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Modern Architecture (Oxford History of Art) Alan Colquhoun. This new account of international modernism explores the complex motivations behind this. Modern Architecture (Oxford History of Art series) by Alan Colquhoun. Read online, or download in secure PDF or secure EPUB format. Modern Architecture by Alan Colquhoun, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.

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Alan Colquhoun was born in and studied architecture in to Rome Mary OxfordHistoryofArt Modern Architecture AlanColquhoun 1. Modern Architecture. Oxford History of Art. Alan Colquhoun was born in and University. His other publications studied architecture in Edinburgh and. Modern Architecture. Oxford History of Art. Alan Colquhoun was born in and studied architecture in Edinburgh and. London. He was in partnership with.

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Arquitectura modernaautorAlan colquhoun 1. Alan Colquhoun was born in and studied architecture in Edinburgh and London. He was in partnership with J. Miller from until His other publications include EssaysinArchitecture: ModernArchitecture OxfordHistoryofArt 2.


A Critical Anthology Donald Preziosi ed. They will appear regularly, building into an interlocking and comprehensive series. In the list below, published titles appear in bold. No part ofthis publication maybe reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in anyform or by anymeans, without the proper permission in writing ofOxford University Press. Within the UK, exceptions are allowed in respect of any fair dealing for the purpose of research or private study,or criticism or review,as permitted under the Copyright, Design and Patents Act, , or in the caseof reprographic reproduction in accordancewith the terms ofthe licencesissuedby the Copyright Licensing Agency.

Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms and in other countries should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford UniversityPress, at the address above. Thisbook issold subject to the condition that it shall not, byway of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the publisher sprior consent in anyform ofbinding or coverother than that inwhich it ispublished and without asimilarcondition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.

Ltd 5. Chicago — 35 Chapter 3 Culture and Industry: Germany —14 57 Chapter 4 The Urn and the Chamberpot: Architecture in Scandinavia —65 6. Chapter 11 From Le Corbusier to Megastructures: Urban Visions —65 Chapter 12 Pax Americana: Many people have—knowingly or unknowingly—contributed to the making of this book. Lewis, Sarah Linford, Steven A.

I owe a special debt of gratitude to Mary McLeod, who read and offered valuable advice on the entire manuscript, and to John Farnham and Can Bilsel for their help, both practical and intellectual, at crucial moments in its preparation. Last but not least, I would like to thank Frances Chen and her staff in the library of the Princeton University School of Architecture, for their unfailing kindness and help.

This page intentionally left blank 9. Already in the early nineteenth century, there was wide dissatisfaction with eclecticism among architects, historians, and critics. It is in the space between the idealist utopias of the historical avant- gardes and the resistances, complexities, and pluralities of capitalist culture that this book seeks to situate itself.

Though not attempting to be in any way encyclopedic, the narrative follows an overall chronolog- ical sequence, and tries to be, perhaps, less certain in its outcome and less triumphalist than those of most previous histories of modernism. If it is still largely a history of the masters, that is because that was the nature of modernism itself, despite its many claims to anonymity. A word on terminology: That these two polar positions can be applied to architecture is undeniable.

I have tried to explain what I mean by these slippery terms in the appropriate chapters. To try to avoid such ambiguities would be to make unsustainable claims for logic. Art Nouveau was both the end and the beginning of an era, and its achievements as well as its limitations were the result of this Janus-like perspective.

Many aspects of Modernist theory still seem valid today. But much in it belongs to the realm of myth, and is impossible to accept at face value. The myth itself has now become history, and demands critical interpretation.

Modern Architecture - Alan Colquhoun .pdf

One of the main ideas motivating the protagonists of the Modern Movement was the Hegelian notion that the study of history made it possible to predict its future course. But it is scarcely possible any longer to believe—as the Modernist architects appear to have believed—that the architect is a kind of seer, uniquely gifted with the power of discerning the spirit of the age and its symbolic forms.

