a smaller angle than the upgoing aileron. In frise ailerons, the nose of the upgoing aileron projects into the airflow, while the downgoing aileron is streamlined.
The Boundary Layer The boundary layer is a very thin sheet of air lying over the surface of the wing and, for that matter, all other surfaces of the airplane.
Because air has viscosity, this layer of air tends to adhere to the wing. As the wing moves forward through the air, the boundary layer at first flows smoothly over the streamlined shape of the airfoil. Here the flow is called the laminar layer. Laminar and Turbulent Layer. As the boundary layer approaches the centre of the wing, it begins to lose speed due to skin friction and it becomes thicker and turbulent.
Here it is called the turbulent layer. The point at which the boundary layer changes from laminar to turbulent is called the transition point Fig. Where the boundary layer becomes turbulent, drag due to skin friction is relatively high. As speed increases, the transition point tends to move forward.
As the angle of attack increases, the transition point also tends to move forward. Various methods have been developed to control the boundary layer in order to reduce skin friction drag. Suction Method. One method uses a series of thin slots in the wing running out from the wing root towards the tip. A vacuum sucks the air down through the slots, preventing the airflow from breaking away from the wing and forcing it to follow the curvature of the wing surface.
The air, which is sucked in, siphons through the ducts inside the wing and is exhausted backwards to provide extra thrust. The laminar flow airfoil is itself a structural design intended to make possible better boundary layer control. The transition point at which the laminar flow of air breaks down into turbulence is at or near the thickest part. As can be seen in the accompanying illustration Fig. Vortex generators Fig. They are placed at an angle of attack and like a wing air-foil section generate vortices.
These tend to prevent or delay the breakaway of the boundary layer by re-energizing it. They are lighter and simpler than the suction boundary layer control system described above.
Vortex Generators. COUPLES The principle of equilibrium has already been introduced at the beginning of this chapter in the discussion of the forces that act on an airplane in flight.
When two forces, such as thrust and drag, are equal and opposite, but parallel rather than passing through the same point, they are said to form a couple.
A couple will cause a turning moment about a given axis as in Fig. If weight is ahead of lift, the couple created will turn the nose of the airplane down.
Conversely, if lift is ahead of weight, the couple created will turn the nose of the airplane up. Forces acting on an Airplane in Flight. It drag is above thrust, the couple formed will turn the nose of the airplane up. Conversely, if thrust is above drag, the couple formed will turn the nose of the airplane down.
Notice that in Fig. Forces acting on an Airplane in Flight, weight is placed ahead of lift, and drag is above thrust. As a result, when the engine is shut off, and there is no thrust, the couple due to weight and lift will naturally tend to turn the nose down. In the case of flying boat design, it is practically impossible to have the drag above the thrust.
Therefore, lift must be placed ahead of weight for normal flight. This leads to the unsatisfactory tendency, when the engine is shut off, to nose up, with the consequent risk of stalling in the hands of an inexperienced pilot. If the airplane is designed for low speed, a thick airfoil is most efficient. A thin airfoil is best for high speed. These are known as conventional airfoils.
Low camber - low drag - high speed - thin wing section Suitable for race planes, fighters, interceptors, etc.
Deep camber - high lift - low speed - thick wing section Suitable for transports, freighters, bombers, etc.
Deep camber - high lift - low speed - thin wing section Suitable as above. Low lift - high drag - reflex trailing edge wing section.
Very little movement of centre of pressure. Good stability. Symmetrical cambered top and bottom wing sections. Similar to above. GA W -l airfoil - thicker for better structure and lower weight good stall characteristics - camber is maintained farther rearward which increases lifting capability over more of the airfoil and decreases drag.
It is a fairly recent development and is known as the laminar flow airfoil. Laminar flow airfoils were originally developed for the purpose of making an airplane fly faster. The laminar flow wing is usually thinner than the conventional airfoil, the leading edge is more pointed and its upper and lower surfaces are nearly symmetrical.
