WATER POLLUTION IN INDIA PDF FILE
Audit scope. • Audit of measures to control pollution of rivers, lakes and ground water in India. • Audit at 2 levels: the federal level and provincial level. Water Pollution in India: Its Impact on the Human. Health: Life of a human cannot be sustained with polluted water. number of diseases is the polluted water. land the natural water system is being polluted by the addition of. Industrial wastes . pollution in india is the Shore Nuisance (Bombay and Kolaba)Act of It . vii River Boards Act, , available at cittadelmonte.info epdf.
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Various aspects of the issue of water pollution, albeit, limited to the pollution in Audit of Water Pollution in India during after their Stakeholders'. Introduction. Water pollution is a serious problem in India as almost. 70 per cent of its surface water resources and a growing percentage of its groundwater. PDF | In INDIA many causes of pollution, including sewage, manure, and chemical fertilizers, contain "nutrients" such as nitrates and.
Last updated: March 24, O ver two thirds of Earth's surface is covered by water ; less than a third is taken up by land. As Earth's population continues to grow, people are putting ever-increasing pressure on the planet's water resources. In a sense, our oceans, rivers , and other inland waters are being "squeezed" by human activities—not so they take up less room, but so their quality is reduced.
If pollution comes from a single location, such as a discharge pipe attached to a factory, it is known as point-source pollution. Other examples of point source pollution include an oil spill from a tanker, a discharge from a smoke stack factory chimney , or someone pouring oil from their car down a drain. A great deal of water pollution happens not from one single source but from many different scattered sources.
This is called nonpoint-source pollution. Point-source pollution comes from a single, well-defined place such as this pipe. Nonpoint-source pollution comes from many sources. All the industrial plants alongside a river and the ships that service them may be polluting the river collectively.
When point-source pollution enters the environment, the place most affected is usually the area immediately around the source. For example, when a tanker accident occurs, the oil slick is concentrated around the tanker itself and, in the right ocean conditions, the pollution disperses the further away from the tanker you go.
This is less likely to happen with nonpoint source pollution which, by definition, enters the environment from many different places at once. Sometimes pollution that enters the environment in one place has an effect hundreds or even thousands of miles away.
This is known as transboundary pollution. One example is the way radioactive waste travels through the oceans from nuclear reprocessing plants in England and France to nearby countries such as Ireland and Norway.
Some forms of water pollution are very obvious: Water pollution is usually less obvious and much harder to detect than this. But how can we measure water pollution when we cannot see it? How do we even know it's there? There are two main ways of measuring the quality of water.
Sewage Pollution in Water Supply in Indore
One is to take samples of the water and measure the concentrations of different chemicals that it contains. If the chemicals are dangerous or the concentrations are too great, we can regard the water as polluted. Measurements like this are known as chemical indicators of water quality. Another way to measure water quality involves examining the fish, insects, and other invertebrates that the water will support.
If many different types of creatures can live in a river, the quality is likely to be very good; if the river supports no fish life at all, the quality is obviously much poorer. Measurements like this are called biological indicators of water quality.
Most water pollution doesn't begin in the water itself. Take the oceans: When farmers fertilize the fields, the chemicals they use are gradually washed by rain into the groundwater or surface waters nearby. Sometimes the causes of water pollution are quite surprising. Chemicals released by smokestacks chimneys can enter the atmosphere and then fall back to earth as rain, entering seas, rivers, and lakes and causing water pollution. That's called atmospheric deposition.
Water pollution has many different causes and this is one of the reasons why it is such a difficult problem to solve. With billions of people on the planet, disposing of sewage waste is a major problem. According to figures from the World Health Organization the most recent available at the time this article was updated in , some 2. Sewage disposal affects people's immediate environments and leads to water-related illnesses such as diarrhea that kills , children under five each year.
In developed countries, most people have flush toilets that take sewage waste quickly and hygienically away from their homes. Yet the problem of sewage disposal does not end there. When you flush the toilet, the waste has to go somewhere and, even after it leaves the sewage treatment works, there is still waste to dispose of. Sometimes sewage waste is pumped untreated into the sea. Until the early s, around 5 million tons of sewage was dumped by barge from New York City each year.