Such a belief was predicated on the possibility of projecting the condi- tions of the past onto the present.

This meant the rejec- tion of an academic tradition that had degenerated into eclecticism, imprisoned in a history that had come to an end and whose forms could only be endlessly recycled.

It did not imply a rejection of tradition as such. The architecture of the future would return to the true tradition, in which, it was believed, a harmonious and organic unity had existed between all the cultural phenomena of each age.

In the great historical periods artists had not been free to choose the style in which they worked. Their mental and creative horizons had been circumscribed by a range of forms that constituted their entire universe. The artist came into a world already formed. The study of history seemed to reveal that these periods constituted indivisible totalities. On the one hand, there were elements unique to each period; on the other, the organic unity that bound these elements together was itself a universal.

The new age 10 introduction Nor did it ever seem to have occurred to those who held this view that what separated the past from the present might be precisely the absence of this inferred organic unity. William Morris, the founder of the Arts and Crafts movement, had rejected both capitalism and machine production, a position that was at least consistent.

But the theorists of the German Werkbund, while they rejected capitalism, wanted to retain industrialization. The Modern Movement was both an act of resistance to social modernity and an enthusiastic acceptance of an open technologi- cal future. The conclusion would seem inescapable that the cultural unity and shared artistic standards—whether deriving from folk or from aristo- cratic traditions—demanded by the modern movement from its inception were increasingly out of step with the political and economic realities of the twentieth century.

Based on an idealist and teleological conception of history, modernist theory seems radically to have mis- read the very Zeitgeist it had itself invoked, ignoring the complex and indeterminate nature of modern capitalism, with its dispersal of power and its constant state of movement. The revolution of modernism—partly voluntary, partly involun- tary—has irrevocably changed the course of architecture.

But in the process it has itself become transformed. Its totalizing ambitions can no longer be sustained. It is the aim of this book to sharpen our image of that adventure.

ArtNouveau 1 1Victor Horta View within the octagonal stair hall, Hotel VanEetvelde, , Brussels The real structure is masked by athin membrane of iron and coloured glass. The space is lit from the roof. In the short-lived but vigorous Art Nouveau movement was launched in Belgium and quickly spread, first to France and then to the rest of Europe.

Its inspiration came from the English Arts and Crafts movement and developmentsin wrought iron technology,particularlyas interpretedbytheFrencharchitectandtheorist,Eugene-EmmanuelViollet- le-Duc — The movementwascloselyassociatedwith the rise ofa new industrial bourgeoisie on the one hand and, on the other, with the many movements for political independence mfin-de-siecle Europe. It spread rapidlyby means ofjournals such as TheStudio,which included high-quality, mass-produced images, made possible by the new print- ing techniques ofoffset lithography and photolithography which came into commercial use in the i88os and Art Nouveauwasthe first systematic attempt to replace the classical system of architecture and the decorative arts that had been handed down from the seventeenth century and was enshrined in the teaching of the Beaux-Arts academies.

The new movement abandoned the post-Renaissance convention of realism, drawing inspiration from styles outside the classical canon—from Japan, from the Middle Ages, and evenfrom Rococo. Though it lasted barely15years,manyof its pre- cepts were incorporated into the avant-garde movements that followed. Like all progressive movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Art Nouveau was caught in an inherent dilemma—how to preserve the historical values of art under condi- tions of industrial capitalism.

The Industrial Revolution had radically altered both the individual and the collective conditions of artistic production. In the face of this situation Art Nouveau artists and architects reacted in a way that would become typical of later avant- gardes: Although Art Nouveau was preceded and profoundly influenced by the Arts and Crafts movement, the two continued in parallel, each modifying the other.

In Austria, and to some extent in England, there was a fusion of the two movements. In Germany the influence of the 13 Arts and Crafts proved the stronger of the two, leading to the Deutscher Werkbund and the alliance between industry and the decorative arts.

