WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY PDF
most of the syllabus of manufacturing processes/technology, workshop technology Processes and Workshop Technology', foremost I acknowledge the grace. INSTRUCTOR IN FITTING AND MACHINE SHOP, AND FORGE. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, NOTTINGHAM. WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY. WILLIAM ROBINSON . Mechanical Engineering Workshop is a place where students acquire knowledge on the operation of various processes involved in manufacturing and.
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PDF | 2 hours read | On Jan 1, , Bello R. S. and others published Workshop Technology & Practice. Osama Mohammed Elmardi Suleiman Khayal. Laminated composite beams and plates are commonly used in automotive, naval, aircraft, light weight structure, aerospace exploration and civil and mechanical engineering applications. KTÜ KANUNİ YERLEŞKESİ ÖRNEĞİNDE DONATI TASARIMINA. See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www. cittadelmonte.info Workshop Technology & Practice Book .
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Bello R S. See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. The thoughts of men are high and lofty but He gave strength to the weak to do exploit.
Farms field and farmsteads, 4. Roadway, 5.
Buildings, farm structures and the settings in which we live, work offices and play. Several factors influences the operating environment, such factors include 1.
Seasonal variations, 2. Weather variability, 3. Temperature variation, 4. Relative humidity etc. Other critical factors that are environmentally dependent include: Exposure to harmful substances, and 2.
Working within confined and limited small spaces 3. Working in poorly ventilated enclosures 4. Working in poorly illuminated environment 5. Attack by insects and wild animals etc.
All these and factors environment harbours potential hazards when not controlled with attendant consequences of injury and even death in extreme cases. Hazard definition Hazard is any situation, condition or extreme events natural or caused with a certain degree of probability of having adverse result or consequences on safety or health of workers. It expresses any activity tat has potential to adversely or negatively impact human health, property, or the environment.
It causes harm or injury.
These hazards could occur at some specific places known as hazard points. Hazard points Hazard points are those points within the physical and operating environment that could cause injury such as moving parts of machinery, working at heights, slippery surfaces, and contact with electrical energy, excessive noise, toxic substances, and lifting of heavy objects among several other sources.
Workplace hazards These are hazards that are particularly domicile in the work environment. Workplace hazard has both short term safety implications and long term health implications effects when not put under checks. Classes of hazard The short term and long term effects of workplace hazards gives to two b broad classes of hazards viz safety hazard and health hazards.
Safety hazards Safety hazard refers to circumstances that can cause immediate injury to a worker. For example, if electrical equipment are not properly grounded, it could become energized and possibly electrocute an employee. Safety injuries are commonly associated with physical environment. Physical environment that could cause safety hazard include but not limited to the followings: Point of operation b. Rotary and reciprocating movements c. In-running nip points pinch points etc.
Kickbacks from machine due to sudden impact loading, sudden blow from workload etc. Flying chips, thrown object etc. Sharp projections from tool edges e. Fire and explosion hazards 6. Electrical shock, stunning, burn or electrocution as a result of contact with exposed or un-insulated life wire.
Health hazards Health hazards are situations associated with long term exposure to certain substances or exposure to excessive noise levels or vibrations. Health hazards can cause both immediate acute and longer-term chronic health conditions. Health injuries are commonly associated with operating environment Operating environment that could cause health hazards include: Excessive noise resulting from long time exposure to continuous machine operation or exposure to noisy machine operation.
Vibration as a result of working on platforms, working around heavy and undamped equipment or constantly being exposed to moving parts could cause muscular disorders. Wood dust: These are particulate fine materials that seems harmless, however, long time exposure to them can heavy inhalation of quantity big enough to result in air track blockage thereby causing carcinogenic effects on the skin. Harmful chemicals: Exposures to coatings, finishing, adhesives, solvent vapours could result in health hazards.
Types of hazard Hazards in workplaces are grouped into four categories accordingly. Category 1: Physical hazards: Physical hazards could cause traumatic injuries as a result of human exposure to the source. These hazards results from activities such as: Category 2: Chemical hazards: Category 3: Biological hazards: These are hazards resulting from human exposure to pathogenic substances or materials from sewerages, lagoons aerobic or anaerobic.