In early , it was reported that the tiny island of Guernsey between Britain and France has decided to continue dumping 16, tons of raw sewage into the sea each day. In theory, sewage is a completely natural substance that should be broken down harmlessly in the environment: When people are sick with viruses, the sewage they produce carries those viruses into the environment.
It is possible to catch illnesses such as hepatitis, typhoid, and cholera from river and sea water. During crop-spraying, some chemicals will drain into the soil. Eventually, they seep into rivers and other watercourses.
Suitably treated and used in moderate quantities, sewage can be a fertilizer: The trouble is, sewage is often released in much greater quantities than the natural environment can cope with. Chemical fertilizers used by farmers also add nutrients to the soil, which drain into rivers and seas and add to the fertilizing effect of the sewage.
Together, sewage and fertilizers can cause a massive increase in the growth of algae or plankton that overwhelms huge areas of oceans, lakes, or rivers. This is known as a harmful algal bloom also known as an HAB or red tide, because it can turn the water red. It is harmful because it removes oxygen from the water that kills other forms of life, leading to what is known as a dead zone. The Gulf of Mexico has one of the world's most spectacular dead zones. Each summer, according to studies by the NOAA , it grows to an area of around — square miles 14,—15, square kilometers , which is about the same size as the state of Connecticut.
A few statistics illustrate the scale of the problem that waste water chemicals washed down drains and discharged from factories can cause. Around half of all ocean pollution is caused by sewage and waste water. Each year, the world generates perhaps 5—10 billion tons of industrial waste, much of which is pumped untreated into rivers, oceans, and other waterways.
However, there have been major improvements in waste water treatment recently. Factories are point sources of water pollution, but quite a lot of water is polluted by ordinary people from nonpoint sources; this is how ordinary water becomes waste water in the first place.
Water pollution: an introduction
Virtually everyone pours chemicals of one sort or another down their drains or toilets. Even detergents used in washing machines and dishwashers eventually end up in our rivers and oceans. So do the pesticides we use on our gardens. A lot of toxic pollution also enters waste water from highway runoff.
Highways are typically covered with a cocktail of toxic chemicals—everything from spilled fuel and brake fluids to bits of worn tires themselves made from chemical additives and exhaust emissions. When it rains, these chemicals wash into drains and rivers.
It is not unusual for heavy summer rainstorms to wash toxic chemicals into rivers in such concentrations that they kill large numbers of fish overnight. It has been estimated that, in one year, the highway runoff from a single large city leaks as much oil into our water environment as a typical tanker spill. Some highway runoff runs away into drains; others can pollute groundwater or accumulate in the land next to a road, making it increasingly toxic as the years go by.
Detergents are relatively mild substances. At the opposite end of the spectrum are highly toxic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs. They were once widely used to manufacture electronic circuit boards , but their harmful effects have now been recognized and their use is highly restricted in many countries.
Nevertheless, an estimated half million tons of PCBs were discharged into the environment during the 20th century. They were carried there through the oceans, thousands of miles from where they originally entered the environment. Although PCBs are widely banned, their effects will be felt for many decades because they last a long time in the environment without breaking down.
Another kind of toxic pollution comes from heavy metals , such as lead , cadmium, and mercury. Lead was once commonly used in gasoline petrol , though its use is now restricted in some countries. Mercury and cadmium are still used in batteries though some brands now use other metals instead. Until recently, a highly toxic chemical called tributyltin TBT was used in paints to protect boats from the ravaging effects of the oceans.
Ironically, however, TBT was gradually recognized as a pollutant: The best known example of heavy metal pollution in the oceans took place in when a Japanese factory discharged a significant amount of mercury metal into Minamata Bay, contaminating the fish stocks there. It took a decade for the problem to come to light. By that time, many local people had eaten the fish and around were poisoned.