Antecedents Thereformoftheindustrialarts Art Nouveau was the outcome of a transformation in the industrial, or decorative, arts that had been initiated in England and France earlier in the nineteenth century. As early as a parliamentary commission had been set up in England to study the problem of the decline in artis- tic quality of machine-made objects and the consequent damage to the export market. In a Great Exhibition of Industry of all Nations was organized in London, following a similar but abortive project in France.

France had led the way in industrial exhibitions but these had been exclusively national. This realization prompted a succession of initiatives both in England and France. Though originating from the same concerns, these institutional reforms resulted in a different development in each country. In England, after the government initiatives of the s, the reform of the arts became a private affair, dominated by a single individual, the artist and poet William Morris — For Morris, as for the philosopher-critic John Ruskin — , the reform of the indus- trial arts was impossible under the present conditions of industrial capitalism by which the artist was alienated from the product of his labour.

The situation in France was different.

Arquitectura modernaautorAlan colquhoun

The ultimate model for both English and French artists was the medieval guild, but in France this model was combined with the more recent domestic tradition of Rococo. The role of iron in architecture had been central to the debates between traditionalist and progressive—positivist architects in France throughout the nineteenth century.

The career of Viollet-le-Duc had been devoted to the distillation of the rational and vitalistic core of Gothic architecture, which he saw as the only true basis for a modern architecture. The main precepts Viollet bequeathed to the Art Nouveau movement were: Symbolism Most historians3 agree that important changes took place in the intel- lectual climate of Western Europe in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. The century had been dominated by a belief in progress made possible by science and technology, a belief that found its philosophical formulation in the movement known as Positivism founded by Auguste Comte — In literature and art it was Naturalism that corresponded most closely to the prevailing Positivist frame of mind.

But by the s belief in Positivism had begun to erode, together with the faith in liberal politics that had supported it. Several political events no doubt contributed to this phenomenon, including the terrible European economic depression that began in In literature, the Symbolist movement led the attack. The Symbolists held that art should not imitate appearances but should reveal an essential underly- ing reality. Perfumes, colours, and sounds respond to each other.

In the latter, the fact and the world become a mere pretext for the idea; they are treated as appearance, condemned to incessant variability, appear- ing ultimately as dreams in our mind. Instead of merely obeying the form of the object, ornament began to merge with the object, animating it with new life. This had two effects: The classical attitude had been that ornament was a supplementary form of beauty. The ornament on a chair by Henry van de Velde — not only completes the struc- ture, the two become indistinguishable, the product of an artistic will striving for total symbolic expression [3].

In many rooms and ensembles individual pieces of furniture tended to lose their identity and become absorbed into a larger spatial and plastic unity [4]. Taut curves and diagonals predominate, suggesting a structure in dynamic balance. In each, the plan was divided from front to back into three sections, the central section containing a top-lit staircase which became the visual and social hub of the house.

He received this com- mission through his domestic clients, whose social milieu and socialist ideals he shared. As in the houses, the Beaux-Arts symmetry of the plan is carefully undermined by asymmetrical programmatic elements. Nonetheless, because of its continu- ous glazing and in spite of its allusion to the heavily glazed Flemish Renaissance buildings to be found in Brussels it must have had a shocking effect when it was built.

It represents a sort of suburban Bohemianism very different from the elegant urban lifestyle catered for by Horta. Guimard was not closely associated either with Bing or with the decorative arts institutions in Paris, but his alle- giance to Viollet-le-Duc was even stronger than that of Horta. His work was based on a craft tradition with its roots in French Rococo—his father, a ceramicist, having rediscov- ered the ceramic moulds used by the Lorraine craftsmen of the eighteenth century.

The slightly earlier house for the ceram- icist Louis Marjorelle by Henri Sauvage — , is less dependent on literary associations, more abstract and formal, with solid stone walls gradually dissolving into a light, transparent superstructure.

