LONG HAUL PDF
Diary of a Wimpy Kid #9, WIMPY KID, The Long??of the phenomenally bestselling Diary of a Wimpy Kid series. Tips, Scripts and. Jeff Kinney is an online game developer, designer, the creator of cittadelmonte.info, and the #1 New York Times best-selling author and illustrator of the wildly. The Long Haul - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. The Long Haul -- Wimpy Kid # 9.
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Long Haul PDF CLICK THE LINK ABOVE FOR THE PDF A family road trip is supposed to be a lot of fun unless, of course, you're the Heffleys. The journey . This books (The Long Haul (Diary of a Wimpy Kid book 9) [PDF]) Made by Jeff Kinney About Books Long Haul To Download Please Click. [PDF] Download Diary of a Wimpy Kid # 9: Long Haul Ebook | READ ONLINE Download at cittadelmonte.info?book=X.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Will Low cost trans-Atlantic long haul succeed? An insight at what passengers want when travelling long haul. Dre Andre. Low cost airlines have revolutionised the short haul sector. Now, after several failed attempts, they are poised to do the same in longer routes.
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Diary Of A Wimpy Kid - 9 The Long Haul.pdf
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Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. Only a few narrow body aircrafts such as Boeing can go long haul. LCCs have reshaped the competitive environment within liberalised markets and have made valuable impacts in the worlds short haul passenger markets, which had previously been largely controlled by full service carriers.
Analysis beginning in reveals that the two carriers offer almost similar capacity on routes from UK airports to EU destinations leaving British Airways trailing third. ANNA Figure 3: CAPA Figure 4: Linz is just one of many European destinations that can only be reached nonstop from the UK from a single airport.
LCCs work best when passengers can be stimulated to travel by offering low fares in markets, passe ge s ho ould t ha e p e iousl flo e ause of high fa es a e o sti ulated to fly, thereby creating new passenger markets.
Calder further explains that the full stimulation effect of low fares in an existing market occurs when the fare differential is greatest. Legacy FSCs have tried to fight back and win back the market which once belonged to them. Many of which started low cost subsidiaries while others acquired struggling LCCs.
Also in Lufthansa announced plans to transfer non hub European traffic i. Doganis explains that it is in long haul markets, legacies have dominated for a long time, operating a hub and spoke network as well as origin and destination. They are global players for international and intercontinental markets with medium and long haul flights from hubs to almost every continent.
FSCs have also managed to build strong customer relationship management through various loyalty programs to retain the most frequent flyers. However, most FSCs are now facing huge competition from gulf carriers and now LCCs are turning their attention on the long haul turf. Leigh adds that FSCs are concentrating on how to win back short haul while LCCs want to expand in long haul sectors.
Although this market may have seen a small shrink in traffic in to in the wake of the Recession, this market still remains the biggest long haul destination from Europe, the US alone is being served 3. This market is highly competitive with FSCs dominating and operating aggressively to maintain it.
LONG HAUL | Wimpy Kid World
ANNA Figure 5. Morrell shows how Skytrain failed in as a result of the economic downturn in the early s and strong competition from other transatlantic carriers. Griffin explains that the whole idea of long haul low cost has been talked about numerous times since then but never come to fruition.
However, with an ever elastic price conscious market, there seems to be growing voices in support of long haul low cost. The LCC model is a proven success in short haul markets without a doubt, it has grown to an e te t that the e is o pa t of the UK o Eu ope left he e o e a t fl for a reduced fare.
Griffin further explains that if the likes of Ryanair, EasyJet and Norwegian are to expand their operations, there is more likelihood that it has to be long haul. Morrell explains that in more recent times in Asia there are numerous LCCs operating medium to long haul flights. Air AsiaX and Nok operate in the South-east Asia markets and serve destinations as far a Singapore with flight times of 7hours. Norwegian which already flies long haul to Bangkok from Oslo and Stockholm, regards the Boeing Dreamliner, which is designed to cut fuel consumption by fifth, as a crucial piece in his plan.