The major and most important difference between the two types of airfoil is this: The effect achieved by this design of wing is to maintain the laminar flow of air throughout a greater percentage of the chord of the wing and to control the transition point. Drag is therefore considerably reduced since the laminar airfoil takes less energy to slide through the air.
The pressure distribution on the laminar flow wing is much more even since the camber of the wing from the leading edge to the point of maximum camber is more gradual than on the conventional airfoil.
However, at the point of stall, the transition point moves more rapidly forward. Wings may be rectangular or elliptical or delta shaped. Some wings taper from wing root to wing tip, with the taper along the leading edge or along the trailing edge or, in some cases, with a taper along both edges.
The aspect ratio of a wing is the relationship between the length or span of the wing and its width or chord. A wing, for example, that has a span of 24 feet and a chord of 6 feet has an aspect ratio of 4. A wing with a span of 36 feet and a chord of 4 feet has an aspect ratio of 9.
The actual size, in area, of both wings is identical sq. A wing with a high aspect ratio will generate more lift and less induced drag than a wing with a low aspect ratio. For this reason, gliders have wings with high aspect ratios. Angle of Incidence. Choosing the right angle of incidence can improve flight visibility, enhance take-off and landing characteristics and reduce drag in level flight. The angle of incidence that is usually chosen is the angle of attack at which the lift-drag ratio is optimum See Fig.
In most modern airplanes, there is a small positive angle of incidence so that the wing has a slight angle of attack when the airplane is in level cruising flight.
WASHOUT To reduce the tendency of the wing to stall suddenly as the stalling angle is approached, designers incorporate in wing design a feature known as washout. The wing is twisted so that the angle of incidence at the wing tip is less than that at the root of the wing. As a result, the wing has better stall characteristics in that the section towards the root will stall before the outer section of the wing.
The ailerons, located towards the wing tips, are still effective even though part of the wing is stalled. The same improved stall characteristics are achieved by the device of changing the airfoil shape from the root to the tip.
From the Ground Up
The manufacturer incorporates a wing shape at the tip which has the characteristic of stalling at a slightly higher angle of attack. On swept wing airplanes, they are located about two-thirds of the way out towards the wing tip and prevent the drifting of air toward the tip of the wing at high angles of attack. On straight wing airplanes, they control the airflow in the flap area. In both cases, they give better slow speed handling and stall characteristics.
Slats are auxiliary airfoils fitted to the leading edge of the wing. At high angles of attack, they automatically move out ahead of the wing. The angle of attack of the slat being less than that of the mainplane, there is a smooth airflow over the slat which tends to smooth out the eddies forming over the wing. Slats are usually fitted to the leading edge near the wing tips to improve lateral control. Slots are passageways built into the wing a short distance from the leading edge in such a way that, at high angles of attack, the air flows through the slot and over the wing, tending to smooth out the turbulence due to eddies.
They usually consist of a long narrow strip of metal arranged spanwise along the top surface of the airfoil. In some airplanes, they are linked to the ailerons and work therefore in unison with the ailerons for lateral control.
As such, they open on the side of the upgoing aileron, spoil the lift on that wing and help drive the wing down and help the airplane to roll into a turn. In some airplanes, spoilers have replaced ailerons as a means of roll control. The spoiler moves only upward in contrast to the aileron that moves upward to decrease lift and downward to increase lift.
The spoiler moves only up, spoiling the wing lift. By using spoilers for roll control, full span flaps can be used to increase low speed lift. Spoilers can also be connected to the brake controls and, when so fitted, work symmetrically across the airplane for producing drag and destroying lift after landing, thereby transferring all the weight of the airplane to the wheels and making braking action more effective.
Slotted Wings. They are a device designed to facilitate optimum descent without decreasing power enough to.