Dutch Art Nouveau and the work of H. This group's members included H. Berlage , K.

Bazel , W. Kromhaut , and J. Lauweriks , and their affinities lay morewith Viollet-le-Duc and the Arts and Crafts movement than with Belgian and French Art Nouveau, of which they were critical. Compared to Horta's Maison du Peuple—also a significant public building—the Exchange, with its calm, expansive brick surfaces, reinforces rather than subverts the traditional fabric of the Amsterdam with its solid burgher-like values.

In Berlage s private houses we find the same qualities. The plan of the Villa Henny in the Hague , like manyArts and Crafts and Art Nouveau houses, is organized round a central top-lit hall. But, unlike the evanescent metal structure surrounding the central hall of Hortas Hotel VanEetvelde, Berlage s hall is defined by abrick arcade [8], with groin vaults in the spirit of Viollet-le-Duc.

The furniture, with its structural rigour, anticipates that of De Stijl and the Constructivists. Modernisme in Barcelona The first signs of Modernisme—as Art Nouveau was called in Catalan—seem to pre-date the Belgian movement by severalyearsand the Catalan movement appears to have been inspired independently by the publications ofViollet-le-Duc and the Arts and Crafts movement.

Modernisme was more closely related to the nineteenth-century eclec- tic tradition than was the Art Nouveau of France and Belgium. The new industrial bourgeoisie of Catalonia—men like Eusebio Giiell and the Marques de Comil- las—saw Modernisme as an urban symbol of national progress, as did Art Nouveau's patrons in Belgium. But, while in Belgium the move- ment was associated with an anti-Catholic international socialism, in Catalonia its affiliations were Catholic, nationalist, and politically conservative.

In the early works of the movement, Moorish 'Mudejar' motifs were used to suggest regional identity. Both mix historicist 'inventions' with new structural ideas, such as the use of exposed iron beams and catenary vaults which Gaudi was also to use in the Sagrada Familia. At no other time could such an intimate, sub- jective architecture have become a popular symbol of national identity. Austria and Germany: Gothic structure is reinterpreted in terms of a biological structure that has grown incrementally in response to its environment.

One of the strongest expressions of this ten- dency is found in the writings of the Viennese art historian Alois Riegl — Art was rooted in indigenous culture, not derived from a universal natural law. This idea meshed closely with the ideas of John Ruskin and William Morris as well as with the aesthetic theories of Felix Bracquemond and Van de Velde, and it stood in stark contrast to the idea derived from the Enlightenment that archi- tecture should align itself with progress, science, and the Cartesian spirit.

Vienna This detail of a light fitting shows its industrial metaphors. In Austria, the liberal, rationalist spirit was epitomized by the work of Otto Wagner , the most celebrated architect of the time. Wagner stood on the other side of the ideological divide from the urbanist Camillo Sitte , whose internationally influential book, Der Stadtebau nach seinen Kunstlerischen Grundstatzen City Building According to its Artistic Principles of , had promoted an urban model of irregular, closed spaces,based on the medieval city.

For Wagner, on the contrary, the modern city should consist of a regular, open-ended street grid containing new building types such as apart- ment blocks and department stores. It is a rationalism, however, that does not abandon the alle- gorical language of classicism but extends it. In the bank we find allegorical figurative ornament: These, like the functional glass and metal banking hall, areboth symbols and manifes- tations of modernity [10,11], In Wagner was appointed director of the School of Archi- tecture at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts where he came into close contact with the younger generation of designers.

Wagner employed Olbrich as the chief drafts- man on his Stadtbahn City Railway project from to Due to Olbrich s influence, decorative motifs derived from Jugendstil as the German Art Nouveau movement was called began to replace traditional ornament in Wagner's work, though without affecting its underlying rational structure—as shown in the Majolica House apart- ment building in Vienna The early careers of Olbrich and Hoffman had almost identical trajectories.