These pathogens include viruses, fungi, bacterial or mold. They cause an attack on blood and body fluids. Category 4: Psychological hazards occur as a result of unfavourable working conditions, inadequate and inappropriate work tools, working with old or worn and out of fashion obsolete tools and equipment and undue exposure to hazards due to poor management responses to change.
Occupational hazards Apart from accidents caused by carelessness and recklessness, workers are exposed to certain hazards in the course of their undertaken, a form of risk associated with the work that somebody does. This is known as Occupational Hazards or Job Risk. Occupational diseases and illnesses Occupational disease is a major category of environmental hazard, and refers to illness resulting from job-related exposures.
Risk and consequences of risk taking Risk Risk is defined as any human venture or engagement with the likelihood of causing a specific harm or injury to persons or damage to property. The tendency of working at such height and not sustaining any injury is there, however the consequence is grave when an incidence of hazard occur. Hence risk can be defined as the combination of the probability or possibility of an event happening and its consequences.
Consequences of risk taking There is an element of risk in every activity that man is associated with. Risk is present when we eat, sleep, walk and wherever we work. In as much as we are companions with risk, efforts should be made to keep the risk under i. Accident Accident is an unforeseen occurrence with negative consequence as a result of sudden impact, system malfunction human error or as a result of carelessness when we undertake unsafe acts. Accident results in pains, loss of body member or death to victims, a waste of time, money, materials and damage to equipment.
Consequently, it is of interest to devise measures to prevent or reduce accidents in all operations to the barest minimum.
Physical injury harm results from contact between people and harmful objects, substances, or other things in their surroundings. Common types of physical injury include broken bones, cuts, bruises, brain damage, poisoning and burns. Some physical injuries are the intended result of acts by people: Injuries not intended are often described as accidental injuries.
Examples of causes of injury include being struck by a car, being cut up in a moving machine part, being cut by a knife, bitten by a dog, or poisoned by inhaled fuel or other dangerous chemicals. Nature of body injury The occurrence of accidents in workplaces often results in one or more of the following injury types: This is injury which results from caught-in hazard point within machinery 2.
This is injury to bone resulting in breakage of the bone as a result of impact 3. This is a type of injury resulting in muscular stress or joint dislocation 4.
Bruise or laceration: This is the peeling off of outer skin layer thereby exposing some blood vessels. The inner tissues are not affected. Scalding and burn: This is as a result of sudden exposure of body part to hot vapour or heat resulting in skin peeling off scalding or suffering some degree of shin damage burn. This could be as a result of impact on body casing internal bleeding or rupture of blood vessels without visible cut and blood flow 7.
Superficial injury: Injury occurring at the skin surface such as bruise, minor cut, or scratches and lacerations. This is a case of fatal injury which often result from caught-in and struck-by accidents, 9.
This is a situation in which life flows out of the body as a result of injury sustained. Such case is regarded as a fatal injury case. Definition of Safety Safety in its simplest form is a state of being at little or no risk of injury resulting from a harmful external impact, inhalation, or contact.
It is a holistic approach to a state of wellbeing that requires people to feel they are free from being harmed in addition to actually being safe. To be safe in any work environment, you must think about the nature of your job and plan ahead to avert hazards that could be associated with it. In the field of safety, it is generally recognized that consequences are only negative and therefore the management of safety risk is focused on prevention and mitigation of harm.
This approach involves three steps as follows: Identify hazards to which a person at the workplace is likely to be exposed; Step 2 Evaluation: Assess the risk of injury or harm to a person resulting from each hazard if any is identified in step 1; and Step 3 Control: Consider the means by which the risk may be reduced.
It takes effort to recognize, evaluate, and control hazards. If you do not recognize, evaluate, and control hazards, you may be injured or killed by machinery, electricity, electrical fires, or falls.
If you use the safety model to recognize, evaluate, and control hazards, you will be much safer. Workplace health and safety laws The aim of the Workplace Health and Safety Act is to prevent death, injury or illness caused by a workplace, relevant workplace area, work activities, plant or substances for use at a workplace.
Improving health and safety in workplaces reduces human and financial cost of injury and disease. Workers, their families, employers and the community benefit from improved workplace health and safety. The Workplace Health and Safety Act sets out the laws about health and safety guidelines for all relevant workplace areas, work procedures or activities by machinery or substances for use at workplaces as well as safeguarding workers.
