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EBook PDF, Bytes, This text-based PDF or EBook was created from the Virgil's epic poem, the Aeneid, has been of continuing importance to Western. 14MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF Virgil: The Aeneid (Landmarks of World Literature) Virgil: Aeneid Book VIII (Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics ). Virgil: The Aeneid . BkI Dido Asks for Aeneas's Story .. . BkII BkII Aeneas is Visited by his Mother Venus.

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The Georgics by Virgil, translated with an introduction and notes by L. P. . And in the Aeneid, Virgil's poem about the origins of Rome, though his hero, Aeneas, . Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. FIGURE 1 VIRGIL READING THE AENEID TO AUGUSTUS AND OCTAVIA, 1 Octavia faints as Virgil reads a portion of Book VI describing the young and tragic .

Publius Vergilius Maro, the friend of Augustus and the great representative poet of the first age of the Roman Empire, was a man of humble origin. Born Oct. But a change of governors deprived him of protection, and he was forced to desert his heritage in peril of death, escaping only by swimming the river Mincio. The rest of his life was spent farther south, in Rome, Naples, Sicily, and elsewhere. He was buried at Naples, where his tomb was long a place of religious pilgrimage.

The rest of his life was spent farther south, in Rome, Naples, Sicily, and elsewhere. He was buried at Naples, where his tomb was long a place of religious pilgrimage.

But it is foolish to lose sight of the splendor of a poet who, for nearly two thousand years, has been one of the most powerful factors in European culture. One raises the soul, and hardens it to virtue; the other softens it again, and unbends it into vice. The Grecian gave the two Romans an example, in the games which were celebrated at the funerals of Patroclus.

For he took his opportunity to kill a royal infant by the means of a serpent that author of all evil , to make way for those funeral honors which he intended for him. Nor were they only animated by him, but their measure and symmetry was owing to him.

His one, entire, and great action was copied by them according to the proportions of the drama. Tragedy is the miniature of human life; an epic poem is the draught at length. To raise, and afterwards to calm the passions, to purge the souls from pride, by the examples of human miseries, which Edition: A mountebank may promise such a cure, but a skilful physician will not undertake it. An epic poem is not in so much haste; it works leisurely; the changes which it makes are slow; but the cure is likely to be more perfect.

A man is humbled one day, and his pride returns the next. Galenical decoctions, to which I may properly compare an epic poem, have more of body in them; they work by their substance and their weight.

A chariot may be driven round the pillar in less space than a large machine, because the bulk is not so great. Is the Moon a more noble planet than Saturn, because she makes her revolution in less than thirty days, and he in little less than thirty years? Both their orbs are in proportion to their several magnitudes; and consequently the quickness or slowness of their motion, and the time of their circumvolutions, is no argument of the greater or less perfection.

The shining quality of an epic hero, his magnanimity, his constancy, his patience, his piety, or whatever characteristical virtue his poet gives him, raises first our admiration.

We are naturally prone to imitate what we admire; and frequent Edition: By this example the critics have concluded that it is not necessary the manners of the hero should be virtuous.

They are poetically good, if they are of a piece: These are the beauties of a god in a human body. Horace paints him after Homer, and delivers him to be copied on the stage with all those imperfections. Therefore they are either not faults in a heroic poem, or faults common to the drama. The passions, as I have said, are violent; and acute distempers require medicines of a strong and speedy operation.

The matter being thus stated, it will appear that both sorts of poetry are of use for their proper ends. The stage is more active; the epic poem works at greater leisure, yet is active too, when need requires; for dialogue is imitated by the Edition: One puts off a fit, like the quinquina, and relieves us only for a time; the other roots out the distemper, and gives a healthful habit. There likewise tragedy will be seen to borrow from the epopee; and that which borrows is always of less dignity, because it has not of its own.

I know not of any one advantage which tragedy can boast above heroic poetry, but that it is represented to the view, as well as read, and instructs in the closet, as well as on the theater. Your Lordship knows some modern tragedies which are beautiful on the stage, and yet I am confident you would not read them. They are a sort of stately fustian, and lofty childishness.

We can believe Edition: I submit my opinion to your judgment, who are better qualified than any man I know to decide this controversy. You come, my Lord, instructed in the cause, and needed not that I should open it.