Olbrich received the commission for the Secessions headquarters in Vienna, and in the Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig ofHesse appointed him as architect for the artists' colony at Darmstadt.

Ashbee's Guild of Handicraft in London, and conceived asa cottage industry. The Secession marked the introduction ofJugendstil into Austria. Empty space plays a positive role. The cut-out quality of the wall planes and the metal trim along their edges make the walls seem paper thin.

This must have been the reason why Le Corbusier reputedly admired this house. The screen of thin, closely spaced columns simultaneously divides and unites the space.

The house is more plastic than the Palais Stoclet. The austerity of the Scottish vernacular as opposed to the softness of Voysey's or Baillie Scott's suggests an emerging Modernist abstraction. According to a critic of the time, Max Eisler, Hoffmann's later buildings were 'furniture conceived on an architectural scale'. It is close to some of Adolf Loos's designs, and has the same unpretentious elegance, reflecting both British and Japanese influence.

Munichand Berlin The centre of the GermanJugendstil movement wasMunich, where it was launched by the magazineJugend in Paul — From , Riemerschmid exhibited rooms in which the furniture was simple and robust, with Arts and Crafts and Japanese features [18].

After about , the ensembles of Riemerschmid and Bruno Paul—especially the latter—became more classical. The rooms they exhibited at the Munich exhibition of astonished French interior designers, who admired their elegance and unity—qualities hitherto considered peculiarly French. Although it aspired to be a popular movement, its hand-crafted products were only affordable by a wealthy minority and it disintegrated with the decline of a certain set of bourgeois and nationalist fantasies, and with the inexorable rise of machine produc- tion and mass society.

In the work of the Vienna Secession and in that of Riemerschmid and Paul in Germany, we witness the Art Nouveau movement, with its stress on individuality and originality, being trans- formed into repeatable forms based on vernacular and classical models. But the high Art Nouveau movement left a permanent, if sub- merged, legacy—the concept of an uncoded, dynamic, and instinctual art, based on empathy with nature, for which it was possible to pre- scribe certain principles but not to lay down any unchanging and normative rules.

This concept of an art without codes can be—and often has been—challenged, but its power of survival in the modern world can hardly be questioned. Schuyler presented his argument in the form of thesis and antithesis. He asserted the need for a universal culture of architecture such as existed in Europe but was lacking in America due to the absence of good models.

Veronica Sekules. Richard Brettell. Nicola Coldstream. Elizabeth Prettejohn. Andrew Causey. Home Contact us Help Free delivery worldwide. Free delivery worldwide. Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New in Art History Styles: Art Nouveau Styles: Modern Architecture. Description This new account of international modernism explores the complex motivations behind this revolutionary movement and assesses its triumphs and failures.

The work of the main architects of the movement such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Adolf Loos, Le Corbusier, and Mies van der Rohe is re-examined shedding new light on their roles as acknowledged masters.

Alan Colquhoun explores the evolution of the movement fron Art Nouveau in the s to the megastructures of the s, revealing the often contradictory demands of form, function, social engagement, modernity and tradition. Other books in this series. Art in Renaissance Italy Evelyn Welch. Add to basket. Modern Architecture Alan Colquhoun. Northern Renaissance Art Susie Nash. The Photograph Graham Clarke.

Aegean Art and Architecture Donald Preziosi. Classical Art Mary Beard. Portraiture Shearer West. European Architecture Barry Bergdoll. Fashion Christopher Breward. Art in China Craig Clunas. Landscape and Western Art Malcolm Andrews. Early Medieval Architecture Roger Stalley. Early Medieval Art Lawrence Nees.

Medieval Art Veronica Sekules. Modern Art Richard Brettell. Medieval Architecture Nicola Coldstream. Beauty and Art Elizabeth Prettejohn. Sculpture Since Andrew Causey. Table of contents 1. Art Nouveau ; 2. Organicism versus Classicism: Chicago ; 3. Culture and Industry:

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