All health and safety laws place specific duties of care or legal obligations on various parties in the chain of machinery design, supply and use. Workers, their families, employers and the community benefit from these obligations. Improving workplace health and safety in workplaces reduces the human and financial cost of workplace injury and disease.
Workplace partners and responsibilities The following human elements have been recognized as the workplace partners in any such organization.
An employee is in the payroll of an employer. He is a job provider the employer as well as the employee. He takes care of service provided and job delivery Duties of self-employed persons: This is an employee with special skills and mastery in his field required to offer specialized or expert advice or direction on efficient job delivery.
Duties of supervisors: A supervisor shall take such measures as are practicable to ensure that the workplace, or the means of access to or egress from the workplace, as the case may be, are such that persons who are at the workplace or use the means of access to and egress from the workplace are not exposed to hazards.
Safety obligations Every workplace partners has an obligation to ensure safety at every stages of their involvement. You can have more than one set of obligations stipulated under the Safety Act. For example, if you are an employer and a principal contractor a sole proprietor at the same time within the same workplace. In this case, you would have two sets of obligations - those of an employer on one hand and an employee on the other.
You must meet all the obligations under the Acts. This can be done through the following ways: Most of the safety practices mentioned in this section are general in nature.
Safety precautions for specific tools and machines are described in detail in the chapters along with the description of the equipment. Study these carefully and be on the alert to apply them. Basics Always listen carefully to the teacher and follow instructions. Do not run in the workshop, you could cause an accident. Know where the emergency stop buttons are positioned in the workshop. Always wear an apron as it will protect your clothes and hold loose clothing such as ties in place.
Wear good strong shoes. Training shoes are not suitable. When attempting practical work all stools should be put away. Bags should not be brought into a workshop as people can trip over them. When learning how to use a machine, listen very carefully to all the instructions given by the teacher. Ask questions, if you do not understand. Do not use a machine if you have not been shown how to operate it safely. Always be patient, never rush in the workshop.
Always use a guard when working on a machine. Use hand tools carefully, keeping both hands behind the cutting edge. Welding or helping in welding of any type. Foot Protection Non-skid shoes shall be worn where floors may be wet or greasy. Examples of operation requiring the use of eye protection include.
This may include safety glasses. Fig 1. Personal Protective Equipment Personal protective equipment PPE includes all types of equipment used to increase performing individual safety while potentially hazardous hard any tasks.
Where there is reasonable probability of foot or toe injury from impact and compression forces. Body Protection Loose fitting clothing. Hearing Protection Appropriate hearing protection shall be used where employees are in designated hazardous noise areas with operating noise sources.
Head Protection Hard hats shall be worn by all personnel working below other workers and in areas where sharp projections or other head hazards exist.
Hand Protection Multi-use gloves shall be worn to protect the hands from injuries caused by handling sharp or jagged objects. Tuck your chin while keeping your back as vertical as possible.
Know your limit and don't try to exceed it. Never twist your body during this step. Begin slowly lifting with your LEGS by straightening them. Get a firm grasp of the object before beginning the lift.
Proper Lifting Techniques Before lifting. Stand close to the load with your feet spread apart about shoulder width. Squat down bending at the knees not your waist. Once the lift is complete. Know where you are going to set the item down and make sure it and your path are free of obstructions.
As the load's center of gravity moves away from the body. Then follow these steps. Ask for help if needed. Examine the object for sharp corners. Appropriate personal protective equipment.
Should not have broken claws or handles.
Use the proper size and type of screwdriver for the job. Secure your work in a vise whenever possible. Hand and Power Tools Tools are such a common part of our lives that it is difficult to remember that they may pose hazards. All tools are manufactured with safety in mind but. Never hold small work in your hand when using a screwdriver. Basic Rules for Hand tool Safety Safety is a state of mind.
Hand Tools Hand tools are non-powered. They include anything from axes to wrenches. The greatest hazards posed by hand tools result from misuse and improper maintenance.. Cutting tools should be kept sharp to ensure good smooth cutting. Keep them dressed sharpened to avoid flying spalls. Tools subject to impact chisels. Always think when using a tool: Is it in good condition?