From the ground up aviation book pdf
They are also of use in setting up the night approach speed and descent pattern in the landing configuration. The brakes, when extended, create drag without altering the curvature of the wing and are usually fitted far enough back along the chord so as not to disrupt too much lift and in a position laterally where they will not disturb the airflow over the tailplane.
They are usually small metal blades housed in a fitting concealed in the wing that, when activated from the cockpit, pivot up to form a plate.
On some types of aircraft, speed brakes are incorporated into the rear fuselage and consist of two hinged doors that open into the slipstream. Speed Brakes. FLAPS Flaps are high lift devices which, in effect, increase the camber of the wing and, in some cases, as with the Fowler Flap, also increase the effective wing area. Their use gives better take-off performance and permits steeper approach angles and lower approach and landing speeds.
When deflected, flaps increase the upper camber of the wing, increasing the negative pressure on the top of the wing. At the same time, they allow a build up of pressure below the wing. However, not all airplane manufacturers recommend the use of flaps during take-off. They can be used only on those airplanes which have sufficient take-off power to overcome the extra drag that extended flaps produce.
The recommendations of the manufacturer should, therefore, always be followed. Flaps do indeed increase drag.
The greater the flap deflection, the greater the drag. At a point of about half of their full travel, the increased drag surpasses the increased lift and the flaps become air brakes.
In an approach over obstacles, the use of flaps permits the pilot to touch down much nearer the threshold of the runway. Flaps also permit a slower landing speed and act as air brakes when the airplane is rolling to a stop after landing, thus reducing the need for excessive braking action.
As a result, there is less wear on the undercarriage, wheels and tires. Lower landing speeds also reduce the possibility of ground looping during the landing roll. Plain and split flaps increase the lift of a wing, but at the same time, they greatly increase the drag. For all practical purposes, they are of value only in approach and landing. They should not normally be employed for take-off because the extra drag reduces acceleration. Slotted flaps, on the other hand, including such types as Fowler and Zap, produce lift in excess of drag and their partial use is therefore recommended for takeoff.
From the stand point of aerodynamic efficiency, the Fowler Flap is generally considered to offer the most advantages and the fewest disadvantages, especially on larger airplanes, while double slotted flaps have won wide approval for smaller types.
On STOL airplanes, a combination of double slotted flaps and leading edge slats are common. Changes in flap setting affect the trim of an airplane. As flaps are lowered, the centre of pressure moves rearward creating a nose down, pitching moment.
The airplane is apt to lose considerable height when the flaps are raised. At low altitudes, therefore, the flaps should be raised cautiously. Most airplanes are placarded to show a maximum speed above which the flaps must not be lowered.
The flaps are not designed to withstand the loads imposed by high speeds. When the flaps have been lowered for a landing, they should not ordinarily be raised until the airplane is on the ground.
If a landing has been missed, the flaps should not be raised until the power has been applied and the airplane has regained normal climbing speed. It is then advisable to raise the flaps in stages.
How much flap should be used in landing? Generally speaking, an airplane should be landed as slowly as is consistent with safety. This usually calls for the use of full flaps. The use of flaps affects the wing airfoil in two ways.
Both lift and drag are increased. The increased lift results in a lower stalling speed and permits a lower touchdown speed. The increased drag permits a steeper approach angle without increasing airspeed.
The extra drag of full flaps results in a shorter landing roll. An airplane that lands at 50 knots with full flaps selected may have a landing speed as fast as 70 knots with flaps up. If a swerve occurs during the landing roll, the centrifugal force unleashed at 70 knots is twice what it would be at 50 knots, since centrifugal force increases as the square of the speed. It follows, then, that a slower landing speed reduces the potential for loss of control during the landing roll.
It also means less strain on the tires, brakes and landing gear and reduces fatigue on the airframe structure. There are, of course, factors which at times call for variance from the procedure of using full flaps on landing.
With experience, a pilot learns to assess these various factors as a guide to flap selection. In some airplanes, in across wind condition, the use of full flaps may be inadvisable. Flaps present a greater surface for the wind to act upon when the airplane is rolling on the ground.