This is because fuel accounts for almost a fifth of operating costs on long haul flights. We ha e the ight tool, M Kjos sa s, a ai aft ith lo fuel u a d e ough a ge. Norwegian Air Shuttle Figure 6: These all include a layover in Reykjavik, the tiny Icelandic capital. It s lea that LCCs a t this a ket a d the elie e the a e apable of stealing away traffic from FSCs and creating a new market of first time flyers.
They intend to rapidly become more and more popular in this market for both lower and middle income families, gone are the days when air transport was for the rich. Analysts believe that long haul low cost will create traffic rather than divert traffic from FSCs, hence proving a viable business model. On the other hand, industry experts still do t thi k lo ost ill e ai lo ost o e the go into long haul.
Could we see LCCs turning into network carriers? Hotten believes that an airline like Norwegian is becoming less LCC, month by month as it sets up bases at airports across the US and Asia. It is certainly no more a shuttle service after having placed one of the biggest aircraft orders in history, including 8 Boeing Dreamliners.
Koranyi explains that with long haul overseas destinations LCCs will face a different ball game, FSCs as competitors are well functioning in this market with alliances and each holding an advantage in its home market. In basic terms, making the decision to buy an airline ticket is no different from any other purchase, since choice reflects the extent to which the fa e s o ditio s eet the u e s requirements at a price considered to be good or the best value.
Customers select a flight that goes to where they want to go and depending upon the time or price, at a time that suits them and at an acceptable price. A study undertaken by Proussaloglou and Koppleman on demand for air travel reveals that there are number of principle drivers for passenger choice of whom to fly with and the major ones include; fare, flight schedule, connections, FFPs Frequent Flyer Programmes , quality, comfort and safety.
With two contrasting markets in Europe, a mature liberal short haul market which has allowed LCCs to establish traffic hubs all over international boundaries, and the strict long haul where FSCs within metal neutral joint ventures have created monopolies on various routes.
Amadeus survey Travelling on both LCCS and FSCs, there appears no difference in passenger drivers for choice, as a majority think fares and schedules are the two most principal drivers for choosing with whom to fly.
So how does price of a fare stimulate passenger choice? Leigh Figure 8: Indicates how low fares stimulate passenger growth. It is of no surprise that LCCs have become so successful by being low fare, and are trying to replicate the same model into the long haul market. Ples explains that entering new markets especially long haul could mean LCCs might win the fare wars and probably force their FSC competitors to bring down their fares.
The question which remains is what about schedules? LCCs do t ha e e ough long haul aircrafts to create an all-round schedule, whereas FSC through joint ventures and collaborations can give all round schedules.
Figure 9. Shows on the left Norwegian fare price and on the right Virgin fare price on a similar trans-Atlantic journey, as we can see Virgin Atlantic is already offering low fares. Price of a fare might not be a competitive factor after all.
Availability of choice, LCCs have become so profitable on ancillary revenue; revenue acquired from the sale of non-ticket items such as food, baggage, priority seating, extra leg room, priority boarding and may other amenities. Doganis explains that these services have played a big role in how airlines make money, LCCs base their low fares on the idea that they will sell and make up on the cost by using ancillary products.
These services provide choice to consumers. CNN explained that customers save more because they can choose to purchase what they want. Above indicates that a majority of passengers agree and have accepted airlines selling travel products other than flights.
Hence a majority of passengers most of which travel with LCCs believe and accept a low fare and availability of choice. Amadeus Figure 11 show Amadeus survey However all these have seemed to work perfectly for passengers on shorter routes. LCCs like Norwegian or WOW might consider for example offering passengers free water, and food considering the increased length of flights to North America.
Hotten explains how Norwegian over the past few weeks faced criticism from passengers on its new long haul service from Oslo to New York after it refused to serve food or water unless paid for using edit a d. The poli used o No egia s sho t haul flights, as a a do ed afte so e flyers were left hungry and thirsty for nearly 12 hours.