A judge upon the bench may, out of good nature, or at least interest, encourage the pleadings of a puny counselor; but he does not willingly commend his brother sergeant at the bar, especially when he controls his law, and exposes that ignorance which is made sacred by his place. Perhaps we commended it the more, that we might seem to be above the censure. Heaven knows if I have heartily forgiven you this deceit. You extorted a praise which I should willingly have given, had I known you. Nothing had been more easy than to commend a patron of a long standing.

The world would join with me, if the encomiums were just; and, if unjust, would excuse a grateful flatterer. But to come anonymous upon me, and force me to commend you against my interest, was not altogether so fair, give me leave to say, as it was politic; for by concealing your quality, you might clearly understand how your work succeeded, and that the general approbation was given to your merit, not your titles.

The next, but the next with a long interval betwixt, was the Jerusalem: I mean not so much in distance of time, as in excellency. Pulci, Boiardo, and Ariosto would cry out: The style of the heroic poem is, and ought to be, more lofty than that of the drama.

A poet cannot speak too plainly on the stage; for volat irrevocabile verbum; the sense is lost, if it be not taken flying; but what we read alone, we have leisure to digest. There an author may beautify his sense by the boldness of his expression, which if we understand not fully at the first, we may dwell upon it till we find the secret force and excellence.

That which cures the manners by alterative physic, as I said before, must proceed by insensible degrees; but that which purges the passions must do its business all at once, or wholly fail of its effect, at least in the present operation, and without repeated doses.

This works the natural effect of choler, and turns his rage against him by whom he was last affronted, and most sensibly. As the poet, in the first part of the example, had shewn the bad effects of discord, so, after the reconcilement, he gives the good effects of unity; for Hector is slain, and then Troy must fall.

For then the Romans were in as much danger from the Carthaginian commonwealth as the Grecians were from the Assyrian or Median monarchy. Such was the reformation of the government by both parties. Stavo ben; was written on his monument, ma, per star meglio, sto qui. But it was all the while in a deep consumption, which is a flattering disease. These were the public-spirited men of their age; that is, patriots for their own interest.

Your Lordship well knows what obligations Virgil had to the latter of them: Yet I may safely affirm for our great author, as men of good sense are generally honest, that he was still of republican principles in heart. This was the moral of his divine poem; honest in the poet; honorable to the emperor, whom he derives from a divine extraction; and reflecting part of that honor on the Roman people, whom he derives also from the Trojans; and not only profitable, but necessary, to the present age, and likely to be such to their posterity.

But that the Romans valued themselves on their Trojan ancestry is so undoubted a truth that I need not prove it. Your Lordship knows with what address he makes mention of them, as captains of ships, or leaders in the war; and even some of Italian extraction are not forgotten.

And I Edition: For genus irritabile vatum, as Horace says. The vengeance we defer is not forgotten. We and the French are of the same humor: Spenser favors this opinion what he can His Prince Arthur, or whoever he intends by him, is a Trojan. Thus far, I think, my author is defended. I have already told your Lordship Edition: It may be Virgil mentions him on that account.

In this case the poet gave him the next title, which is that of an elective king. The remaining Trojans chose him to lead them forth, and settle them in some foreign country.

Ilioneus, in his speech to Dido, calls him expressly by the name of king. Virgil gives us an example of this in the person of Mezentius: Our author shews us another sort of kingship, in the person of Latinus. He was descended from Saturn, and, as I remember, in the third degree. We find him at the head of them, when he enters into the council hall, speaking first, but still demanding their advice, and steering by it, as far as the iniquity of the times would suffer him.

And this is the proper character Edition: Yet, withal, he plainly touches at the office of the high-priesthood, with which Augustus was invested, and which made his person more sacred and inviolable than even the tribunitial power.

I know not that any of the commentators have taken notice of that passage. If they have not, I am sure they ought; and if they have, I am not indebted to them for the observation. The words of Virgil are very plain:. Hereupon the emperor laid aside a project so ungrateful to the Roman people. But by this, my Lord, we may conclude that he had still his pedigree in his head, and had an itch of being thought a divine king, if his poets had not given him better counsel.

I will pass by many less material objections, for want of room to answer them: As instances of this, the deities of Troy and his own Penates are made the companions of his flight: I will not mention his tenderness for his son, which everywhere is visible—of his raising a tomb for Polydorus, the obsequies for Misenus, his pious remembrance of Deiphobus, the funerals of his nurse, his grief for Pallas, and his revenge taken on his murtherer, whom otherwise, by his natural compassion, he had forgiven: Him I follow, and Edition: For, impartially speaking, the French are as much better critics than the English, as they are worse poets.

Thus we generally allow that they better understand the management of a war than our islanders; but we know we are superior to them in the day of battle. They value themselves on their generals, we on our soldiers. But this is not the proper place to decide that question, if they make it one.

I shall say perhaps as much of other nations and their poets, excepting only Tasso; and hope to make my assertion good, which is but doing justice to my country, part of which honor will reflect on your Lordship, whose thoughts are always just; your numbers harmonious, your words chosen, your expressions strong and manly, your verse flowing, and your turns as happy as they are easy.

If you would set us more copies, your example would make all precepts needless. In short, my Lord, I would not translate him, because I would bring you somewhat of my own His notes and observations on every book are of the same excellency; and, for the same reason, I omit the greater part. Homer, who had chosen another moral, makes both Agamemnon and Achilles vicious; for his design was to instruct in virtue by shewing the deformity of vice.

I avoid repetition of that I have said above. What follows is translated literally from Segrais:. That quality, which signifies no more than an intrepid courage, may be separated from many others which are good, and accompanied with many which are ill.

The Aeneid by Virgil

A man may be very valiant, and yet impious and vicious. But the same cannot be said of piety, which excludes all ill qualities, and comprehends even valor itself, with all other qualities which are good. To a man who should abandon his father, or desert his king in his last necessity? Thus far Segrais, in giving the preference to piety before valor. But Virgil whom Segrais forgot to cite makes Diomede give him a higher character for strength and courage. His testimony is this, in the Eleventh Book:.

The French translator thus proceeds: And Ariosto, the two Tassos Bernardo and Torquato , even our own Spenser, in a word, all modern poets, have copied Homer as well as Virgil: It seems he was no warluck, as the Scots commonly call such men, who, they say, are iron-free, or lead-free. I need say no more; for Virgil defends himself without needing my assistance, and proves his hero truly to deserve that name. He was not then a second-rate champion, as they would have him who think fortitude the first virtue in a hero.

But, being beaten Edition: Briseis was taken away by force from the Grecian; Creusa was lost for ever to her husband. And here your Lordship may observe the address of Virgil; it was not for nothing that this passage was related with all these tender circumstances.

That he had been so affectionate a husband was no ill argument to the coming dowager that he might prove as kind to her. He deplores the lamentable end of his pilot Palinurus, the untimely death of young Pallas his confederate, and the rest, which I omit. Yet, even for these tears, his wretched critics dare condemn him. Swithen hero, always raining. One of these censors is bold enough to argue him of cowardice, when, in the beginning of the First Book, he not only weeps, but trembles at an approaching storm:.

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And who can give a sovereign a better commendation, or recommend a hero more to the affection of the reader? Moyle, a young gentleman whom I can never sufficiently commend, that the ancients accounted drowning an accursed death; so that, if we grant him to have been afraid, he had just occasion for that fear, both in relation to himself and to his subjects. I think our adversaries can carry this argument no farther, unless they tell us that he ought to have had more confidence in the promise of the gods.

For that she herself was doubtful of his fortune is apparent by the address she made to Jupiter on his behalf; to which the god makes answer in these words:. For it was a moot point in heaven, whether he could alter fate, or not. For in the latter end of the Tenth Book he introduces Juno begging for the life of Turnus, and flattering her husband with the power of changing destiny— Tua, qui potes, orsa reflectas! To which he graciously answers:. For, when I cited Virgil as favoring the contrary opinion in that verse,.

Yet, if I can bring him off with flying colors, they may learn experience at her cost, and, for her sake, avoid a cave, as the worst shelter they can Edition: They give him two contrary characters; but Virgil makes him of a piece, always grateful, always tender-hearted. You may please at least to hear the adverse party. Segrais pleads for Virgil, that no less than an absolute command from Jupiter could excuse this insensibility of the hero, and this abrupt departure, which looks so like extreme ingratitude.

Could a pious man dispense with the commands of Jupiter, to satisfy his passion, or take it in the strongest sense to comply with the obligations of his gratitude?

I confess Dido was a very infidel in this point; for she would not believe, as Virgil makes her say, that ever Jupiter would send Mercury on such an immoral errand. But this needs no answer, at least no more than Virgil gives it:. This notwithstanding, as Segrais confesses, he might have shewn a little more sensibility when he left her; for that had been according to his character.