The wing on the side from which the wind is blowing will tend to rise. In addition, a cross wind acting on full flaps increases the weather vaning tendency, although in an airplane with very effective rudder control even at slow speeds, the problem is not so severe.
However, in many airplanes, the selection of full flaps deflects the airflow from passing over the empennage, making the elevator and rudder surfaces ineffective. Positive control of the airplane on the ground is greatly hampered. Since maintaining control of the airplane throughout the landing roll is of utmost importance, it may be advisable to use less flaps in cross wind conditions. In any case, it is very important to maintain the cross wind correction throughout the landing roll.
The longitudinal axis extends lengthwise through the fuselage from the nose to the tail. Movement of the airplane around the longitudinal axis is known as roll and is controlled by movement of the ailerons. To move the ailerons, the pilot turns the control wheel either clockwise or counter clockwise or moves the control stick either right or left.
This action lowers the aileron on one wing and raises the aileron on the other wing. The downgoing aileron increases the camber of its wing, producing more lift and the wing rises. The upgoing aileron spoils the airflow on its wing, decreases the lift and the wing descends. The airplane rolls into a turn. The lateral axis extends crosswise from wing tip to wing tip. Movement of the airplane around the lateral axis is known as pitch and is controlled by movement of the elevators.
To effect a nose down attitude, the pilot pushes forward on the control wheel or stick. The elevator deflects downward, increasing the camber of the horizontal tail surface and thereby increasing the lift on the tail. To effect a nose up attitude of the airplane, the pilot pulls the wheel toward him. The elevators are deflected upwards decreasing the lift on the tail, with a resultant downward movement of the tail.
The vertical or normal axis passes vertically through the centre of gravity. The Axes of an Airplane. Movement of the airplane around the vertical axis is yaw and is controlled by movement of the rudder.
Pressure applied to the left rudder pedal, for example, deflects the rudder to the left into the airflow. The pressure of the airflow against the rudder pushes the tail to the right. The nose of the airplane yaws to the left.
There is a distinct relationship between movement around the vertical and longitudinal axes of an airplane i.
When rudder is applied to effect a yaw, for example, to the right, the left wing on the outside of the turn moves faster than the inside wing, meets the relative airflow at a greater angle of attack and at greater speed and produces more lift. The use of rudder, therefore, along with aileron can help to raise the wing and produce a better coordinated turn.
In a roll, the airplane has a tendency to yaw away from the intended direction of the turn. This tendency is the result of aileron drag and is called adverse yaw. The upgoing wing, as well as gaining more lift from the increased camber of the downgoing aileron, also experiences more induced drag. The airplane, as a result, skids outward on the turn. Use of rudder in the turn corrects this tendency. Several of the various means by which an aerodynamic reaction is used to serve this purpose are illustrated in Fig.
Dynamic Balance. By having some of the control surface in front of the hinge, the air striking the forward portion helps to move the control surface in the required direction.
The design also helps to counteract adverse yaw when used in aileron design. Control surfaces are sometimes balanced by fitting a mass usually of lead of streamline shape in front of the hinge of the control surface.
This is called mass balance and is incorporated to prevent flutter of the control surface which is liable to occur at high speeds. The mass may be attached as shown in Fig. Mass Balance. The exact distribution of weight on a control surface is very important. For this reason, when a control surface is repainted, repaired or component parts replaced, it is essential to check for proper balance and have it rebalanced if necessary.
Without any airflow over the control surface, it must balance about its specified C. This is known as static balance. For example, the aileron of the Bonanza is designed for a static nose heavy balance of 0. Rising columns of hot air, downdrafts, gusty winds, etc. Its nose or tail drops or one wing dips. How the airplane reacts to such a disturbance from its flight attitude depends on its stability characteristics.