It has allowed them to offer very low fares and thus generate new passengers, and also reliance on ancillaries has made them highly profitable.
LCC analysts still believe if LCC find new means of generating ancillary revenue, then long haul low cost would be feasible, technology is evolving and new fuel efficient aircrafts are being manufactured. Idea Works provides some solutions of how LCCs might take ancillary revenue generators to another level and appeal to new customers. These could include services such as meals, food and water in the booking process on long haul journeys, engage cabin crew with tools like iPad and other gadgets, make products have a high degree of visual appeal to the customers.
Turner explains that long haul also constitutes first class and business passengers; passengers who are accustomed to comfort and luxury in flying. These are the ones who use FSC business class cabins, flying 2 to 3 times a week across the Atlantic and are frequent flyers who are already rewarded by network airline and treated with a VIP experience in world class standard suits and lounges.
How will LCCs divert such passengers to their network?
CAPA explain that LCCs can create a whole new range of passenger groups, as Europe sees an increase in small and medium scale industries and recovery from a recession. Punch points out the Positivism hypothesizes reality in terms of variables and the relationship between them. Positivism tries to uncover how things are objective reality , it s like a structured method combining logical deductions with precise empirical observations.
Hughes and Sharrock mention Giddens who stated that Positivism refers to the following perspectives, reality consists in what is available to the senses, philosophy is parasitic on the findings of science and there is a distinction between fact and value.
Bandaranayake adds that Positivism helps us open up and confirm causal relationship that are generally valid with a known probability and which can their fore be used for prediction. The purpose of science is to uncover the truth and then be able to control and predict.
Humans are expected to be rational, objectivity and precision is important therefore measurements and measures, tools and procedures are very important because reality is stable and truths are generally valid.
Burns and Grove explain that qualitative research is a systematic, subjective approach to describe life and phenomenon giving them meaning, they allow the researcher to explore behaviours perspectives, feelings and experiences in depth and the quality and complexity of a situation through a holistic framework Holloway and wheeler Mathew et al explain that a strong feature of qualitative data is the richness and holism with strong potential for revealing complexity.
Such data provides thick descriptions. In this study the public will be asked their perceptions and motivation of choice. Positivism will be the chosen philosophy to be adopted, from a positivist stand point only observable phenomenon can provide credible data, facts and focuses on causality and law like generalisations, reducing phenomenon to simplest elements. Bryman explains that Quantitative research is basically conceptualised by many researchers as having a logical structure in which theories determine the problems to which researchers address in the form of hypothesis derived from general theories.
Saunders explains that the emphasis is to generalise findings in a population based on demographics and produce quantifiable insights in to behaviour and attitude. The research will focus on the public taping into their knowledge purchasing habits. Creswell understands that in quantitative study, variables are related to answer a research question or to make predictions about what the research expects the results to show. Karami explains that quantitative methods have more widely accepted approaches to the establishment of reliability and validity.
Scholars point out that surveys and experiments are main drivers of quantitative research which involves, control, measurement and experiment. The research will anticipate consumer behaviour basing the outcome of the findings as a platform for airline companies, predicting what will come in the future by outlining various consumer tendencies towards air transport.
The sampling method to be used will be non-probability. In any form of research, random sampling is very difficult to attain.
Most researchers are bounded by time, money and work force and because of these limitations, it is almost impossible to randomly sample the entire population and it is often necessary to employ another sampling technique, the non- probability technique.
The Long Haul
In contrast with probability sampling, non-probability sample is not a product of randomised selection processes. Subjects in a non-probability sample are usually selected on the basis of their accessibility. Haphazard sampling will be used, this is a form of non-probability sampling which allows the selection of items at random but is not based on any defined statistical formula. The sample must also be representative of the population for the results to be valid, and this is dependent on the sampling method chosen.