But let Virgil answer for himself. O, how convenient is a machine sometimes in a heroic poem! And the fair sex, however, if they had the deserter in their power, would certainly have shewn him no more mercy than the Bacchanals did Orpheus: Love was the theme of his Fourth Book: See here the whole process of that passion, to which nothing can be added. I dare go no farther, lest I should lose the connection of my discourse.

To love our native country, and to study its benefit and its glory, to be interested in its concerns, is natural to all men, and is indeed our common duty. But all the three poets are manifestly partial to their heroes, in favor of their country; for Dares Phrygius reports of Hector that he was slain cowardly: He might be a champion of the Church; but we know not that he was so much as present at the siege.

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He knew he could not please the Romans better, or oblige them more to patronize his poem, than by disgracing the foundress of that city. This was the original, says he, of the immortal hatred betwixt the two rival nations. They were content to see their founder false to love, for still he had the advantage of the amour: Virgil does well to put those words into the mouth of Mercury. If a god had not spoken them, neither durst he have written them, nor I translated them.

The poet had likewise before hinted that her people were naturally perfidious; for he gives their character in their queen, and makes a proverb of Punica fides, many ages before it was invented. Thus I hope, my Lord, that I have made good my promise, and justified the poet, whatever becomes of the false knight. The god soon found that he was not able to defend his favorite by reason, for the case was clear: But, that this special act of grace might never be drawn into Edition: His great judgment made the laws of poetry; but he never made himself a slave to them: Yet the credit of Virgil was so great that he made this fable of his own invention pass for an authentic history, or at least as credible as anything in Homer.

I think I may be judge of this, because I have translated both. The famous author of the Art of Love has nothing of his own; he borrows all from a greater master in his own profession and, which is worse, improves nothing which he finds. This passes indeed with his soft admirers, and gives him the preference to Virgil in their esteem. But let them like for themselves, and not prescribe to others; for our author needs not their admiration.

Shall we dare, continues Segrais, to condemn Virgil for having made a fiction against the order of time, when we commend Ovid and other poets who have made many of their fictions against the order of nature? For what else are the splendid miracles of the Metamorphoses?

On the other side, the pains and diligence of ill poets is but thrown away when they want the genius to invent and feign agreeably. I shall say more of this in the next article of their charge against him, which is want of invention. He was in banishment when he wrote those verses, which I cite from his letter to Augustus: May I be so bold to ask your Majesty, is it a greater fault to teach the art of unlawful love, than to shew it in the action?

That the ceremonies were short, we may believe; for Dido was not only amorous, but a widow. For to leave one wife, and take another, was but a matter of gallantry at that time of day among the Romans. If I took my pleasure, had not you your share of it? Be as kind a hostess as you have been to me, and you can never fail of another husband.

If the poet argued not aright, we must pardon him for a poor blind heathen, who knew no better morals. I hinted it before. They lay no less than want of invention to his charge—a capital crime, I must acknowledge; for a poet is a maker, as the word signifies; and who cannot make, that is, invent, hath his name for nothing.

But in the first place, if invention is to be taken in so strict a sense, that the matter of a poem must be wholly new, and that in all its parts, then Scaliger hath made out, saith Segrais, that the history of Troy was no more the invention of Homer than of Virgil.

There was not an old woman, or almost a child, but had it in their mouths, before the Greek poet or his friends digested it into this admirable order in which we read it.

At this rate, as Solomon hath told us, there is nothing new beneath the sun. Is Versailles the less a new building, because the architect of that palace hath imitated others which were built before it? Walls, doors and windows, apartments, offices, rooms of convenience and magnificence, are in all great houses. Quid prohibetis aquas? Usus communis aquarum est. But the argument of the work, that is to say, its principal action, the economy and disposltion of it; these are the things which distinguish copies from originals.

But from hence can we infer that the two poets write the same history? The disposition of so many various matters, is not that his own? He had indeed the story from common fame, as Homer had his from the Egyptian priestess. Neither the invention nor the conduct of this great action were owing to Homer or any other poet. The copier is that servile imitator, to whom Horace gives no better a name than that of animal; he will not so much as allow him to be a man. They translate him, as I do Virgil; and fall as short of him, as I of Virgil.

But the designs of the two poets were as different as the courses of their heroes; one went home, and the other sought a home. To return to my first similitude: Cities had been burnt before either of them were in being. This, I think, is a just comparison betwixt the two poets, in the conduct of their several designs. Virgil cannot be said to copy Homer; the Grecian had only the advantage of writing first.