Hundreds of people were left dead or disabled. People view radioactive waste with great alarm—and for good reason. At high enough concentrations it can kill; in lower concentrations it can cause cancers and other illnesses. The biggest sources of radioactive pollution in Europe are two factories that reprocess waste fuel from nuclear power plants: Both discharge radioactive waste water into the sea, which ocean currents then carry around the world. Countries such as Norway, which lie downstream from Britain, receive significant doses of radioactive pollution from Sellafield.
The Norwegian government has repeatedly complained that Sellafield has increased radiation levels along its coast by 6—10 times. Both the Irish and Norwegian governments continue to press for the plant's closure.
Oil-tanker spills are the most spectacular forms of pollution and the ones that catch public attention, but only a fraction of all water pollution happens this way. When we think of ocean pollution, huge black oil slicks often spring to mind, yet these spectacular accidents represent only a tiny fraction of all the pollution entering our oceans.
Even considering oil by itself, tanker spills are not as significant as they might seem: The biggest oil spill in recent years and the biggest ever spill in US waters occurred when the tanker Exxon Valdez broke up in Prince William Sound in Alaska in Around 12 million gallons 44 million liters of oil were released into the pristine wilderness—enough to fill your living room times over!
Estimates of the marine animals killed in the spill vary from approximately sea otters and 34, birds to as many as sea otters and , sea birds. Several billion salmon and herring eggs are also believed to have been destroyed. If you've ever taken part in a community beach clean, you'll know that plastic is far and away the most common substance that washes up with the waves. There are three reasons for this: A plastic bottle can survive an estimated years in the ocean and plastic fishing line can last up to years.
While plastics are not toxic in quite the same way as poisonous chemicals, they nevertheless present a major hazard to seabirds, fish, and other marine creatures. For example, plastic fishing lines and other debris can strangle or choke fish. This is sometimes called ghost fishing. About half of all the world's seabird species are known to have eaten plastic residues. In one study of shearwaters in the North Pacific, over 80 percent of the birds were found to contain plastic residues in their stomachs.
In the early s, marine scientist Tim Benton collected debris from a 2km 1. His study recorded approximately a thousand pieces of garbage including pieces of plastic, 71 plastic bottles, and two dolls heads. Today, much media attention focuses on the Great Pacific Garbage Patch , a floating, oceanic graveyard of plastic junk roughly three times the size of France, discovered by sailor Charles J.
Moore in But, as you'll know well enough if you've ever taken part in a community beach clean, persistent plastic litters every ocean on the planet: Most people's idea of water pollution involves things like sewage, toxic metals, or oil slicks, but pollution can be biological as well as chemical.
In some parts of the world, alien species are a major problem. Alien species sometimes known as invasive species are animals or plants from one region that have been introduced into a different ecosystem where they do not belong.
Outside their normal environment, they have no natural predators, so they rapidly run wild, crowding out the usual animals or plants that thrive there. Common examples of alien species include zebra mussels in the Great Lakes of the USA, which were carried there from Europe by ballast water waste water flushed from ships. The Mediterranean Sea has been invaded by a kind of alien algae called Caulerpa taxifolia.
In the Black Sea, an alien jellyfish called Mnemiopsis leidyi reduced fish stocks by 90 percent after arriving in ballast water. In San Francisco Bay, Asian clams called Potamocorbula amurensis, also introduced by ballast water, have dramatically altered the ecosystem. Invasive species: Water hyacinth crowding out a waterway around an old fence post. Photo by Steve Hillebrand.
Non-native zebra mussels clumped on a native mussel. These are the most common forms of pollution—but by no means the only ones. Heat or thermal pollution from factories and power plants also causes problems in rivers.
Water pollution: An introduction to causes, effects, solutions
By raising the temperature, it reduces the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water, thus also reducing the level of aquatic life that the river can support. Another type of pollution involves the disruption of sediments fine-grained powders that flow from rivers into the sea.
Dams built for hydroelectric power or water reservoirs can reduce the sediment flow. This reduces the formation of beaches, increases coastal erosion the natural destruction of cliffs by the sea , and reduces the flow of nutrients from rivers into seas potentially reducing coastal fish stocks.
Increased sediments can also present a problem. During construction work, soil, rock, and other fine powders sometimes enters nearby rivers in large quantities, causing it to become turbid muddy or silted.