This form of sampling is normally representative of the target population because sample units are only selected if they can be accessed easily and conveniently. The obvious advantage is that the method is easy to use, but that advantage is greatly offset by the presence of bias.
Although useful applications of the technique are limited, it can deliver accurate results when the population is homogeneous. Questionnaires will provide answers for the research, according to Veal , information from questionnaires is relevant to quantitative research. Thomas explains that regular public survey questionnaires that ask the right questions can be powerful drivers of understanding and behaviour for all involved.
Bulmer adds that a well-established questionnaire is good for acquiring information on participant social characteristics, present and past behaviour, standards of behaviour or attitudes and their beliefs and reasons for actions with respect to the topic under investigation. Westmarland adds that questionnaires are practical, large amounts of information can be collected from large number of people in a short period of time.
The results of the questionnaire can usually be quickly and easily quantified by either a researcher or through the use of a software package, hence analysed more scientifically and objectively than other forms.
Data from questionnaires can be used once quantified to compare and contrast other research and may be used to measure change. Many positivists believe that this data can be used to create new theories or test existing hypotheses.
Questionnaires do have some flaws, it s a gued that the a e i ade uate to u de sta d some forms of information i. Close ended questions are used to allow a limited number of answers, Black puts forward some of the advantages of closed end questions as having greater precision, uniformity, easier coding and analysis than open ended questions.
Richardson explains that as opposed to open ended questions which solicit additional information from the inquirer, closed ended can be answered finitely. Use of open ended questions might require the respondents to have a good recollection of events and explain their answers. In relation to air transport research closed ended are better to use than open ended.
Punch explains that quantitative research helps answering specific research questions are set up in advance to guide the study. This study will use a structured quantitative method which employs the public as the sample and will involve simple well-structured closed ended questions on their previous airline experiences i.
The questionnaire will also involve airline experiences and tap into their perceptions on which airline and service provided best suits them. First the collection of demographics age, sex, profession and occupation groups these will help us determine how close the sample replicates the population. This segmentation might offer you insights that you would have missed by only looking at the aggregate data. Closed ended questions will be formulated to know the history of respondents flying habits, how many journeys have they taken in the last 12 months and how many of them were long haul.
In the second case, the research will use scales. In this instance asking a series of questions a out people s attitudes, a d the o e t the a s e s i to u e i al alues e p essi g a positive or negative attitude.
In the questionnaire, five point Likert scales will be used. Likert scales were first introduced by Renis Likert in as a scale technique for attitude measurement. An individual is confronted with various statements which are essentially value judgments. The individual then defines the attitudes towards each statement by choosing among a number of scores on a grade Likert scale.
Likert scales have proven to be very popular, in air transport research. Likert scale information is often treated as interval data. Gilbert and Wong explain that air transport research uses Likert data in combination with parametric techniques e. For example, when seeking satisfaction levels of services rendered for airlines, a five point Likert scale can be used for rating satisfaction levels from very dissatisfied scale 1 to most satisfied.
However use of Likert scales has a major setback, Lamarca explains that attitudes of the public for one item in reality exist on a full, multi-dimensional scale. Therefore, it fails to measure the true attitudes of respondents. Frequently, people avoid choosing the extremes options on the scale, because of the negative implications involved with extremist even if an extreme choice would be the most accurate. The survey will include the public rating which factor influences or would influence them to purchase an airline ticket, rating the level of importance of attributes such as: The survey was intended for both interviewer administered mode and online web survey.
Pew explains that the number of Internet surveys being conducted over the web has dramatically increased in the past 5 years, driven by dramatic rise in internet penetration and the relatively low cost of conducting web surveys in comparison to other methods.
They are proven to be convenient for respondents to take in their own time and at their own pace. The absence of an interviewer means web surveys suffer from less social desirability bias than interviewer administered modes.
Wilson adds that a pilot investigation is a small scale trail before the main investigation. Pilot testing may prevent costly mistakes. It acts as a trial run of procedures and instruments that you plan to use.