Stability is the tendency of an airplane in flight to remain in straight, level, upright flight and to return to this attitude, if displaced, without corrective action by the pilot.
Static and Dynamic Stability. Stability may be a positive, meaning the airplane will develop forces or moments which tend to restore it to its original position; b neutral, meaning the restoring forces are absent and the airplane will neither return from its disturbed position, nor move further away; c negative, meaning it will develop forces or moments which tend to move it further away.
Negative stability is, in other words, the condition of instability. An exceedingly stable airplane, on the other hand, may lack manoeuvrability.
Centre of Gravity The centre of gravity is of course very important in achieving longitudinal stability. This design feature is incorporated so that. The angle of the downwash is about half the angle of attack of the main airfoils. The designers may have elected to build in. The tailplane is set at an angle of incidence that produces a negative lift and thereby.
Its function is to resist this diving tendency. If the airplane is loaded with the centre of gravity too far aft. The tailplane. The air that strikes the stabilizer has already passed over the wings and been deflected slightly downward. An airplane may be inherently stable.
On most airplanes the stabilizer appears to be set at an angle of incidence that would produce an upward lift on the tailplane. Stability may be a longitudinal. An airplane which. It is because of this nose heavy characteristic that the airplane requires a tailplane.
The Horizontal Stabilizer The tail plane. It may be quite small. It must. The proper angle of incidence of the stabilizer therefore is very important in order for it to be effective in its function.
To obtain longitudinal stability. An airplane that has positive dynamic stability does not automatically have positive static stability. Two principal factors influence longitudinal stability: When the angle of attack on the wings is increased by a disturbance the centre of pressure moves forward.
The inherent stability will be. The centre of gravity is ahead of the centre of pressure. In level. Keel Effect Dihedral is more usually a feature on low wing airplanes. Lateral stability is achieved through 1 dihedral.
The purpose of dihedral is to improve lateral stability. Since dihedral inclines the wing to the horizontal. The incorporation of this feature provides some advantages in overall design in certain types of airplanes. Dihedral The dihedral angle is the angle that each wing makes with the horizontal Fig. It a disturbance causes one wing to drop.
The lower wing will thus receive more lift and the airplane will roll back into its proper position. This flow of air will strike the lower wing at a greater angle of attack than it strikes the upper wing. Most high wing airplanes are laterally stable simply because the wings are attached in a high position on the fuselage and because the weight is therefore low. This will. Hence an excessive amount of dihedral will. Some modern airplanes have a measure of negative dihedral.
Effect of Dihedral. As a result. Keel effect and sweepback also contribute to directional stability to some degree. The additional drag on the right wing pulls it back. The airspeed of the right wing increases and it acquires more drag than the left wing A.
The Fin An airplane has the tendency always to fly head on into the relative airflow. When a disturbance causes an airplane with sweepback to slip or drop a wing.
In order for the tail surfaces to function properly in this weather vaning capacity. Sweepback also contributes to directional stability. Sweepback A sweptback wing is one in which the leading edge slopes backward. The most important feature that affects directional stability is the vertical tail surface. If the airplane yaws away from its course. If it were otherwise. When the airplane is disturbed and one wing dips.
This tendency which might be described as weather vaning is directly attributable to the vertical tail fin and to some extent also the vertical side areas of the fuselage. When turbulence or rudder application causes the airplane to yaw to one side for example. For example. One of the characteristics of a gyroscope is rigidity in space. If forced to change. Asymmetric thrust is significant only at high angles of attack. On take-off.
The revolving slipstream from the propeller causes an airplane. This left turning tendency is called torque. Aileron trim tabs also are used to compensate for torque. Right rudder pressure compensates for this tendency. The reaction to the spinning propeller causes the airplane to rotate counter clockwise. This causes an increased pressure on one side of the tail unit.