For what are the tears of Calypso for being left, to the fury and death of Dido? If this be to copy, let the critics shew us the same disposition, features, or coloring, in their original. But to what end did Ulysses make that journey? Anchises was likewise to instruct him how to manage the Italian war, and how to conclude it with his honor; that is, in other words, to lay the foundations of that empire which Augustus was to govern.

In the last place, I may safely grant that, by reading Homer, Virgil was taught to imitate his invention; that is, to imitate like him; which is no more than if a painter studied Raphael, that he might learn to design after his manner. And thus I might imitate Virgil, if I were capable of writing an heroic poem, and yet the invention be my own; but I should endeavor to avoid a servile copying.

I would not give the same story under other names, with the same characters, in the same order, and with the same sequel; for every common reader to find me out at the first sight for a plagiary, and cry: Virgil, in the heat of action—suppose, for example, in describing the fury of his hero in a battle, when he is endeavoring to raise our concernments to the highest pitch—turns short on the sudden into some similitude, which diverts, Edition: He pours cold water into the caldron, when his business is to make it boil.

It is quite likely that, as in the tradition of vase painting and other visual artefacts, individual figures in the temple pictures were identifiable through captions. Indeed, one of the peculiar motives of interest in this scene resides in the fact that we see at work, as if on a stage, not just how the act of interpretation works, but also the way memory acts.

Ancient and modern theorists alike, from Aristotle onwards, have assigned a central role in the shaping of memory to traces, but most scholars now reject a notion of memory-as-storage with its concurrent metaphoric baggage. They opt instead for an interactive model in which traces are involved in the act of recollection, while great importance is assigned to the context in which recollection occurs.

That Aeneas, at this juncture, might well be ready for reassessing his past in a less static and more creative manner is not hard to understand. His arrival at Carthage marks not just the beginning of the Aeneid, but a new beginning for Aeneas himself. This is the first time, as the narrator emphasizes with his repetition of primum at and , that he allows himself to hope for a better future, even if 1.

The storm, in its totalizing cosmological reach, echoes the impact of flood narratives such as the one Ovid will describe at the beginning of the Metamorphoses. Not a standard tempest, but the unleashing of divine powers which ignore their allocated spheres of influence and provoke a perturbing mixing up of air, water, and earth.

These plots chart a journey from entrapment to freedom via redemption and liberation, thus revolving around the metamorphosis of fear, or even anguish, into hope. The beginning of Aeneid 1 insisted on memory as supposedly unproblematic preservation of the past, both through the narrative and within it. Robinson and J. Robinson Huddersfield , with reference to C.

Booker, The seven basic plots: In Books 2 and 3 Aeneas offers — literally — a re-narration15 of his previous plight, a re-enactment, based on memory meminisse, 2. Recent work on re-enactment16 as an artistic form suggests that it may prove helpful to replace this opposition with a more nuanced set of motivations and narrative catalysts. Re-enactment is empowering precisely insofar as it enables performers to impose a fresh interpretation on historical events.

The emancipatory role of re-enactment is at the same time personal and social.

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Individuals as well as communities can re-enact and rewrite their own plots and put forth a different version — and a fortiori a different interpretation — of the events they have experienced, not necessarily with full awareness of the potential falsehood of the re-enactment itself.

In the temple at Carthage, Aeneas exploits the images as passive props for an active re-enactment which precipitates his estrangement from his previous self and promotes a version of events that provides the foundation of his own new self-perception and self-narrative. Lucretius argues in Book 3. He concludes, famously, that even if the very same aggregation of atoms occurred again in the infinity of time and space to recreate the same individual, that individual would not actually be the same, because his memory of himself has been forever interrupted at death.

It enables him to create a fresh narrative of the war, freeing him from the constraints of his previous self, much as 15M. John Wojtowicz retells the story of the bank robbery in which he was involved years earlier and which was pictured in the Sidney Lumet film Dog Day Afternoon.

See R. Giannantoni and M. Gigante Napoli The productive opposition posited here clearly is not the one between remembering and forgetting, but between a passive and an active form of memory, one which represents a form of mastery over events which would otherwise be passively experienced. The act of seeing entails the absorption of atoms carrying over from the object into the eyes of the beholder, a process partly analogous to the absorption of food.

Unlike food, however, images are insubstantial, and it would be foolish to assume that they can satisfy emotional hunger in the same way food actually counteracts the lack of food. As Lucretius points out at 4. This indeterminacy carries with itself two tangible implications. As it happens, however, the one trace with which Homer can scarcely be credited is the story of Troilus himself, about whom the Iliad offers nothing more than a fleeting mention.

Thrice had Achilles dragged Hector round the walls of Troy and was selling the lifeless body for gold. Then indeed from the bottom of his heart he heaves a deep groan, as the spoils, as the chariot, as the very corpse of his friend met his gaze, and Priam outstretching weapon-less hands.

This time it appears clearly, if indirectly, that he is following the Homeric plot Different focalizations only go so far towards explaining the discrepancy. But memory of this Iliadic scene is also active as an implicit moral template at the very end of the Aeneid Memory of events, even crucial ones, is adaptable to different factual and emotional contexts, not fixed forever.

The same set of actions can be remembered, and used as a model, in markedly different ways. There is one further, but not yet final, layer of complication to the stratification of memory and emotions in the temple scene. Dido shares with Aeneas her own personal recollection memini, of Trojan events From that time on the fall of the Trojan city has been known to me; known, too, your name and the Pelasgian kings.

Not surprisingly, the hard evidence we can glean from this report is very limited. We find out only later, in Book 4, that this is indeed the case. At first Dido attributes to insania her change of attitude towards the Trojans, which is now openly aggressive, yet she quickly realizes that she should have known better from the start.

Here a different set of memories emerges — not that of pious Aeneas, but of the villain who has sold out to the Greeks and sees himself permixtum Achivis 1. Tum, at that time, as Dido puts it, a positive emotional attitude towards Aeneas blinded her from understanding, or even recollecting, factual information which was already in her possession and which could have alerted her to the dangers involved in welcoming the Trojan exile.

In this light the detail auro corpus vendebat Achilles 1. While the latter learn from the first line of the scene that he is actually meeting his own mater , Aeneas does not recognize her in her disguise as a Diana-like huntress. Moreover, he labours at length, vainly, in the effort to understand who she is and what she should be called. Line is especially poignant. Unlike his Homeric counterpart Odysseus, Aeneas here fails to recognize not just any goddess, but his own mother, who has unhelpfully chosen to look like the fellow-goddess with whom she has the least in common in terms of functions and interests.

Predictably, awkwardness in the language points to deeper, substantial problems. O quam te memorem puzzles commentators because, once they identify this expression as an instance of dubitatio or diaphoresis,28 they are also bound to admit that the closest parallels to this 27 This tradition is discussed by K. Galinsky, Aeneas, Sicily and Rome Princeton Calboli, ed. Herennium Bologna Aeneas is not on the verge of insulting the huntress, but there could be no better way simultaneously to express bewilderment, cognitive failure, and latent aggression.

Odysseus is soon disabused of this notion — not an unreasonable one given his recent encounter with the nymph Calypso — but this tentative identification finds its way into the Aeneid. The Homeric intertext is bound to elicit complex emotions, since the erotic tension in the encounter between Odysseus and Nausicaa strengthens the troubling implications of an already thorny mother-son relationship. Just as Aeneas is gazing at the murals, Dido enters the temple and is compared to Diana , while he himself will later be likened to Apollo 4.

This further complicates the connections set in motion by the intertextual echo of Od. Why am I not allowed to clasp hand in hand and hear and utter words unfeigned?

Why should he say totiens ? Readers may assume that a number of similarly fraught meetings have taken place before, but at 2. The only implication is that Venus is able to deceive Aeneas not just by assuming an unrecognizable aspect, as she is doing here, but that even when she does retain her natural appearance she veers towards deceit.

At least so far his worries are not unjustified. Creusa, whose fate Venus had mentioned in her earlier appearance 2. Crudelis tu quoque, to be sure, is a verbatim repetition of Eclogues 8. Here, saevus Amor is berated as an irrational force which can be so destructive as to push mothers to slaughter their own children, a transparent allusion to Medea: This is the first time that infanticide lurks in the background of the Aeneid, where it will go on to play a significant role, always mediated by allusions to the Medea myth and often by a resurfacing of the keynote reference to Eclogue 8.

Her children will die because they remind her of unfaithful Jason they look too much like him , and Dido arguably harbours similar feelings towards the non-existent child which she belatedly wishes she had conceived with Aeneas.

But the interplay of substitutions had begun earlier, when Cupid metamorphoses into Ascanius in order to approach Dido. As he re-emerges from the engulfing maternal waters which had almost drowned him vorat, , he enters a new phase in his relationship with Venus and — by implication — with his own past.

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