The sample size of the pilot survey is ten percent of the population frame of A pilot survey of 16 members of the public was conducted to avoid ambiguity and the focus group provided the opinion about the number of fare prices in the survey being too large. The survey was adjusted by selecting the average fare prices issued by airlines on a transatlantic flight from London to New York.
The prices range from the proposed cheapest fare to be provided by LCCs to the highest fare provided by other airlines appendix 1. Also the pilot survey sample provided their opinion on the classification of occupations in the survey.
In total, 11 occupations were mentioned in the survey which proved too many and not important for the research. The survey was adjusted by grouping and classifying the occupations into socio grade groups of only 6 groups. The major purpose of this is to make sure that everyone not only understands the questions, but understands them in the same way.
This way you can see if any questions make respondents feel uncomfortable and also be able to find out how long it takes to complete the survey in real time. It requires 6 minutes for completion. The survey was circulated online and face to face and yielded only responses. Rhodes explains that Quantitative studies have large samples and enable generalisation to broader general population, however the research sample of limits generalisation but can be justifiable and shed light on the opinion at hand.
The main reason why the research managed responses is a decline in return rate which is influenced by limited resources and time. Chanimal explains that one of the factors influencing sample size is return rate. Unfortunately return rates have slowly dwindled in recent years, today most general surveys have a rate of return between 2 — 10 percent.
That means to get returns you have to distribute almost 10, to 20, surveys.
First the questionnaire survey was sent by means of Facebook and electronic email to the public to share. The survey encouraged respondent participation and ensured confidentiality. The respondents were to understand the uses that would be made of the data including publication and other forms of dissemination and the survey eliminated sensitive issues. The emails were handed out to more than 30 individuals of whom shared it with other people and encouraged them to participate in the survey.
By the first week of October there were 30 survey responses. The survey was added to Facebook to share and it yielded over responses and a total of completed surveys was already finished by the third week of November. The remaining 30 responses were obtained from respondents on the streets of High Wycombe and London. Sharrock explains that the analysis of quantitative data lays out a foundation for description and analysis. Quantitative research may well generate vast amounts of data.
To make sense of this data it needs to be summarised in some way, so that the reader has an idea of the typical values in data and how they vary. All quantitative studies will have some descriptive statistics, as well as frequency tables.
The importance of various airline services and products issued was decode. The questionnaire asks respondents to rank 1 as the most important, however analysing the data, 1 will be less importance. The ranking will be calculated in percentage to get some numerical result of mean, variance and standard deviation for this nominal scale.
Martilla and James put forward this model as a way of representing the scaled importance of various attributes on two axes of a grid for comparison.
It is the use of a quadrant map to identify areas of improvement and showing the importance of various attributes measured. Tyrell and Okrant explain that IPA is a low cost simple way to organise information about the attributes of a product or service and provide appealing strategies for a business to set up priorities for potential change and examines the importance of particular items as a determining factor in purchasing. Beard Figure 13 above shows Gallup four levels of customer expectations.
Level 1: At the lowest level, customers expect company accuracy. If ou a t get the job done right on this level, how do you expect to acquire and keep customers? Level 2: The next step is availability. Consumers expect more of this, many companies achieve this level Level 3: At this level customers expect partnership. Collaborative and proactive, consumers expect plenty on this level. Level 4: The most advanced level of customer expectation is advice.
Customers feel the closest bond to organisations that have helped them learn. Armed with a better understanding of their customer base. Segmenting customers is a critical step to better understanding them. Examples of customer segmentations include: Age, gender, income, family status, special interests, etc. Customer segmentation allows a company to target specific groups of customer effectively and allocate marketing resources to best effect.
Moskal and Leydens defined validity as the degree to which the evidence supports that the interpretations of the data are correct and the manner in which interpretations used are appropriate. In other words validity is where the obtained results are truthful and believable. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode.
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