The tail is consequently pushed sideways from the high pressure side towards the low. Right rudder compensates. If an airplane changes suddenly from a nose up to a nose down position. Use of right rudder during the take-off roll corrects this condition. This situation produces more lift from the right side of the propeller with a consequent yawing to the left. In level flight. In this way. The condition is corrected by offsetting the fin. The designer of the airplane compensates for torque in cruising flight by building a slight right turning tendency into the airplane.
As the airspeed increases. The application of right rudder compensates for the precession tendency. At high angles of attack and high power settings.
It may be of interest at this point to mention the relative effects of the slipstreams of pusher and tractor type propellers. By adjusting power i. If the angle of attack is increased. A pusher type of propeller. If the pilot does not change the angle of attack. The elevator does this by controlling the angle of attack of the wings. The tractor type of propeller located at the nose of the airplane pushes high speed turbulent air back over the airplane.
During level flight. It is the function of the elevators to divide the energy. If the power is increased. The throttle controls the output of this energy. If the pilot puts some back pressure on the control column with no change in throttle setting. The airspeed for normal climb is always indicated in the Airplane Flight Manual. The airplane has then reached its absolute ceiling. This is the rate of climb which will gain the most altitude in the least time. The best angle of climb.
It is a speed that is usually 5 to 10 knots faster than the airspeed for best rate of climb and as such provides better engine cooling. Once established in a steady state of climb condition. When climbing into wind. Forces in a Climb. The best rate of climb is normally used on take-off after any obstacles are cleared and is maintained until the airplane leaves the traffic circuit.
Every pilot should determine the airspeed for best rate of climb and for best angle of climb for the particular airplane he is flying. These airspeeds are usually given in the Airplane Flight Manual. The airspeed for the steepest angle of climb is somewhat lower than the speed at which the best rate of climb is obtained. Because the airspeed for the best angle of climb is relatively slow. It is valuable in climbing out of restricted areas over obstacles.
The angle of climb. The climb. The ability of an airplane to climb is dependent on the extra power that is available from the engine. The rate of climb is not affected by the wind. The stronger the wind. In the climb attitude. At ever increasing altitudes. For every airplane there is an airspeed at a given power setting which will give the best rate of climb. At too fast an airspeed. For one thing.
This airspeed represents the optimum glide. The pilot must. This airspeed. When gliding into a fairly strong wind.
From the Ground Up, 29th Edition
A strong headwind or tailwind will tend to steepen or flatten the glide as the case may be. Of the four forces. This is equal and opposite to weight. If the angle of attack is increased to flatten the glide. If the angle of attack is decreased so that the airspeed increases.
Another factor which affects the glide path is. R represents the total reaction. At too slow an airspeed. The steeper the angle. Forces in a Glide. The angle at which the pilot chooses to glide determines the airspeed in the glide. It can roughly be calculated as being approximately 1. The normal method of descent for landing. The vertical component OA balances the weight of the airplane.
Today Find More Posts by avalanche Avalanche, My post was not meant solely at you, but I do appreciate your responding to it and removing the post with the link. Personally I'm glad that you bought the book, that it was helpful to you and that your intention was to help somebody else find it as well.
If you can believe it that book has been in print now for almost 70 years, making it one of the longest lasting and mostly widely used instruction manuals in all of aviation. But, it's still the product of a small aviation publisher in Ottawa, not some big conglomorate somewhere, and when you post the entire contents for free on the internet you take away their ability to be successful publishing it and to continue to keep the book up to date and in circulation.
It'd be pretty sad if a book with that much history went out of print because the very people who profited from its contents didn't care enough to give the author and publishers their due. Best of luck in your future and aviation career, ELAC. I am not criticising your English language skills, but rather your spellings and SMS style of writing which is pathetic, to say the very least, in a professional environment.
If you dont make an effort to improve seriously on this, it would tell on your general character later on during interviews, tests etc. Here you go I NEVER knew the history of the book n wont allow my frnds to dwld it but rather purchase it as i did.
And I won't allow my friends to download it, rather purchase it You know, I have two copies of the book.