Is it sized right for the job? Is it in the proper working condition? Every tool was designed to do a certain job. Use tool holders. Always use proper handles. Screwdriver points should not be badly worn and handles should be in good condition. Use it for its intended purpose.
Do not use your hand to clear jams or blockages. Common accidents associated with power tools include abrasions. Use the correct tool for the job. This precaution will reduce the chance for an accident and improve the quality of your work. Before clearing jams or blockages on power tools. In additional to general shop guidelines.
Always operate tools at the correct speed for the job at hand. Stop working if something distracts you. Never reach over equipment while it is running. Each year. These accidents are often caused by the following: Touching the cutting. Select the correct bit. Do not use a tool or attachment for something it was not designed to do. Working too slowly can cause an accident just as easily as working too fast. Watch your work when operating power tools.
Power Tools Power tools can be extremely dangerous if they are used improperly. Remove chuck keys or adjusting tools prior to operation. Disconnect power tools before performing maintenance or changing components. Cover exposed belts. When the chance for operator injury is great.
Keep all guards in place. For example. The lower guard must automatically return to the covering position when the tool is withdrawn from the work. A retractable lower guard must cover the teeth of the saw. WEEK 2: An upper guard must cover the entire blade of the saw.
They consist of the following: Fixed guards Interlocked guards Adjustable guards Safety guards must never be removed when a tool is being used. There are three types of barrier guards that protect people from moving machinery. Machinery and equipment shall be kept clean of excess grease and oil and operating conditions permitting free of excessive dust. Ice shall be removed from all walkways and work areas where it may create a hazard or interfere with work to be done.
Pressure gauges and visual displays shall be kept clean.
Mec Basic Workshop Technology 1 | Welding | Machining
Supervisors are responsible for good housekeeping in or around the work they are supervising. Trash shall not be allowed to accumulate and shall be removed and disposed of as soon as practicable.
Aisles and passageways shall be kept clear of tripping hazards. Nails shall be removed from loose lumber or the points turned down.
Drip pans and wheeled or stationary containers shall be cleaned and emptied at the end of each shift. Housekeeping Good housekeeping shall be maintained in all shops. Material shall not be placed where anyone might stumble over it. Trash and other waste materials shall be kept in approved receptacles. Disconnect switches. If ice cannot be removed readily. As a minimum. Badly arranged tools. Lift wood pieces with nails. Carrying heavy loads.
Lift pipes in the middle of the workshop. Carrying long bars. Uncleaned workshop floor. Standing bellow lifted materials. Uncovered pits. Tutorial 1 1 Look at figure 1. Pointing compressed air on others. Broken bottles on the ground. Climbing up on unstable supports.
Carrying things that limit the vision ahead. Throughing tools. Loose tools carried while mounting a ladder. Carry out exercise involving flatness squareness. Use dial indicators to i set up jobs on the lathe ii Roundness testing etc 3. Prepare and check measurement as shown. Prepare and mark out the sheet using steel rule and scriber as shown.
WEEK 4: Perform simple measuring exercise using steel rules. Prepare and measure as shown. Set up the work piece on the vice Hold the sheet metal in a hand vice as shown. Datum edge: The edge of the work piece is used for measuring and marking out. WEEK 7: Datum face: Used when marking out from face of the work piece.
Datum line: Used in sheet metal work when marking out irregular shape centre line. The type of datum depends on the part to be marked out and the material to be used. Datum point: The centre of the circle or round object is used for measuring and marking out.
Fig 4. Place the work piece on the vice or position it on the lathe. Carry out tapping operation. Prepare a hole to the tapping drill size by drilling to the size of the hole. Select correct taps.
Mec 113 Basic Workshop Technology 1
Select correct tapping drill size. Set the tap as shown. Carry out soft soldering. Mark out the lap Close down over scribe metal Inscribe the wire Tuck in the edges Form up the box and solder the edges or corners flaps 9. Join metals by the grooving technique. Fabricate metal container by knock-up joining 2.
Carry out the oxy-acetylene welding of various joints in the flat position correctly. Follow and recognize all safety methods and precautions when oxy-acetylene welding in the flat position. Store in an upright position.
Roll cylinders on bottom edges to move--Do not drag. Protective caps or regulators should be kept in place. Store away from flammable and combustible materials. Close cylinder valves before moving.
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