The extra sediment can block the gills of fish, effectively suffocating them. Construction firms often now take precautions to prevent this kind of pollution from happening. Some people believe pollution is an inescapable result of human activity: In other words, pollution is a necessary evil that people must put up with if they want to make progress.
Fortunately, not everyone agrees with this view. One reason people have woken up to the problem of pollution is that it brings costs of its own that undermine any economic benefits that come about by polluting. Take oil spills, for example. They can happen if tankers are too poorly built to survive accidents at sea.
But the economic benefit of compromising on tanker quality brings an economic cost when an oil spill occurs. The oil can wash up on nearby beaches, devastate the ecosystem, and severely affect tourism. The main problem is that the people who bear the cost of the spill typically a small coastal community are not the people who caused the problem in the first place the people who operate the tanker.
Yet, arguably, everyone who puts gasoline petrol into their car—or uses almost any kind of petroleum-fueled transport—contributes to the problem in some way. So oil spills are a problem for everyone, not just people who live by the coast and tanker operates. Sewage is another good example of how pollution can affect us all. Sewage discharged into coastal waters can wash up on beaches and cause a health hazard. People who bathe or surf in the water can fall ill if they swallow polluted water—yet sewage can have other harmful effects too: People who eat poisoned shellfish risk suffering from an acute—and sometimes fatal—illness called paralytic shellfish poisoning.
Shellfish is no longer caught along many shores because it is simply too polluted with sewage or toxic chemical wastes that have discharged from the land nearby.
Water pollution in India
Pollution matters because it harms the environment on which people depend. The environment is not something distant and separate from our lives. It's not a pretty shoreline hundreds of miles from our homes or a wilderness landscape that we see only on TV.
The environment is everything that surrounds us that gives us life and health. Destroying the environment ultimately reduces the quality of our own lives—and that, most selfishly, is why pollution should matter to all of us. There is no easy way to solve water pollution; if there were, it wouldn't be so much of a problem. Broadly speaking, there are three different things that can help to tackle the problem—education, laws, and economics—and they work together as a team.
Making people aware of the problem is the first step to solving it. In the early s, when surfers in Britain grew tired of catching illnesses from water polluted with sewage, they formed a group called Surfers Against Sewage to force governments and water companies to clean up their act. People who've grown tired of walking the world's polluted beaches often band together to organize community beach-cleaning sessions.
Anglers who no longer catch so many fish have campaigned for tougher penalties against factories that pour pollution into our rivers.
Greater public awareness can make a positive difference. One of the biggest problems with water pollution is its transboundary nature. Many rivers cross countries, while seas span whole continents. Audience-focused communication via a credible source should be used to enlighten people on water-related issues. Surveys can be conducted to assess people's willingness of having a better water supply. Risk assessment and acceptable level of risk should be explained to the public so that they can make an informed opinion and take proper decisions.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Indian J Occup Environ Med. Alifiya Tahir and Aayush Visaria 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Clean drinking water, quantitative risk assessment, risk management. Open in a separate window. Figure 1.
Hazard Identification Ideally, sewage waste is treated and disposed of by sewage treatment plants. Figure 2. Figure 3. Step 2: Dose-response assessment Places near sewage treatment plants may be at a higher risk due to higher concentrations of waste. Step 3: Exposure assessment and identification of susceptible populations Children, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals e. Step 4: Risk characterization and pilot study Pilot study: Step 5: Neither of these legislations were effective, which led to their dismantling in Prevention Educate residents to not go into the water supply without caution and not dispose waste in it.
Figure 4. Figure 5.
Step 6: Financial support and sponsorship Nil. Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts of interest. Centre for Science and Environment The Water-Waste Portrait.
Available from: Jha B. Indore, Bhopal pollutes its water resources, heavily dependent on Narmada. Curr World Environ. Dega S. Enteric infections, diarrhea, and their impact on function and development. The Journal of clinical investigation. Parikh H. Slum Networking of Indore City. Purohit M. World Health Organization. Guidelines for drinking-water quality: